Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:2 (Part-4)

Article
THE BEHAVIOR OF MORTAR AFTER ADDING IRON WASTE

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Abstract

The need for exceeding the strength of construction material with low cost material is the aim of this work. Iron waste was used to replace the sand in (10, 20, and 30%) by weight .three particle sizes (75,100,150 µm) were chosen for iron filling to reveal the most effective particle size. The results showed the lowest density were obtained at 100 µm particle size and 30% by weight of iron filling. The best water absorption was obtained at 100 µm particle size and 10% by weight of iron filling. The highest thermal diffusivity was obtained at 100 µm particle size and 20% by weight of iron filling. The best thermal conductivity were obtained at 100 and 150 µm particle size and 30% by weight of iron filling and The best compressive strength were obtained at 75 µm particle size and 20% by weight of iron filling. For all samples containing iron filling better properties were obtained comparing with control sample.


Article
إشكالية العلاقة بين العمارة الخضراء والعمارة المستدامة

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Abstract

ركزت هذه الدراسة على موضوع " اشكالية العلاقة بين العمارة الخضراء والعمارة المستدامة" وعلى الرغم من تطرق العديد من الدراسات والطروحات العالمية والمحلية إلى موضوع العمارة الخضراء والعمارة المستدامة، إلا إنها بقت طبيعة العلاقة بين المفهومين غير واضحة. لذلك تمثلت مشكلة بوجود اشكالية العلاقة بين مفهوم العمارة الخضراء والعمارة المستدامة. بموجب ذلك تم تحديد هدفاً رئيسياً للبحث هو" توفير قاعدة معلوماتية لكلا المفهومين والمقارنة فيما بينهما لأجل حل اشكالية العلاقة بين مفهوم العمارة الخضراء والعمارة المستدامة ". ولتحقيقه تطلب إتباع المنهج عن طريق تحديد إطار نظري في موضوع العمارة الخضراء والعمارة المستدامة كمحورين والتعرف على اهمية المفهومين وفائدتهما واستراتيجياتهما من خلال الدراسات والأدبيات السابقة. ومن ثم القيام بعملية التحليل المقارن بين المفهومين من خلال الطروحات والدراسات السابقة وصولا للنتائج. وفي نهاية الدراسة تم التوصل إلى مجموعة الاستنتاجات للهدف الذي سعى البحث من أجل تحقيقها، بالرغم من تشابه وتداخل المفهومين الا انها تضل العمارة الخضراء السبيل لتحقيق العمارة المستدامة.


Article
تخطيط وتصميم الحرم الجامعي المستدام جامعة بغداد والجامعة المستنصرية – حالة دراسية

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Abstract

ارتبطت التوجهات المعاصرة المستدامة بكل من الجامعة والحرم الجامعي من حيث السعي الى الارتقاء بهما وبما يتلائم والمتطلبات البيئية والاجتماعية والاقتصادية، فانعكس ذلك في الطروحات والدراسات العالمية والعربية، فضلا عن التطبيقات التي كانت متباينة من حيث اعتمادها على عدة جوانب تخطيطية وتصميمية مستدامة، في مقابل الطرح والتطبيق المحلي المحدود الذي اقتصر في كثير من الاحيان على طرح معرفة عامة ومحاولة لوضع خطط واستراتيجيات نظرية لم تتدخل حيز التطبيق، فحددت مشكلة البحث " بعدم شمولية المعرفة السابقة حول الجوانب المتعددة التخطيطية والتصميمية ومعالجتها المتنوعة للحرم الجامعي المستدام وأمكانية تطبيقها في ضوء الواقع المحلي" ليكون هدف البحث طرح تلك المعرفة باعتماد منهج تحليلي وصفي للمعرفة السابقة وتنظيمها على وفق كل من أبعاد تحقيق الأستدامة والجوانب الأعتبارية التخطيطية والتصميمية في الحرم الجامعي المستدام.تمثلت الدراسة العملية بتقييم واقع الحال المحلي كخطوة أولى لتحقيق الأستدامة فيه مستقبلاً، فتم اختيار جامعة بغداد والجامعة المستنصرية، وافترض البحث تحقيق الحرم الجامعي المحلي المشيد على وفق أسس تخطيطية مدروسة بعض من الأعتبارات التخطيطية المستدامة عموماً، مع افتقاره الى العديد من أعتبارات التصميم المستدام.تم التوصل الى ضرورة أن يتم أي تخطيط وتصميم لحرم جامعي أو أعادة تأهيلهُ على وفق جوانب الاستدامة، فضلاً عن ضرورة تطوير المؤسسة الجامعية تنظيميا وتعليميا، وأعتماد التطورات التكنولوجية المتنوعة من برامج حاسوبية وتقنيات ومواد بنائية ومصادر الطاقة البديلة، ونشر الوعي وتعزيز القيمة التعليمية لأجيال الحاضر والمستقبل وتحسين نوعية الحياة.


