Table of content

Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences

مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية

ISSN: 19955588/19955596
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy
Faculty:
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences (Zanco J Med Sci) is the scientific journal of Hawler Medical University. Zanco J Med Sci is a peer-reviewed, open access journal. Zanco J Med Sci aims to publish peer-reviewed and original scientific research of Iraqi, regional and international interest. Submissions of manuscripts in the clinical and basic medical sciences come within the scope of its publication. Original articles, review articles, case reports, brief communications, insights, and letters to the editor are all considered.

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+964 66 264 8226 direct line
+964 66 227 3384, Ext: 449
Email: zanco.journal@hmu.edu.krd

Table of content: 2011 volume:15 issue:3

Article
Assessment of heart rate variability in patients with chronic stable angina
تقييم تقلب معدل ضربات القلب في المرضى الذين يعانون من الذبحة الصدرية المستقرة المزمنة

Authors: Mohammed Hassan Alwan
Pages: 1-5
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Abstract

Background and objectives: A prospective study performed in Ibn-Albitar hospital a tertiary center to assess the effect of ischemic heart disease on heart rate variability. Methods: Thirty nine consecutive patients all with history of chronic stable angina &with positive treadmill test underwent 24 hours holter test to assess heart rate variability. Compared it with 25 age & sex matched control volunteer group. Results: Thirty one (79.48%) male of patients group& 20 (80%) male of control group . heart rate variability expressed as (SDNN) standard deviation of normal to normal interval, (RMSSD) square root of the mean squared differences of successive normal to normal intervals& (pNN50) the proportion derived by dividing (NN50) the number of interval differences of successive normal to normal intervals greater than 50 milliseconds (ms.) by the total number of normal to normal intervals all were significantly lower in patients group. Conclusion: This study showed that heart rate variability significantly lower in patients with chronic stable angina.

Keywords

Heart rate --- Stable angina


Article
Association between life-style factors and pulmonary tuberculosis in Erbil
العلاقة بين عوامل نمط الحياة والسل الرئوي في أربيل

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Abstract

Background and objectives: The majority of individuals in a population do not develop tuberculosis, due either to lack of exposure or due to individual characteristics that limit development of the disease after exposure. Evidences suggested that there is an association between lifestyle variables and tuberculosis. The main objective of this study was to study the association between lifestyle characteristics and pulmonary tuberculosis. Methods: A case-control study was carried out in Erbil city during the period May 10, to December 28, 2009. A convenient sample of 150 cases of TB attending the Consultation Clinic for Chest and Respiratory Diseases was included in the study. A sex and age matched, 150 patients were included in the study as a control group. The control group was taken from patient of the Medical Wards of both Rizgary and Hawler Teaching Hospitals who were free from chest infections and lung cancer. Cases and controls were interviewed using a questionnaire designed by the researchers. Results: Around one quarter (24%) of the cases were smokers compared with 14.7 % among the controls. Significant difference of nutritional status between both groups was detected. Controls eat more food and of better quality than cases. No significant association between alcohol drinking, practicing of sports/ exercise and TB was detected. Conclusion: TB was found to be associated with low nutritional status and smoking.


Article
Prevalence of epilepsy in Hawler city; a household survey
انتشار الصرع في مدينة هولير؛ مسح الأسرة

Authors: Aso Sabir Sheikh-Bzeni --- Azad Hasan Khidr
Pages: 12-18
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Epilepsy is a common neurological disorder and in spite of that, its prevalence was not studied in Hawler city before. The objective of this study is to know the prevalence of epilepsy in Hawler city. Methods: A house hold survey was carried out in Hawler city, Iraq 4623 persons selected as clustered random sample of the city population during period of April 2007 to June 2008. Results: Out of the 4623 persons studied, only 45 patients (23 female and 22 male) were found to be epileptic, with a life time prevalence of 9.7/1000 population. The commonest age group affected was childhood age (1st and 2nd decade). This study showed that partial epilepsy was more common than generalized epilepsy. There is no marked difference between genders in the disease pattern (51.1% were females, 48.9% were males). Conclusion: Epilepsy is a common disorder in Hawler city. There was no significant difference between genders in the disease pattern. In our locality children were more affected with epilepsy than other age groups.

