Table of content

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology

المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية

ISSN: 18154794
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Institute of genetic Engineering and Techno-biology
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology was founded in 2001 ,it was first issued in 2002,it is a semi-annual refereed scientific journal issued by the Institute of Genetic Engineering and Biotechnology in Baghdad University in fields of biology, environment, agricultural sciences ,medicine, dentistry, pharmacology, veterinary medicine and researches specialized in bioinformatics

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Contact info

E-mail:journal@ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq
www.iqjb.net
www.ige.uobaghdad.edu.iq : موقع المعهدعلى شبكة
الإنترنت
TEL:7789300
Baghdad-AL-Jadriyah -p.o.box:12074

Table of content: 2018 volume:17 issue:3

Article
Using of Hybrid Nanoantibiotics as Promising Antimicrobial Agent

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Abstract

Nanoparticles are particles with size 1-100 nm, which exhibit different shapes like spherical, triangular, rod, etc. Research on synthesis of nanoparticles is the current area of interest due to the unique visible properties (chemical, physical, optical) of nanoparticles compared with the bulk material. Owing to the wide range of applications offered by nanoparticles in different fields of science and technology, different protocols have been designed for their synthesis. The nanoparticles can be synthesized using the top-down (physical) approach which deals with methods such as thermal decomposition, diffusion, irradiation, arc discharge, and bottom-up (chemical and biological) approach,which involves seeded growth method, polyol synthesis method, electrochemical synthesis, chemical reduction, and biological entities for fabrication of nanoparticles. Different synthesis methods involve the use of different types of chemical, physical, and biological agents to yield nanoparticles of different sizes and shapes. The most often used method for the chemical synthesis of nanoparticles is the chemical reduction method, which deals with the reduction of metal particles to nanoparticles using chemical reducing agents like sodium borohydride or sodium citrate.


Article
Toxicity effects of aflatoxin B1 on growth indices and histopathological alteration in Cyprinus carpio

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Abstract

Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a common contaminant of foods, the safety characteristics of feed used in fish aquaculture systems are an essential tool to assure the productivity of those animal exploitations. The aim of this study was conducted to evaluate the fungi contamination in 53 samples, which were randomly collected from private fish farms in Iraq. In addition, investigate the effects of aflatoxin B1 contamination in feeds on growth indices, total protein, serum albumin in blood, liver histopathology, as well as the AFB1 residues in the fish muscle, was also examined. To evaluate adverse effects of AFB1 toxicity on health status of the Common carp (Cyprinus carpio). Fish were randomly distributed into 15 polystyrene tank, within five experimental groups; (1) control fed with normal diet without solvent and AFB1, (2) positive control received feed with only solvent, and (3-5) fed on diets containing 0.5, 1 and 2 mg /kg of AFB1, respectively for 12 weeks. Growth indices, total weight gain (TWG) and average daily gain (ADG) were assessed; blood samples were collected to analyze serum total protein (TP) and serum albumin (SA). The toxin residues in the musculature and histopathological alteration in liver were also investigated. Molds were found in 31 samples (58.5%). Aspergillus flavus was the most frequent, found in all positive samples. Results indicated that AFB1 has a negative effect on C. carpio weight gain, average daily gain and decreased in serum TP, SA, as well as liver histopathology of the infected fish, indicated cloudy swelling of hepatocytes, cellular hypertrophy, the formation of vacuoles in the cytoplasm, and necrosis of liver parenchyma. Further, the AFB1 residues were detected in the musculature with high level only in fish fed 2 mg AFB1/kg for 12 weeks. Overall, the results indicate that feeding of common carp with diets contaminated with AFB1, even in low concentrations (≤ 2 mg/ kg feed) can cause decreased in growth indices, histopathological damages and disturb their physiological balance.