Article
THE EFFECT OF PARTICLE SIZE DISTRIBUTION (PSD) OF RUBBRIZED SELF-COMPACTING CONCRETE (RSCC)

Authors: Nahla Naji Hilal --- Sheelan Mahmoud Hama
Pages: 13-22
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Abstract

Three groups of waste scrap: fine rubber, mixed rubber, and tire chips, were used as partial replacement instead of natural fine and coarse aggregate at various level, respectively. The tire chips and three differently graded crumb rubbers (fine crumb rubber, coarse crumb rubber, and mixing crumb rubber) and 5- designated of crumb rubber at 5.0%, 10.0%, 15.0%, 20.0%, and 25.0% replacement levels, were adopted as study parameters. The fresh and hardened properties were investigated. Flexural tensile strength was tested according to ASTMC293 and ASTMC78.The results of this study are affected by size and content of wastes crap tire rubber and the type of testing also effect on the calculated strength. ASTMC293 test method gave higher value than ASTMC78 test method by 30-40%.


Article
EFFECTS OF STEEL RATIO ON THE BEHAVIOR OF REINFORCED CONCRETE COLUMN CONFINED WITH CARBON FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER COMPOSTIES UNDER AXIAL LOAD

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Abstract

The present work deals with the analysis of experimental results, obtained from the tests on circular reinforced concrete (RC) columns, confinement with external sheets of carbon fiber reinforced polymer (CFRP). Two parameters was studied including the number of CFRP wrap strips and steel ratio of the columns (ρ_min, ρ_mid andρ_max). Six circular RC columns with scale (100×900 mm) were exposed to pure axial compression load up to failure. Crack and failure load was recorded to estimate the load –displacement behavior, ultimate strength, and ductility of the specimens. The results show clearly that wrapping with (CFRP) can improve the structural performance of the RC columns by providing greater load carrying capacity and ductility than the unwrapped RC columns. The effects of test parameters are evidenced and compared.

Keywords

RC Column --- CFRP --- confinement --- steel ratio.


Article
WEAR AND BIO-CORROSION BEHAVIOUR OF HEAT TREATED AZ31 MAGNESIUM ALLOY

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Abstract

Three groups of heat treated AZ31 Magnesium alloy was used to do this research. First group was the base group which are used as received samples, second one was the recrystallization annealing samples and the third group was solution treated samples. Wear test was carried out by sliding the specimen on the bone surface in Nutritious water with constant speed at different times. A bio-corrosion test was accomplished for three groups by immersing the specimen in Hank's solution and measuring the corrosion rate for each group by Electrochemical Impedance Spectroscopy (EIS) and Tafel test. The result from wear test show the wear resistant of solution treatment group are the lowest. The result from corrosion test show high corrosion rate in as received specimen and low corrosion rate in recrystallization annealing specimen while the solution treated specimen are between them. The corrosion properties are dependent on patients state, if the fractured part needs longer time to heal, so we should use recrystallization annealing state, and if the fractured part need low or moderate time to heal we should be used as received or solution treated state respectively.


