Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:2 (Part-2)

Article
THE APPLICATION OF SUSTAINABILITY PRINCIPLES IN HOUSING

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Abstract

The many advantages and benefits of environmental, economic and social, which can be derived from sustainable planning have a great impact in supporting the trends and efforts to protect the environment and preserve the natural resource base for future generations as well as economic gains at the level of the individual and society and the application of these features gives a wide range through which to deal with them In the planning of contemporary sustainable cities, noting that these features can be felt in the Arab Islamic city, achieving those environmental gains, economic and social, which can not be ignored and can be employed in achieving sustainability Environmental contemporary cities. The problem of research is the neglect of environmental influences in the planning of residential communities as a result of the current scientific and technological progress, which reflected the natural and urban environment resulting in many problems of pollution of all kinds and this has a negative impact on the life and health of the population and also highlights the problem of excessive consumption of energy, Significant economic costs and depletion of natural resources. It is noticeable in contemporary planning for residential use that human beings are no longer viewed environmental, social, and economic issues except through specific and interrelated views. The aim of the research is to understand the concept of sustainability and its applicability in housing planning in general, focusing on sustainable housing that is compatible with the environment and social and economic aspects according to the concept of sustainability. The Millennium Village of Greenwich / London and Al-Jamia District in Baghdad / Iraq were selected as a model for studying the schematic and design reality of their respective residential units and the environmental consequences resulting from this reality.


Article
انتاج مونة مقاومة للحوامض ذات الاساس البوليمري

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Abstract

تستعمل المونات المقاومة للحوامض لربط الوحدات الإنشائية المقاومة للحوامض والمواد الكيميائية الأخرى و لملء المفاصل بينها. وتم تحضير نوعين من المونات واختبارها كمونات مقاومة للحوامض وذلك باستخدام مواد رابطة وهي مونة البولي استر Polyester mortar وهي مونة بوليمرية ذات أساس راتنجي والمونة السيليكاتية Silicate mortar وهي مونة غير بوليمرية للمقارنة مع مونة البولي استر.وتم استعمال الرمل الزجاجي كمادة مالئة وبنوعين من التدرج ، الاول بمقاس حبيبات مارة من منخل (75) مايكرون (رقم 200) والثاني بمقاس حبيبات مارة من منخل (300) مايكرون (رقم 50). تم تقويم المقاومة الكيميائية للمونة البوليمرية (مونة البولي استر(polyester mortar بغمرها لمدة 28 يوما في الحوامض ( (HCl,H2SO4 ذات تراكيز(40,30,20,10)% وحامض HNO3 بتركيز2 و3% ومقارنة أداءها مع المونة السيليكاتية (غير البوليمرية). ابدت مونة البولي استر مقاومة عالية للتراكيز المذكورة اعلاه بالإضافة الى خواصها الفيزيائية الجيدة حيث حققت مقاومة انضغاط ، انثناء وشد (9,6،50،79) نيوتن/ملم2 على التوالي ،كذلك مقاومة ربط ممتازة.بينت حسابات الكلفة الاقتصادية لانتاج المونة المقاومة للحوامض ان تكلفة مونة البولي استر ترتفع عن تكلفة المونة السيليكاتية بنسبة 37% .


Article
دراسة اسباب التشققات الشعرية والاعتيادية للبخ الخارجي بالإسمنت للأبنية في العراق وطرق علاجها

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Abstract

الظروف الجوية في موقع العمل يمكن ان تكون مختلفة كثيرا عن تلك الظروف المناسبة للمونة الإسمنتية. ففي ظروف الجو الحار تظهر جملة من المشاكل الخاصة المرتبطة بالمونة الاسمنتية تنتج من درجة الحرارة العالية. وفي كثير من الحالات زيادة معدل التبخر للماء من خلطة المونة الإسمنتية الطازجة المستخدمة للبخ الخارجي للأبنية في العراق والتي تكون عادة على مساحات واسعة اكثر عرضة لظروف الجو الحار. يتضمن هذا البحث دراسة ظروف الجو الحار بعناصره المختلفة والتأثيرات الناتجة على المونة الاسمنتية في محافظة بابل كما يتضمن البحث ايضا مقترحات لبعض الاجراءات والتدابير العلمية التي تساعد على تخفيض هذه التأثيرات ومنع او خفض امكانية احتمال حدوث التشققات في المونة الاسمنتية باستخدام عدة طرق ومواد بعضا منها يكون صديق للبيئة لتحقيق التنمية المستدامة، اذ وجد ان اضافة خبث الدبس بنسبة لا تقل عن 0.075% من وزن الاسمنت يزيد زمن ظهور التشققات الشعرية في المونة الاسمنتية بنسبة 61.5 % ويقللها عددها الى حد كبير.