Article
Polymorphism of Angiotensin Type 1 Receptor Gene (SNP rs5186 A1166C) Related with Hypertension Patients in Baghdad

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Abstract

This study was done to detect the contribution of at1r (A1166C) SNP rs5186 gene polymorphism in some Iraqi patients diagnosed with essential hypertension. This study has been started from October 2017 till the end of June 2018. Five ml of blood samples were collected from 100 subjects including 50 patients and 50 apparently healthy persons as a control group. DNA was extracted from all samples using DNA extraction kit (gyscn, geneaid ) and PCR was performed to detect SNP (A1166C). The results showed that AA genotype frequency was higher in healthy people (68%) than in patients (42%) with highly significant differences, and AC frequency was higher in patients (50%) than in control (30%) with highly significant differences (p<0.01).And CC genotype was only 1(2%) in control, and 4(8%) in patients. The allele frequencies were as follow (A) allele were 0.83 in control and 0.67 in patients (P). Furthermore the (C) allele frequency was as follow, 0.17 in control and 0.33 in patients. We concluded from the current study that the Angiotensin type 1 Receptor (AT1R) A1166C gene polymorphism, may be associated with hypertension in some Iraqi patients .and the C allele may be considered as a risk factor for developing hypertension.


Article
The relationship between obesity and polycystic ovary syndrome in a sample of Iraqi infertile women

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Abstract

Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrine disorder among women of reproductive age, which negatively affects various health systems. Objective: The aim of this study was to investigate biochemical parameters and interleukin-6 according to the ovarian morphology in PCOS. Materials and Method: This study was a cross-sectional of clinically diagnosed 50 females of PCOS and another 50 age matched female subjects were studied as the control population. Obesity PCOS and biochemical parameters involved lipid profile test and human interleukin 6 (IL6),. Results: The mean IL6, Triglyceride, high-density lipoprotein (HDL cholesterol), and very low Density lipoprotein-cholesterol (VLDL-cholesterol) are significantly higher in women with PCOS as compared to controls. But the cholesterol and Low Density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL -cholesterol) are no significantly. Conclusion: The IL-6 correlated positively with body mass index (P < .01) in obese controls and women with PCOS.


Article
Evaluation of Biofilm Formation Capacity of Acinetobacter baumannii Isolated from Clinical Samples in Baghdad Hospitals using Phenotypic Methods

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Abstract

During the period from November/2016 to March/2017, a total of 475 specimens from various clinical sources (wounds, burns, urine, sputum, blood and throat) were collected from patients suffering different infections from a number of hospitals in Baghadad city (Karkh and Resafa), as follows: (Al-Yarmuk, Al-Karama, Al-Karkh, Al- Kadmia, Martyr Gazi Al-Hariry, the Medical city, Al-Kindi Teaching, Al-Imam Ali, Ibn-Al Balady and Baghdad Teaching Hospitals). Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in selective (CHROMagar) and specific differential medium, microscopic features, biochemical tests and API20 NE and VITEK-2 system at probability 98%. Furthermore the identification of isolates depending of molecular method by using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technique which is used to amplify specific gene by using special primers, to genus level was confirmed finally by detection of 16SrRNA gene while identification of A.baumannii isolates to species level was done by blaOXA-51-like gene, gaving ratio 100%. The results showed that the 83 A.baumannii isolates were obtained from clinical specimens (17.47%), distiributed according to the sources from highest to lowest percentage as follow in 31(25.20%) wound, 21(19.81%) burn, while 10(12.82%) urin, 8(11.94%) sputum, 7(12.72%) blood and low percentage 6(13.04%) from throat. This study focused on the phenotypic to determine methods the ability of biofilm production using three methods includes: Congo red agar (CRA), Tube method (TM) and microtiter plates (MTP). The results showed a significant differences between all 83 A.baumannii isolates. A seventy four isolates (89.15%) have the ability to adherence and produce slim layer with significant differences in thickness degrees (strong, moderate and weak). While 9 isolates which represented (10.84%) from isolates have no ability to adherence and produce slim layer. When comparing between these methods to detect strong biofilm production isolates, the results showed that MTP assay was excelled on CRA and TM at 58(69.87%), 48(57.83%) and 45(54.21%), respectively measured by optical densities values at 630 nm. Conclusion: The study concludes that there a positive correlation between biofilm formation and multi drug resistance A. baumannii. Each of the three phenotypic methods used for detection of biofilm formation has its advantages and disadvantages. But MTP method is most widely used and was considered as standard test for detection of biofilm formation.


Article
Clinical Risk Factors for Nosocomial Infection Caused by Acinetobacter baumannii among Iraqi Patients suffering from differing burns

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Abstract

This study aimed to evaluate risk factors and the role of Acinetobacter baumannii isolates in mortality due to burns since morbidity and mortality rates are considerably high. A total of 204 patients hospitalized in Burn Care Unit at Al-Diwanyia Teaching Hospitial, The Burn Specialist Hospital between January 2017 and February 2018 were reviewed retrospectively. Logistic regression analysis was used in order to predict the risk. RESULTS: From the collected notes, a total of 289 bacterial colonies were isolated of these patients and from them 22 isolates were identified as A. baumannii. Mortality rates were as follows: 10.5% in general, 4.9% for fewer than 17 years of age, and 5.6 % for between 18-64 years of age.