Keywords

Epilepsy --- Hawler city --- Prevalence


Article
Detection of Anti-CMV IgM and Anti-Toxoplasma gondii IgG in Pregnant Women with History of Abortion
الكشف عن IgG المضاد لـ CMV ومضادات التوكسوبلازما كوندي IgG لدى النساء الحوامل اللاتي لديهن تاريخ من الإجهاض

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Abstract

Background and objectives: Several infection are associated with abortion among them toxoplasmosis and cytomegalovirus infection. Toxoplasma gondii causes congenital toxoplasmosis along with HCMV a highly teratogenic virus that interfere emberyogenesis. Both infections are almost asymptomatic thus, diagnosis depends primarily on serological tests namely ELISA to detect antibodies in serum of pregnant women. Methods: A semi-quantitative Elisa technique is applied for detection of anti-toxoplasma IgG and anti-CMV IgM in sera of 348 pregnant women tested in Rezan Private Lab who have previously experienced abortion. Results: The seropositivity rates are 29.05% for Toxoplasma-IgG and 45.25% for CMV-IgM. The increasing age is associated with increasing times of abortion (p ≤ 0.0001). Cases with co-infection are more likely to have multiple abortions. The number of abortions is statistically not highly associated with socioeconomic status of pregnant women (p ≥ 0. 1364). Conclusion: Through this study a plain connection can be figured out between chance of multiple times of abortion and infections caused by CMV and Toxoplasma gondii. Similarly, this association is verified more with increasing age while the socioeconomic status of cases is not indicative for the possibility of multiple miscarriages. All these results are rationally expected and in agreement with most other studies.


Article
Clinical predictors of hypoxemia in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections
تنبئ السريرية من نقص الأكسجة في الأطفال الذين يعانون من التهابات الجهاز التنفسي السفلي الحادة

Authors: Dlair A. K.Chalabi --- Kawes O. Zangana
Pages: 24-29
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) are the leading cause of morbidity and mortality among children in developing countries. Pulse oxymetry is a simple technique to determine the oxygen saturation. However, the detection of hypoxemia by use of pulse oxymetry is not available in most situations in developing countries; in addition, the availability of supplementary oxygen is inadequate. It is therefore, important to identify hypoxemia accurately in children by using of clinical signs. The objective of this study was to find out the clinical signs and symptoms that predict hypoxemia in acute lower respiratory tract infection. Methods: A well matched case control study was performed on 120 children from 2 months to 5 years of age admitted with acute lower respiratory tract infections (ALRI) to the emergency department of Raparin Pediatric Teaching Hospital -Erbil, from 1st January 2009 to 1st April 2010.Clinical symptoms and signs were recorded .Hypoxemia was defined as oxygen saturation less than 95%. A portable oxymeter was used to measure oxygen saturation with an appropriately sized sensor on the finger or the toe. The reading was taken while the child was breathing room air. The clinical symptoms and signs to predict the presence of hypoxemia were evaluated. Results: Sixty (50%) children were hypoxemic. The median O2 saturation was 91.2%with a range of 72-93.8%. Physical signs including intercostal and subtotal retractions, supraclavicular recessions, grunting, nasal flaring, cyanosis, head nodding, were statistically associated with hypoxemia. Conclusion: None of the clinical features either alone or in combinations has sufficient sensitively and specificity to predict hypoxemia in children with acute lower respiratory tract infections, therefore pulse oxymetry is desirable for identification of hypoxemia.


Article
Evaluation of vitamin c & malondialdehyde levels in type 2 diabetes mellitus
تقييم مستويات فيتامين ج و malondialdehyde في داء السكري من النوع 2

Authors: Leweza B. Abbass --- Amanj Zrar Hassan
Pages: 30-35
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Abstract