Article
ENVIRONMENTAL IMPACT OF RUSAFA WATER PROJECT IN BAGHDAD, IRAQ

Authors: Saja Hashim Salim
Pages: 50-62
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Abstract

This study dealt with the assessment of the environmental impact resulting from the construction of the Rusafa water project in Baghdad city, where the evaluation process is one of the necessary steps in the decision-making for the establishment of development projects.This study aims to evaluating the performance of project, the main points will be mentioned by conduct laboratory analyzes of samples of raw water and produced of the project and measurement of some air pollutants dispersion inside and outside the project included measurements of the quality of effluent water which included variables (water temperature, pH, EC, turbidity, TDS, suspended solids TSS, total hardness TH, dissolved oxygen DO, residual chlorine, chlorine, nitrate NO3, Sulphate SO4, calcium Ca, magnesium Mg, sodium Na and potassium K) and some variables of air such as (NO2, CO, CO2, SO2, O3, temperature, relative humidity and wind speed) inside and outside the site, The results of the study showed when compared with Iraqi Standards and the World Health Organization (WHO) that some of them were in the range of limits and the other are outside that range. The study recommended based on the provisions of the Law for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment No. 27 of 2009 in Article 10, the project owner must comply with the preparation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study prior to its establishment.


Article
EFFECT OF USING MIRRORS ON THE EFFICIENCY OF SILICON SOLAR CELL TEXTURED WITH TRIANGULAR GROOVES BY USING ZEMAX

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Abstract

Solar cell (photovoltaic cell)efficiency depends on the amount of sunlight falling on its surface and reflection within the cell. Different methods are used to improve solar cell efficiency. In this paper, we use triangular grooves on the upper surface of the silicon cell to reduce outside reflection on the surface of the cell and increase the internal reflection withinthe cell by putting mirrors on the four sides of the cell. We compare the performance of this cell using the Zemax program for different aspect ratio (A.R) values and incident angles of the rays against another cell with triangular grooves and no mirrors. For A.R=1,with a parallel incidence angle of the triangular grooves of"θ" ^"°" = 〖"50" 〗^"°" , the number of rays that hit the detector is equal to2998 in the case of using mirrors. However, it was equal to 1200 without mirrors with across incidence angle of the triangular grooves of"θ" ^"°" = 〖"20" 〗^"°" and A.R =1thenumber of rays for the case using mirrors was equal to 2960,and 1000 without mirrors.


Article
A GIS- ASSISTED PREDICTION TRAVEL DEMAND ON METRO NETWORK (BAGHDAD CASE STUDY)

Authors: Namir Ahmed Alkawaaz --- Noor Moutaz Asmael
Pages: 73-83
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Abstract

Baghdad Governorate is the most populated area in Iraq. It is experiencing rapid urbanization, economic growth, and motorization. The rapid increase in use private cars produced an increase in the traffic congestion, accidents, inadequate parking space and air pollution. Accordingly, it is important to investigate the need for a new transport policies and transportation projects based on Travel demand modeling. The present research methodology is based on update O-D matrix for Baghdad city and using it in travel forecasting to evaluate proposed urban mass rail services. In this study, three metro alternative routes were suggested, and according to demand estimation results, the best route will selected to meet future travel demand. It is concluded, peak hour ridership on proposed metro routes in the year 2014 is found to be 30000 passengers per hour per direction and the peak hour ridership on metro routes in the year 2035 reached 50000 passengers per hour per direction. On the other hand, it is concluded that travel demand on alternative route 1 equal 200000 and 400000 trips per day in two directions, while, load on alternative route 2 equal 360000 and 720000 trips per day in 2014 and 2035 respectively. It is concluded that, route alternative 2 and 1 recommended to be adopted to meet the travel demand requirements for the year 2035. The results of this study will provide the guide to the local transportation agencies to select the right decision, maximize their revenue and better allocate their resources.