Article
OPTIMAL PLACEMENT OF METERS FOR POWER SYSTEM STATE ESTIMATION BY USING ARTIFICIAL INTELLEGENCE TECHNIQUES, A COMPARATIVE STUDY

Authors: Dr. Kassim Abdulrezak Al-Anbarri
Pages: 15-32
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Abstract

Meters placements play an important role in attaining the system observability for estimating the state of the power system. This paper presents algorithms to select the best locations for installing the meters by using artificial intelligence techniques. Two algorithms have been proposed and implemented in order to avoid the circumstances arisen by random distribution of the meters. The first algorithm include optimal placement of meters by using Particle Swarm Optimization (PSO). The second algorithm utilizes the Artificial Bee Colony (ABC) to select the best allocation of meters. The proposed algorithms randomly searches the best location of meter placement based on the minimum error of state estimation. In comparison to traditional methods, PSO and ABC able to search the optimal measurement placement without having to test possible location one after another since PSO and ABC are an optimization method. The performance of the proposed algorithms are verified by applying the proposed algorithms on IEEE-14 and 30 bus standard test system. The obtained results reveal the importance of optimal selection of meter placement in accelerating the convergence the state estimation process. The capability of the proposed algorithm in determining the best estimate of the state variables accurately with a less number of iterations and less execution time than conventional method (WLS) is clarified.


Article
ANALYSIS OF CURVED COMPOSITE PIPE UNDER INTERNAL PRESURE EFFECT

Authors: Fadhel Abbas Abdullah --- Omar Emad Shukry
Pages: 33-46
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Abstract

The aim of this research is to study the behavior of composite curve pipi under internal pressure. Two groups of materials are used to manufacturing curved pipe. The first group is including woven roving (Mat) carbon composite pipes /epoxy composite and the second group is involving woven roving (Mat) fiber glass composite pipes /epoxy composite with 50% volume fraction. The experimental work included manufacturing pipe specimens by vacuum bag technique. Pipe specimens were having 100mm inner diameter, 450 mm length of curvature center line of curve pipe with (43 degree) and wall thickness is (4 and 3 mm). The test rig was designed and performed to study the effect of internal pressure on the composite pipes. Also, the tensile test of the samples was done. The analytical expression solution has been accomplished to determine the strain, stress, for hoop and longitudinal direction. It is evident that the hoop stress for woven roving carbon composite pipe was great significantly from the woven roving fiber glass composite pipe by almost (4.5) time. The internal pressure use in woven roving carbon composite pipe was great significantly from the woven roving fiber glass composite pipe by almost (3) times. The most dangerous region is found in the inner arc of the curved pipe (intrude) of curve pipe


Article
NUMERICAL STUDY OF SOME INFLUENCING PARAMETERS ON MELTING PROCESS OF PHASE CHANGE STORAGE UNITS INTEGRATED WITH A SOLAR WATER HEATER

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Abstract

This work theoretically analyzes the melting process of a phase change material (PCM) packed in thermal energy storage units. The units are filled with paraffin wax and inserted in the water storage tank of a solar water heater to improve the storage capacity. A computer program was built to simulate the performance of the whole system during a typical day between 8 a.m. and 3:45 p.m.. The simulation period was divided into small time intervals of 10 seconds. The Finite Difference Method (FDM) was used to analyze the melting process of the PCM units. Each unit was discretized into a large number of nodes forming a two dimensional grid. The effect of three PCM parameters were studied which are the shape, volume and surface area. The cross-sectional shape included square, annular square, circular and circular annulus bars. It was found that the circular sections provide higher melt ratio than the square sections and that the annular sections are more effective than the solid sections. Increasing the PCM surface area at constant PCM volume significantly increases the melt ratio for all PCM shapes. The system equipped with PCM having the least volume operates more effectively than a system with larger PCM volumes


Article
A COMPARATIVE STUDY BETWEEN SILICON, METALS AND SOME BIODEGRADABLE MATERIALS IN THE GATE FABRICATION PROCESS OF THE VOLTAGE CONTROLLED SWITCH TRANSISTOR: EXPERIMENTALLY AND THEORETICALLY

Authors: Munaf Fathi Badr --- Suhad Dawood Salman
Pages: 64-74
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Abstract

Recently, sustainable issues are the significant subject of the environmental attributes which encourage manufacturers to look for biodegradable and bio-sourced products in any application besides lower costs and improved performance.In this paper a comparative study between using the silicon material instead of metal in the formulation of the gate of the Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field Effect Transistor (MOSFET) has been presented. Substitution of traditional materials to manufacture the gate of the voltage controlled switch (MOSFET) by alternative polymers to meet environmental requirements and understood the need for sustainable issues are also introduced.A theoretical review was involving mathematical calculations to realize the difference in employing the silicon and other metals such as copper in fabrication process. The experimental test process in this approach was focused on the characteristics of the selective material to provide the required electrical properties with respect to specific layout dimensions of the sheet of the gate.