Article
Polymorphism of FOXO3a Gene and Its Association with Incidence of Asthma in Iraqi Patients

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Abstract

Asthma is common polygenic multifactorial inflammatory disorder influenced by genetic and environmental factors characterized by inflammation of airways leading to obstruction, coughing and wheezing in response to an allergen or inorganic pollutions. FOXO3a (Forkhead Box O3) is a gene plays a vital role in the etiology of asthma disease. The objective of this study is to investigate an association of single nucleotide polymorphism SNP of the FOXO3a (rs 13217795, C˃T transition) gene with asthma susceptibility in adults of some Iraqi patients. study consists of two groups: fifty asthma patients (28 female and 22 male) and twenty five apparently healthy as a control group (9 female and 16 male). The age of the samples ranged from 20-60 years old. Recruited from the Alzahra’a Center for Asthma Allergy in Baghdad during the period extended from October /2017 to last February /2018. The DNA purity ranged between 1.8-1.9 and the concentration of DNA between 40-120 ng / μl. Then fragments targeted of FOXO3a gene (rs13217795 C>T) were amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Then Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) technique was used to determined SNP (rs13217795) polymorphism by using Cci I restriction enzyme. Samples from control and patients group were sent for DNA analysis sequencing. TT not appeared in the sequencing.The highest rate of asthma was in the 40 to 60 age group. As for gender, the females ratio was higher than the males. Most patients have a family history of asthma. Most patients with asthma were in the autumn. The results were revealed that SNP (rs 13217795) of FOXO3a gene with Polymorphism of CT genotype in the control group was significantly higher than in patients group (80 % versus 50%, respectively). And persons with the CT genotype in the patient group were significantly higher than those with the CC genotype. While, the percentage of those with TT Polymorphism genotype in the patient’s group were showed highly significant difference as compared with control group (28 % versus 0 %, respectively). The Allele frequency C in the patients and control group shows 47.00% versus 60.00%, respectively. While Allele frequency T in the patients and control group shows 53.00% versus 40.00%, respectively. These results indicated that the polymorphism of C˃T (rs 13217795) of FOXO3a gene was associated with the developing Asthma in this studied sample. In conclusion, the T allele variant of FOXO3a gene (rs 13217795) polymorphism may be associated with increased susceptibility of the development of asthma in Iraqi patients.


Article
Genetic variation in BRAF gene among Iraqi colorectal cancer patients.

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Abstract

The RAS/RAF/MEK/MAP kinase pathway is essential to intracellular signaling transduction regulating cell proliferation, differentiation and death. BRAF gene encodes a serine /threonine kinase and plays an important role in the mitogen-activated protein kinase signaling pathway. FrequentBRAF mutations were reported recently in a variety of human malignancies, including colorectal cancer (CRC).This study was designed to investigate the BRAF mutations in exon 15 in Iraqi colorectal cancer patients. Ninety samples of fixed formalin paraffin embedded tissue ( FFPE) were enrolled in this study and divided into three groups according to histopathology report (16 apparently healthy, 37 suffering colorectal cancer adenocarcinoma and 37 benign tumors).DNA from the FFPE samples were extract and the BRAF gene was screened for the presence of mutations using PCR technique and direct sequencing. The results revealed that there are no BRAF gene mutations in exon 15 in Iraqi colorectal cancer patients. These results were confirmed previous articles regarding low rate of BRAF gene mutation in Asia and south Iran. The results of colorectal cancer in Iraqi patients may be indicating the possibility of CRC patients treatment with monoclonal antibodies. Conclusion: Despite the limited study sample our data suggest that BRAF mutations might be less frequently than other genes in the RAF family in Iraqi CRC patients. Further researches involving large patient series will be necessary to confirm these findings and to asses possible ethinic/environmtal and lifestyle influences on BRAF mutagenesis.