Background and objectives: Diabetes mellitus is a metabolic disorder, characterized by hyperglycemia. The oxidative stress in diabetes was greatly increased due to prolonged exposure to hyperglycemia and impairment of oxidant /antioxidant equilibrium. Proteins and lipids are among the prime target for oxidative stress. The objective of this study was to find out correlation between lipid peroxidation in terms of malondialdehyde (MDA) and impairment of antioxidant in terms of vitamin C (Vit C) to severity and complication of type 2 diabetes mellitus. Methods: We study a total of 163 subjects among them 109 patients were type 2 diabetic patients and remaining 54 subjects were healthy control subjects. Fasting blood samples were collected in Layla Qasm center for diabetes /Hawler city and analyzed for plasma vitamin C, serum MDA, serum lipid profile and serum glucose in the research lab of Clinical Biochemistry College of Medicine/ Hawler. Results: Plasma vitamin C levels were significantly decreased in diabetes mellitus (0.48 ± 0.026) mg/dl compared to non- diabetic patients (1.18 ± 0.057) mg/dl. Patients with type 2 diabetes showed a significant increase in serum MDA (1.52 ± 0.04) mmol/L in comparison to non- diabetic patients (0.73 ± 0.026) mml/L. Conclusion: In this study group, there is significant correlation between lipid peroxide concentration and lipid fractions except vitamin C and HDL-cholesterol.


Article
Causes and types of complete denture fracture
أسباب وأنواع كسر الأسنان الكامل

Authors: Hoshang khalid
Pages: 36-40
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Abstract

Background and objectives: determine the causes and types of complete denture fractures. Methods: The study was performed in the Hawler medical university, college of Dentistry Department of Prosthodontics. The number of fractured complete denture collected was 290 from patients aged 35-80 years of both genders. The (causes of denture fracture, the type of fracture and the history of previous recurrent fractures) were recorded. Results: : The main cause of denture fracture was poor fitting (40%), followed by poor occlusal relation (21%). Midline fracture was the commonest type of fracture (59%). From the study (51%) of the dentures had previously been repaired once or more. The ratio of lower to upper complete denture fractures was approximately 3:1; most of the fractured dentures (56%) were those of males. Conclusion: The causes of the fracture were divided into material factors and clinical/ technical factors. Denture fractures can be reduced by following prosthodontic principles, analyzing proper fit, eliminating occlusal interferences and using high impact polymers or metal reinforced.


Article
Epidermoid cyst of the testis: A case report
كيسة البشرة من الخصية: تقرير حالة

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Background and objectives: Epidermoid cyst of the testis is a very rare benign lesion that accounts for about 1% of all testicular tumors. Case report: 16-year old male with epidermoid cyst of the testis is described in which the diagnosis was unsuspected clinically and diagnosed histopathologically. The clinical, histogenesis, pathology and management are briefly reviewed.

Keywords

Testis --- epidermoid cyst


Article
CT Evaluation of Patients with Hemoptysis and Normal Chest Radiograph
التصوير المقطعي للمرضى الذين يعانون من نفث الدم والأشعة السينية العادية

Authors: Saeed Nadhim Younis
Pages: 44-49
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Abstract

Background and objectives: to study the diagnostic accuracy of Computed Tomography in evaluation of various etiologies of hemoptysis with normal chest radiographs. Methods: Two hundred patients with hemoptysis and normal chest radiograph were evaluated with computed tomography from the period of December 2008 to October 2009. The patients were categorized according to the primary etiology and severity of hemoptysis. Results: of the 200 patients with hemoptysis included in this study, 121 males and79 females. Majority of patients had mild hemoptysis and pulmonary tuberculosis was the leading cause of hemoptysis( 73.3% .). CT showed diagnostic accuracy of 75%. Conclusion: computed chest tomography plays an important role in assessing patients with hemoptysis.

Keywords

CT --- hemoptysis


Article
Evaluation of serum srace element levels in children with bronchial asthma
تقييم مستويات عنصر مصل الدم لدى الأطفال المصابين بالربو القصبي