Article
THE EFFECT OF USING RUBBER TIER AND GLASS WASTE ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTAR

Authors: Mais Abdulrahman Abdulkareem
Pages: 84-93
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This research studies the effect of rubber tier waste and waste glass together on the properties of cement mortar and used mixing ratio (1: 3) and has been added rubber tier waste ratio are (10%, 20%, and 30%). Has been added waste glass ratio are (10%, 20%and 30 %) and also added rubber tier waste and waste glass together ratio are (10%, 20% and 30%) by weight of the replacement of cement. This study includes mechanical properties such as compressive strength and physical properties such as water absorption, density and also setting time. The results obtained from the study that compressive strength decreases when increasing the percentage of additives of mortar .The water absorption increased when the percentage of additive is increased. The density decrease when both percentage of additive increase in mortar cement. Also, the setting time increases when the percentage of additive is increase.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY OF UTILIZING SOLAR ENERGY TO HEAT FEED WATER IN REGENEATIVE STEAM POWER PLANTS

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The present work deals with a concentrating solar system (central receiver tower) to produce hot water and steam from solar energy. Hot water is used in a feed water heater for South Baghdad Electrical Steam Power Plant. The central receiver system consists of 150 mirrors fixed upon 75 tracking heliostats that arrangement to focus the solar radiation on central receiver tank. The piping systems were used to carry the hot water from central receiver tank. In this project, the dimension of central receiver cylindrical tank was 0.5m diameter and 1m height filled with 157 liter of water. The experimental work was done in one year period from June 2015 to May 2016. Examining the phase of the outlet working fluid (water) from the tank showed that it is steam in (July and August) and hot water during the rest of the year. Result showed that the maximum contribution (f-factor) is 1.86% and the average contribution during the whole year is 1.03%. Result also showed that the increase in average tank temperature during each month has the same trend. The temperatures have the higher values during summer season (June – August) and lower values during winter season (December – February). The theoretical calculations showed that the temperature of receiver tank is proportional to the number of heliostats. The comparison between experimental and theoretical results showed good agreement and can be used as an initial estimate tool in the design of central receiver system.


Article
EFFECTE OF FLY ASH AS A SUSTAINABLE MATERIAL ON LIGHTWEIGHT FOAMED CONCRETE MIXES

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The use of fly ash as a sustainable material in concrete gained significant importance at present, due to its environmental and economic benefits. Besides, it may improve the long-term durability of concrete. This study presents the effect of moderate contents of fly ash as a partial replacement of cement on fresh and mechanical properties of cement mortar and lightweight foamed concrete. The results showed that the use of fly ash improved workability and reduced the density and water absorption of foamed concrete, while reduced the concrete strength at early age, however the concrete strength increases after 28 days.


Article
IMPACT OF SOCI-ECONOMIC STATUS ON BIODEGRADABLE CONTENT OF RESIDENTIAL SOLID WASTE AT POINT OF GENERATION

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a mixed methodlogical approach including qustionnaire survey, field investigation and personal interviews has been adopted for gathering data to obtain Municipal Solid Waste generation rate ,biodegradable waste generation rate and non biodegradable waste. sample were taken from different socio-economic group(socio-income level). based on the results of the preliminary survey for 99% confidence interval and 10% standard error,46 household was the optimum size of sample, where 644 sample was collected. the research conclude that average generation rate of: biodegradable waste was 0.531 kg/capita.day, non biodegradable waste was 0.151 kg/capita.day, and personal generation rate was 0.68 kg/capita.day. statistically analysis showed a positive relationship between income and non biodegradable waste generation rate in high income group and biodegradable waste generation rate in middle income group. The study revealed a statistically significant difference between non biodegradable waste generation rate in different socio-economic group while there is no statistically significant difference in biodegradable waste for the same groups


