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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2019 volume:22 issue:1

Article
Antioxidant Activity of Coumarine Compounds

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Abstract

Synthesis of coumarins, that were a structurally motivating antioxidant action, was finished in our article. Four components are condensed in the synthesis 4-hydroxycoumarin, 5,5-dimethyl-1,3-cyclohexanedione, and aromatic aldehydes, using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB), diammonium hydrogen phosphate (DAHP), respectively to yield target compounds(1-4). The present methods have advantages, including one-pot synthesis, excellent yields, short reaction times, and easy isolation of product. All catalysts utilized in our study could be reused several times without losing their catalytic efficiency. The structures of the synthesized compounds were elucidating by spectro-scopically methods, Infrared Spectra FT-IR and 1H and 13C Nuclear/Magnetic/Resonance Spectra and elemental analysis techniques, melting point and thin layer chromatography. The scavenging activities of individual molecules were tested vs. stable free radical(1,1-Diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH)), the results were compared to the Gallic acid. The results show that most of the compounds exhibited higher antioxidant activates than the standards in different concentration range. The highest efficiency scavenging activity was found for compound 2 (88.0±1%) followed by compounds 3 (83±0.5%).The component of the integrated mixes as cell reinforcements was likewise examined.


Article
Removal of Methylene Blue Dye from Water using Ecofriendly Waste Product (Eggshell) as an Adsorbent and Using the Optimum Adsorption Conditions with Real Water Sample from Tigris River

Authors: Dhuha H. Fadhil --- Ahmed Al-Hussin --- Emad Yousif
Pages: 9-14
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Abstract

Environmental pollution is a worldwide issue that affects the human being health, water pollution is one of the causes of this phenomenon. Dyes represent the raw materials in many industries such as textile, paper, plastic and leather industries as well as they considered as toxic water pollutants. The adsorption method is one of the most effective methods for removing dyes from polluted water. In this search, ecofriendly food waste (eggshell) was used as an adsorbent for removing methylene blue dye (MB) from waste water. In this research, eggshell morphology was studied using Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Energy-Dispersive X-ray (EDX). The stability of the eggshell adsorbent was tested by Thermal Gravimetric Analysis (TGA). Whereas checking with various MB dye concentration for eggshell the maximum adsorption was noticed at (8ppm) and this concentration was used for further optimization. MB solutions was prepared at pH 7.2 and at 21℃ same conditions as in Tigris River water which was used to compare the activity of the eggshells adsorbent using analytical standard MB solutions and on the other hand using real sample solutions. The results show that using eggshells adsorbent with standards solution and real sample solutions of MB provide the same general trends with respect to MB removal. Consequently, using eggshell as an ecofriendly adsorbent was successfully tested to be used with both MB analytical standard solutions and real river MB solutions.

Keywords

Eggshells --- Methylene blue --- Dye --- Adsorbent


Article
Synthesis, X-Ray Crystal Structure, Bactericidal and Kinetic Study of some Mononuclear Zinc and Mercury Complexes Supported by Bisaroylhydrazone Derivatives

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Abstract

This work includes the synthesis of two derivatives of cyclohexane bisaroylhydrazone: (L1) and (L2). These compounds were synthesized via the condensation reaction of 1,2-cyclohexanedione with an appropriate hydrazide derivative in acidic medium. The prepared ligands were reacted with zinc chloride or mercury chloride under ambient conditions. Consequently, mononuclear type complexes: [Zn(L1)Cl2] (1), [Zn(L2)Cl2].CH3CN (2). [Hg(L1)Cl2] (3) and [Hg(L2)Cl2].CH3CN (4) were obtained. Different techniques have been used to characterize the prepared organic ligands and their metal complexes (X-ray single crystal crystallography and microelemental analyses in addition to infrared, nuclear magnetic resonance, X-ray powder diffraction, Ultraviolate-visible-Near infrared, and mass spectroscopes). Depending upon the X-ray crystallography, it seems that the obtained products of 1, 2, 3 and 4 are mononuclear complexes. Each structure comprises a [M (L)]2+ core. The kinetic of complex formation of 2 was investigated and the results are investigated and compare with that of 4. The study showed in general, the formation of 2 and 4 in one phase with a first-order type reaction. Antibacterial activities of all the prepared compounds against some pathogenic bacteria (Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli) were evaluated, which exhibit a good growth inhibitory activity.