Article
APPLIED SECOND LAW OF THERMODYNAMICS ON THE WIND ENERGY OVER IRAQ

Authors: Fadhil Abdulrazzaq Kareem
Pages: 75-92
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Abstract

Although Iraq is an oil country, but it’s have very large sources of renewable energy. This study was discussed the results of the wind energy and exergy for six regions in Iraq at three different turbine heights. The highest exergy efficiency was in Basrah then Anbar, Tikrit, Najaf, Baghdad, and smallest in Mosul. The exergy efficiency was increase by 60 % at height 50 m, while it’s increasing by 70 % at height 100 m. The highest exergy destruction was in Mosul, Najaf, Tikrit, Baghdad, and smallest in Anbar and Basra. The exergy destruction decreasing by 33 % at height 50 m, while its decreasing by 68 % at height 100 m. The high energy efficiency was in Basra, then Anbar, Tikrit, Najaf, Baghdad, and the smallest in Mosul, the energy efficiency of a turbine increase by 52 % at height 50 m, while it’s increasing by 66 % at height 100 m. And the highest output useful energy was in Basra, then Anbar, Tikrit, Baghdad, Najaf, and it’s very small in Mosul, it is found that the output energy from turbine increase by 85 % at height 50 m, while its increase by 94 % at height 100 m


Article
BURNING VELOCITY MEASUREMENT OF BIODIESEL FUEL AND ITS BLENDS USING PARTICLE IMAGING PATH TECHNIQUE AND IMAGE PROCESSING

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In present investigation an air-blast atomizer was designed and developed for fuel atomization which is used in liquid fuel burner. The burning velocity was measured experimentally. The experiments have been performed for different liquid fuel types, air to liquid mass flow rates (ALR) and equivalence ratio (φ) to study the effects of these parameters on burning velocity (BV). The liquid fuels used during the tests are biodiesel (sunflower fatty acid methyl ester SME) and its blends (biodiesel-diesel Bx and biodiesel-kerosene Bkx) with three values of ALR (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0) for five values of φ (0.6, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 1.4).The flames images were investigated for the region before the flame front by using imaging setup and using particle image path (PIP) with dispersion techniques. The image viewing regions is 366.6 mm2 for determine the (BV). Matlab cod software has been used for a number of image processing techniques to identify and improve the detection of the path of particles movements. The results showed that the increasing of biodiesel ratio in blending with diesel and kerosene decreases the (BV), and the increasing of ALR increases the (BV) for all experiments fuels. Also the results showed that the agreement is good of this method of (BV) measurement with published studies.


Article
INVESTIGATION OF THE EFFECT OF DUCT HEIGHT ON THE PERFORMANCE OF SOLAR AIR HEATER WITH BAFFLES

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In this study, solar air heater with straight shaped baffles is investigated numerically and experimentally to improve the thermohydraulic performance by changing the height of the duct to find the optimum value. Numerically, steady state 3D forced convection turbulent model is used to solve Navier Stokes and energy equations of airflow inside rectangular duct of solar air heater. The results showed that, the 3.75 cm duct height with air mass flow rate of 0.05 kg/s yields the highest effective efficiency. In addition, the results showed that the 2.5 cm duct height gives the highest effective efficiency for mass flow rate up to 0.0375 kg/s and it decreases as mass flow rate increases due to excessive differential pressure developed across the duct.


Article
BOND STRENGTH OF LIGHT-WEIGHT CONCRETE PULL-OUT SPECIMENS CONTAIN STEEL FIBERS

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Bond between reinforcing steel bar and concrete has a critical influence on the structural behavior of reinforced concrete members. The nature of the concrete makes the bond characteristics inherently variable. The variability of the bond affects some of the more practical parameters such as the embedded length, bar diameter and cover thickness, which, in turn, considerably influence the length of the reinforcing elements used in the fabrication of the composite. In this investigation, the bond strength of normal weight, lightweight and fibrous lightweight concretes are investigated by use pull-out test results. The embedded lengths, bar diameter and cover thickness are taken as variables. The experimental work indicated that steel fibers specimens exhibited increase in bond strength about (75.45%), (126.36%) and (174.54%) when using (0.5%), (1%) and (1.5%) of total volume steel fibers respectively. Also, the specimens that are poured with (16mm) bar diameter have bond strength lower than that of small bar diameter for two types of concrete. In all concrete specimens, the specimens with large embedded length and concrete cover tend to fail by bond strength higher than that of small embedded length and concrete cover.