Article
Comparing the fungi contamination of rice samples collected from local and non-local markets

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Abstract

Rice (Oryza sativa) as a cereal grain, it is the most widely consumed staple food for a large part of the world's human population, especially in Asia. Fungi can grow in the rice grains with specific condition and some types of these microorganisms can produce mycotoxins, it is considerd a high risk population because this toxin associated with health effects in order to provide evidence on risk assessment and may responsible for liver cancer. The aim of this study to investigate the contamination level of 100 local and non-local rice samples collected from Iraqi and other countries markets and compared between the results by using pour plate method employed for the isolation of fungi. The results showed that samples from Iraqi markets (different origins) especially imported samples, were contained high content of fungi when compared with non-local samples. There are many types of fungi appeared in the collected rice samples like Aspergillus spp, pencillium spp, fusarium spp, Rhizupus spp, Alternaria spp and Mucor spp, and some samples were contained number of fungi higher than the acceptable limit of central organization for standardization and quality control in Iraq (COSQC), which is 1x104 CFU/g, and that consider very dangerous for the human health.

Keywords

Rice --- Fungi --- contamination


Article
Molecular Study of Efflux MexX Gene in Pseudomonas aeruginosa Isolated from Iraqi Patients

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Abstract

Clinical isolates (95) collected from patients suffering different infections from teaching hospital in Baghdad Iraq. These isolates cultured on specific media to grow Pseudomonas aeruginosa only . The growed isolates (54) were diagnosed using classical methods and the API 20E followed by molecular detection using a housekeeping gene (rpsL). Fifty four isolates of Pseudomonas aeruginosa tested against gentamicin. These isolates were selected to determine resistance mediated by MexX efflux system using polymerase chain reaction (PCR) . Out of 54 P.aeruginosa isolates, 48(88.8%) gave positive results for efflux system MexX (resistance and intermediate isolates), while sensitive isolates 6 (11.2 % ) have no MexX gene . This may indicate the prevalence these type of resistance in the current isolated bacteria.


Article
Effect of Trichothececns toxin on stem cells isolated from Umbilical cord blood

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Abstract

The study included the collection of umbilical cords blood samples immediately after delivery . Hematopoietic stem cells were isolated from the umbilical cord blood by the gradient density method. The hematopoietic stem cells (MNCs) were cultured in Dulbecco's Modified Eagle Medium (DMEM) with 10 % of fetal calf serum, then subjected to in vitro study to confirm the toxic effects of Trichothecenss extracts with the following concentrations (0.001,0.0039,0.0078, 0.0156, 0.031, 0.062, 0.13, 0.25, and 1 μg/ ml) and to detect the inhibition rate of hematopoietic stem cells by using 3-(4, 5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2, 5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide. The cytotoxicity assay (in vitro study), revealed that the inhibition rate increases seriously with the increase of Trichothecens concentration. Hence the concentration 1 μg /ml has given inhibition rate which reached 100%, while the concentration 0.001 μg /ml did not eliminates any type of cells. Trichothecens has a highly toxic effect on human hematopoietic stem cells, and its concentration is high and positively associated with the rate of cell death increases. Furthermore, the concentration 1 μg /ml of Trichothecens extracted from the Trichothecensgenic isolates can kill 100% of hematopoietic stem cell.


Article
Association of PPARG gene polymorphism (Pro 12 Ala) with the risk of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) incidence in sample of Iraqi patients

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Abstract

Diabetes mellitus is a combination of heterogeneous disorders commonly presenting with episodes of hyperglycaemia and glucose intolerance, as a result of lack of insulin, defective insulin action, or both . PPARG gene variant ( pro 12 ala) has been linked to risk of development of diabetes mellitus . this study was carried out to examine whether the polymorphism of PPARG gene are correlated with the incidence of type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) in Iraqi population. Diabetic patients (n=50) and apparently healthy control subject (n=50), were enrolled genotyping of PPARG gene SNP (rs1801282) were determined by using Taqman genotyping assay. The results showed that the distribution of genotypes and alleles frequencies at (rs1801282) SNP of PPARG gene, as related with CC , CG and combined CG+CC genotypes, G allele seem to be a protective allele, therefore, the presence of both heterozygous and homozygous mutants may reduce the risk of T2DM (the frequency of CG+GC mutants were 68% in apparently healthy control individuals and 50% in T2DM patients). In contrast, there is wild CC genotype (50 versus 32% in T2DM and control group, respectively, X2=6.93; P<0.01; OR=1.272).

Table of content: volume:17 issue:3