Authors: Parween Abdulsamad Ismahael
Pages: 50-55
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Background and objectives: The metabolism of several trace elements has been reported to alter in bronchial asthma and these elements might have specific roles in the pathogenesis and progress of this disease. The aim of the present study was to investigate serum levels of Zinc, Copper, Calcium, Iron and Magnesium in asthmatic children Patients and Methods: The comparative study includes 56 asthmatic patients and 44 healthy non asthmatic control subjects. The trace elements concentrations were measured by means of an atomic absorption spectrophotometer, results were calculated from the calibration curve obtained by statistical analysis of concentration Vs Absorbance data for elements using fitting of straight line by least square. Results: Mean(±SD) zinc level was significantly (p<0.01) decreased in asthmatic children (70.6±8.3 μg /dL) compared with controls non asthmatic children (78.3± 9.2 μg /dL),calcium and iron serum concentrations were significantly(p<0.001) higher in asthmatic patient (10.98±2.53 mg/dL, (113.23 ± 45.47 μg/dl) respectively compared with controls (8.23±3.4mg/dL,83.25±29.43 μg /dL) respectively, on the other hand copper level was significantly (p<0.01) higher in asthmatic children (143±20.8μg/dl) in comparison to the control values (130±22.7 μg/dL). Magnesium concentration was significantly lower in comparison to the control values (p<0.01). Conclusion: The results support that deficiency of Mg, Zn, Cu, Ca and Fe may play a role in the development of asthma.


Article
The effect of smear layer removal on apical seal of teeth obturated with two different obturation techniques
تأثير إزالة طبقة اللطاخة على الختم القمي للأسنان المغطاة بطريقتين مختلفتين للتسرب

Authors: Media A. Saeed
Pages: 56-63
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Abstract

Background and objectives: .The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effect of smear layer removal on apical seal and the quantity of microleakage associated with lateral cold condensation and thermafil obturation. Methods: Forty extracted single–rooted human teeth were randomly divided into two experimental groups; in group A, 20 roots with smear layer free, 5.25 % sodium hypochlorite (NaOCl) and 17% Ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid (EDTA) were used as irrigants to remove the smear layer, while in group B, 20 roots with smear layer, normal saline was used as irrigant. All root canals were instrumented with the Pro-taper rotary system using a crown-down technique. Each group of instrumented roots were subdivided randomly into two obturation groups; in group 1, 10 roots were obturated by thermafil with plastic carrier, while in group 2, 10 roots were obturated by cold lateral compaction technique. Zinc oxide euginol was used as the sealer. The root surfaces were then coated with nail polish except for the apex, then dye penetration study conducted and samples were examined under the stereomicroscope. Data had been collected from two independent examiners and statistically analyzed using student t-test. Results: There was non significant difference between all the groups radiographically while stereomicroscopic analysis showed significant difference of smear layer free group when obturated by thermafil with other groups. Conclusion: Smear layer free group gave the best results when used with lateral condensation technique (LCT) and smear layer group gave the best results when used with thermafil.

Keywords

Smear layer --- Thermafil --- Obturation


Article
Assessment of the validity of Pap smear cytology in the diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Erbil city
تقييم صحة خلايا تشريح عنق الرحم في تشخيص الأورام داخل عنق الرحم في مدينة أربيل

Authors: Baran Kamal Barzanji
Pages: 64-69
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Background and objectives: Cervical smears can reduce both incidence and mortality rates from invasive cervical cancer. Despite its success, cervical cytology has important limitations. The aim of this study is to assess the validity of conventional Pap smear in diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia in Erbil through comparison with colposcopy with or without cervical biopsy. Methods: A hospital-based study was carried out in Erbil Maternity Hospital from the 1st May to 31st December 2008. The study sample included 336 women attending the breast disease center for routine breast examination. Cervical Pap smear followed by colposcopic examination was done for each woman on the same day. Cervical punch biopsy was taken for those with abnormal colposcopic findings. Colposcopy with or without biopsy was considered as a gold standard diagnosis of cervical intraepithelial neoplasia (CIN). Results: Out of 336 women, 48 (14.3%) had abnormal cervical smear results, of which 43 (12.8%) of the total had low-grade cervical lesions and 5 (1.5%) of the total had high-grade cervical lesions. Colposcopy-directed biopsy revealed that 69 (20.5%) had abnormal findings of which 65 (19.3%) women had CIN I and 4 (1.2%) of the total had CIN II and III. The sensitivity and specificity of the cervical smear were 62.3% and 98.1%, respectively. The positive predictive value was 89.6% while the negative predictive value was 91%. The false negative percentage was 37.7%. The accuracy of the test was 90.8% and the degree of agreement between Pap smear and colposcopy with biopsy results was 90.2%. Conclusion: The high accuracy of cervical smear in this study and high agreement rate between cervical cytology and colposcopy indicates that conventional Pap smear is an important dependable screening test in spite of its low validity in terms of its sensitivity.

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