Article
MICRO-STRUCTURAL CHARACTERIZATION OF CEMENT STABILIZED TROPICAL lATERITE CLAY SOIL CONTAMINATED BY HEAVY METALS

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The presence of contaminated soils due to industrials and mining activities is a major concern in today’s heavily industrialized world. The contaminants lead to poor engineering properties for these soils. In this study 10% cement is used to stabilize laterite clay soil contaminated by heavy metals of Cu and Zn. However, the effect of these contaminants on the geotechnical properties of clayey soils can be altered through chemical stabilization using traditional stabilizers like cement, which result in achieving suitable material for construction purposes. The micro-structural characterization of the cement-treated Laterite clay is presented in this research. The changes in the mineralogy and morphology structure due to the effect of stabilizer of cement and heavy metals were discussed based on X-ray Diffractometry (XRD), and Field Emission Scanning Electron Microscopy (FESEM). According to the micro-structural characterization of the stabilized soils, cement was effective stabilizer in terms of improving the strength of contaminated treated soils. However, the heavy metals have retarded effect on the cement treated samples. This was due to precipitation of the metals onto the surface of calcium and aluminium silicates as insoluble hydroxides or sulphates. Thus, these compounds form an impermeable coating that acts as a barrier to inhibit cement hydration by impending transport of water into cement grain. Finally, it can be concluded that the mechanical and the physico-chemical behaviours of the compacted specimens, as determined during testing, formed the basis for evaluating both the degree of immobilization of the heavy metal in the soil matrix, and the potential for rehabilitation of contaminated sites.


Article
NUMERICAL INVESTIGATION OF HEAT TRANSFER ON LAMINAR FLOW IN CIRCULAR TUBE FITTED WITH CONICAL SPRING INSERTS AND NANOTECHNOLOGY

Authors: Qasim Saleh Mahdi --- Ali Shokor Golam
Pages: 146-160
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Numerical investigation have been worked to study the process of heat transfer by using laminar forced convection of nanofluid, using the water as a basefluid and Alumina (Al2O3) as nanoparticles in a three dimensional tube fitted with conical spring inserts under a constant heat flux. A Solid Works Software2012 is used to draw the geometries of heat exchanger in plain tube. Dimensions of 100cm, 2.2cm and 2.4 cm represent the straight copper tube length, inner diameter and outer diameter respectively. The conical spring inserts of 16mm-6mm coil diameter, 15cm length, pitch of 20mm and 4mm wire diameter. Those inserts were arranged into eight types. To predict the pressure of flow, heat transfer of heat exchanger and temperature distribution, numbers of governing equations under assumptions were utilized, such as energy equations, momentum and continuity. To get all of the computational results, commercial ANSYS Fluent copy package 14.0 with the assistance of solid works and Gambit software program along with the finite volume approach is used. Under constant heat flux, a constant heat flux of 10000 W/ m2 and constant Reynolds’ number of 2000, heat exchanger performance are investigated under the effect of different parameters. Including arrangement of conical spring inserts (A1 to A8) and volume consternation of nanoparticles (0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.3%).Significant improvement in the water heating process shown with the use of conical spring insert, indicating the enhancement of heat transfer between the water and hot tube surface.(A5) arrangement is the best type as shown in this study due to the increase in water temperature. Also, results show that the heat transfer is increases by using nanofluid and conical spring inserts together.


Article
PARAMETER EXTRACTION OF SINGLE-DIODE PV-MODULE MODEL USING ELECTROMAGNETISM-LIKE ALGORITHM

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The performance of photovoltaic (PV) module mainly depends on the parameters of electrical equivalent circuit of module. The parameters are unknown and sensitive to meteorological condition of PV location. Thus, an accurate estimation method should be used to extract the parameters. In this paper, an evolutionary algorithm proposed to optimize the parameters under various operation conditions. The root mean square error between the computed current based estimated parameters and experimental PV output current is proposed as a fitness function to obtain the optimal solution. The results are verified by seven different experimental I-V sets under various meteorological conditions. Furthermore, the results are verified by another work, which based on analytical method that proposed in literature. The results refer to high consistency with realistic data. In addition to that, the proposed method offers an average root mean square error and average absolute error under seven operation conditions were 0.07248 and 0.05316, respectively.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:2 (Part-2)