Article
SHEAR STRENGTH OF NATURAL PORCELINITE LIGHTWEIGHT AGGREGATE RC BEAMS WITH WEB REINFORCEMENT

Authors: Mutaz Kadhim Al-Dhalimi --- Kais Fuad Sarsam
Pages: 135-149
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Research work on naturally available porcelinite concrete has been carried out in several Iraqi Universities. This study experimentally investigates behavior of 12 beams made fromthis type of concrete in shear with web reinforcement . Comparisons of test results are made with the predicted values from ACI 318M-99, ACI 318M-14, CSA-M84, BS-8110, Zsutty, Hanson, and Russ and Puleri equations. The variables in the test program were the shear span-to-depth ratio (a/d = 4.0, 3.0 ,2.5 ,2.0 ,1.5 and 1.0 ) and the shear reinforcement index (ρvfy= 0.408, 0.58 and 0.735 MPa) . All the tested beams failed in shear although the mode of failure differ from one a/d ratio to another . The values of shear failure load for the shear span to depth ratio of 1.0 are 247 % higher than the corresponding values for the ratio of 4.0 .The predicted values of shear strength obtained from the program "Response 2000" (Modified compression field theory) are more conservative in comparison with the experimental and Code results .

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Article
MEASURING THE URBAN INTEGRAL SUSTAINABILITY IN “MUSTANSIRIYA UNIVERSITY “ACCORDING TO THE INTEGRAL DESIGN THEORY

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Abstract

Lots theories and researches have been researching and analyzing the principles of the sustainable architecture according to the international standards. However, Iraq, its architects, and specialists are still behind the possibilities of applying the accelerating global green architecture trends and sustainable criteria. Hence this research represents a sustainable analytical process to one of the most unique event in the Iraqi architecture which is “MUSTANSIRIAYA UNIVERSITY”. This process called the integral sustainable design theory. The main point of this research concentrate on the importance of the objective behavioral successfulness of the University complex around the years and the creativity of the designer (Qahtan Awni) in adopting the heritage vocabulary and giving its sense of belonging to the environment in a contemporary modern architecture with local material. As a result, we can consider “Mustansiriya University “as a successful example of a sustainable urban academic complex from the idea that the connectivity in its part make the sustainable holistic picture.

Keywords

Urban --- Sustainability --- Integral --- Design --- Theory.


Article
LOAD SHARING REGULATION OF A GRID-CONNECTED SOLAR PHOTOVOLTAIC SYSTEM IN KARBALA CITY

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Microgrid is an effective solution for increasing the reliability of power distribution system using renewable energy sources. In this research, a solar photovoltaic (PV) power system designed for extraction maximum power, i.e. 100kW (at standard conditions, 1000 W/m2 and 25oC) is simulated for grid utilities. For extraction maximum power, the duty ratio of a DC-DC converter is adjusting based on the specific value of maximum power point (MPP) voltage of the PV array. Thus, the DC voltage of the inverter side is kept constant to meet the grid specifications, e.g. 400V and 50Hz. The PV array is modelled by nonlinear equations which describe the effect of real irradiance levels (for Karbala city) on DC voltage. The PV power system is designed in an actual location in Karbala city for supplying a three-phase load, e.g. about 62 kW. Due to the fluctuations in solar irradiance, a load sharing between the PV power system and the grid is controlled. The load sharing is verified numerically by the Newton-Raphson method for a three-bus ring distribution system. Numerical and simulation results show the capability of the designed PV power system to share the load with grid over the year.


Article
ENVIRONMENTAL MANAGEMENT PLAN OF THE PROPOSED WASTEWATER TREATMENT IN AL-NAHRWAN REGION/ BAGHDAD

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Based on the provisions of the Law for the Protection and Improvement of the Environment No. 27 of 2009 in Article 10, the project owner must comply with the preparation of the Environmental Impact Assessment (EIA) study prior to its establishment. This study offers an appropriate and effective Environmental Management Plan (EMP) for the proposed Wastewater Treatment Plant (WWTP) of Al-Nahrwan project during the construction and operation stages as one of the most important stages of EIA process. This plan includes mitigation and monitoring measures to enhance the positive impacts of the treatment plant, and to minimize or eliminate its negative effects on the environment.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:2 (Part-4)