Article
Synthesis and Evaluation the Activity of 1, 3, 4-Thiadiazole Derivatives as Antibacterial Agent Against Common Pathogenic Bacteria

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Abstract

Schiff base compound 5-(benzylideneamino)-1,3,4-thiadiazole-2-thiol was prepared from condensation reaction of 2-amino-5-mercapto-1,3,4-thiadiazole with benzaldehyde. Schiff bases react with Copper(ӀӀ), Ferric(ӀӀӀ), Cobalt(ӀӀ) and Zinc(ӀӀ) to form four complexes. The Schiff base complexes were identification by using FTIR and UV-VIS. The antibacterial activity of complexes (Copper(ӀӀ), Ferric(ӀӀӀ), Cobalt(ӀӀ) and Zinc(ӀӀ)) were studied against S. aureus and S . epidermidis as a model of Gram positive, E. coli, P. mirabilis, C. freundii and P. aeruginosa as a Gram negative model to determine activity of synthesized complexes, after subjected them to some tests to confirm the identity of the pathogenic bacteria. Ten antibiotics (Ampicillin and Amoxicillin) have been chosen to investigate the ability of bacterial isolates to resistant the conventional antibiotic. Imipenem have been selected to contrast its efficiency with those of the new compounds because of its high efficiency. The results exhibited higher activity of the new compounds proportional to the chosen antibiotics.

Keywords

Synthesis --- 1 --- 3 --- 4-thiadiazole --- antibiotic --- antibacterial.


Article
Effect of Tris(1,3-Dichloroisopropyl) Phosphate as Flame Retardant on Mechanical Properties and Fire Resistivity of PU Composites

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Abstract

Palm oil based polyurethane composites that are reinforced with Tris(1,3- dichloroisopropyl) phosphate TDCPP which function as flame retardants (FR) at different proportions of 3, 6 and 9% were synthesized. The polyurethane composite’s influence on the mechanical (tensile strength, impact and flexural limits and modulus) and thermal characteristics (fire test) of the polyurethane composites were examined. Increased loading of TCPP resulted in increased hardness (up to 39%) which translates to a marginal increase in Shore D hardness as the TDCPP content increases. With higher TDCPP loading, the impact and flexural capabilities decreased because of the fragile interfacial bonding between the TDCPP and PU matrix. Loading of 3%, 6% and 9% of TDCPP resulted in the decrease of impact strength by 25%, 24% and 23% respectively. Lowest flexural ability (at a reduction of 21%) was exhibited with the highest amount of TDCPP loading (9%) and the modulus had decreased by 23%. When the percentage of TDCPP loading increased, this resulted in a lower heat of combustion of the composites which manifested in the form of lower burning rate from 5.4 mm/s to 2.7 mm/s in the fire test operated.


Article
Effect of Body Mass Index on Abnormal Ovarian Secretion Hormones among Iraqi Women with Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS)

Authors: Alaa H. Badr --- Alaa H. Jawad --- Rania M. L. Faraj
Pages: 40-45
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Abstract

Polycystic ovarian syndrome (PCOS) is the most common and complex endocrine disorder affecting women in the reproductive age. The etiology of this syndrome is not completely known, so there is a developing proof that supports genetic basis, PCOS has a strong familial preference. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of body mass index (BMI) on ovarian hormones in women with PCOS and healthy women. Eighty-three women aged (17-40) years were divided into two groups for testing (BMI less than 25 and more than 25). Hormonal study of Luteinizing hormone (LH), Androgen, Estradiol (E2) was done for each patient, the results of these hormones in patients compared with controls in both BMI groups with E2/T ratio showed a significant increase in patients women compared to controls in (p<0.05), While the results of Follicle stimulating hormone (FSH) and Total Testosterone (TT) showed an increase with not statistically significant. it has been concluded that the increase in BMI doesn’t show to have an opposite effect on FSH, Androgen, E2, and TT levels but the result of LH shows a highly significant increase in PCOS groups compared to controls when BMI˃25.

Keywords

Polycystic ovarian syndrome --- LH --- E2 --- FSH --- TT --- BMI --- ovarian hormones --- Androgen.


Article
Synthesis of Activated Carbon from Eichhronia Crassipes Plant as Adsorbent for the Removal of Phenol from Aqueous Solution

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Abstract

For a friendly environment, adsorbents are prepared from harmful natural sources to reduce their impact on the environment. The preparation of activated carbon from the Eichhornia crassipes was done by carbonization at 450C°, followed by activation step at 800C°. The adsorption processes were carried out by the batch system to determine the optimal conditions for the removal of phenol from the aqueous solutions. Different parameters were used in batch experiments such as initial concentrations of phenol (in the range from 10-100 ppm), pH (from 2-12), temperature (from 298-328k), AC dosage (from 0.09-0.4g). All the adsorption experiments were carried out in thermostat shaker at 150 rpm. The removal percentage of phenol on activated carbon was 98.2% at optimum conditions of 10 ppm initial phenol concentration, 25 minutes, pH=7, 308 k, 0.2 g of AC dosage). The thermodynamic functions of phenol adsorption were studied at different temperatures. The values of Gibbs free energy (∆G) at maximum removal with temperatures (298, 308, 318 and 328K) was (-5.17, -6.83, -8.22, -8.48) respectively and enthalpy ∆H, entropy ∆S values was 29.22 and 0.114. The activated carbon extracted from Eichhornia crassipes has a double benefit. first, to remove various organic pollutants such as phenols in aqueous solutions and the second, to create a clean water environment free of this plant found in Iraqi waters.


Article
Investigation Effects of Lavenders Flowers Extracts on Catalase Activity and Some Microorganisms

Authors: Ali Mohammed Abbed
Pages: 55-61
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Abstract

The present study was proposed to examine one of the important herbal plant is known Lavender and study the interaction of its extracts with enzymatic oxidation reduction process and anti microorganism. The catalase assay in vitro was implied in this work. Lavender flower containing on essential oils has been many uses for disease treatment, this plant bring from the trading market in Iraq. The current study involved biological activity on two ways; alcoholic extract on enzymatic activity, other way hot water extract and alcoholic extract on four isolate of bacteria and one type fungi. (The weight of flower is equal to 1gm/50ml for two extracts). The results of this study demonstrated effect of lavender to be activator agent of catalase enzymatic activity and Vmax was calculated without and with extract that equal to (88.6, 208)Ku/L and km equal to (53.5, 72.4)mM respectively by Line weaver-Burk plot. The activation percentage was calculated by using different volume of Ethanolic extract, that maximum activation is recorded equal to 133.6% at substrate concentration 60 mM and 100µl alcoholic extract. On the other hand their effects on microorganism obvious in the present study that showed not effect began.


Article
Effect of Active Galactic Nuclei (AGN) on the Photometric and Morphologic Properties of NGC 4414 and NGC 4369 Spiral Galaxies

Authors: Huda Hardan --- Abdullah K. Ahmed
Pages: 62-73
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Abstract

The purpose of this work is to clarify the effect of the Active Galactic Nucleus (AGN) on the properties of the galaxy. A photometric study of two galaxies by surface optical measurements techniques and by using'griz filters' was performed. The scientific material that used in this work was obtained from ''SLOAN DIGITAL SKY SURVEY'' (DR7), a fuzzy color, contour maps, photometric parameters, and color indices were studied by using surface photometric technique. The work was done by Ellipse task in IRAF (Image Reduction and Analysis Facility) software from the National Optical Astronomy Observatory (NOAO).


Article
Collaborative Filtering Recommendation Model Based on k-means Clustering

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Abstract

In this age of information load, it becomes a herculean task for user to get the relevant things from vast number of information. This huge number of data demand specially designed Recommender system that can plays an important role in suggesting relevant information preferred by the users. From this point, this paper presents a modest approach to enhance prediction in MovieLens dataset with high scalability by applying user-based collaborative filtering methods on clustered data. The proposal consists of three consequence phases: preprocessing phase, similarity phase, prediction phase. The experimental results obtained conducting K-means clustering and correlation coefficient similarity measures against MovieLens datasets lead to an increase in the scalability of recommender system.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:1