Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume:22 issue:2 (Part-5)

Article
DESIGN OPTIMIZATION OF A HYBRID HYDRO-WIND MICROPOWER SYSTEM FOR RURAL COMMUNITIES

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Abstract

Renewable energies can play an important role to provide electricity to rural communities .This work study the optimum design of a hybrid hydro-wind , micro-power system in rural area . Six case studies, including the impact of hydro head, flow rate, efficiency, and head loss for micro hydropower with wind turbine hub height were implemented based on HOMER software. The simulation results show the importance of using HOMER to assist system designers for assigning the optimum design of hybrid system components


Article
ابعاد الاستدامة في العمارة المتنقلة العائمة

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Abstract

: برز في الاونة الاخيرة نمطا من العمارة له جذوره العميقة عبر التاريخ وهو نمط العمارة المتنقلة التي يرجع اساسها الى خيام البدو الرحل . استمد هذا النوع من العمارة تسميته من صفة التنقل من مكان الى آخر وضمن أماكن متغايرة وبخصائص مختلفة عن العمارة الثابتة ، وليتصف بالتالي بمباديء عامة منها المرونة والتكيف والانشاء السريع وغيرها . تطرقت المعرفة السابقة الى هذا النوع من العمارة من جوانب عدة منها ماركزت على انواعها الطائرة والعائمة والمتدحرجة والمتحركة ، ومنها ما تناولت خصائصها الشكلية والتركيبية ، ومنها ما تناولت انماطها الوظيفية كالسكن والتجارة والتعليم والصناعة وغيرها . رغم ذلك فقد برز عدم كفاية المعرفة الشمولية عن احد أنواعها وهي العمارة العائمة وبارتباطها بخاصية محددة كالاستدامة ، لذا تركزت مشكلة البحث بـ " الحاجة المعرفية لتوضيح أبعاد ومستويات الاستدامة البيئية والاقتصادية والاجتماعية في العمارة العائمة " وليتركز هدف البحث بتحديد هذه المستويات ضمن العمارة العائمة . تطلب ذلك منهجا مؤلفا من مراحل ثلاث ، الاول بناء اطارا نظريا حول مستويات الاستدامة ضمن نوع العمارة المتنقلة ، واستكشاف طبيعة مفردات ومؤشرات مستويات الاستدامة ضمنها منها : الاكتفاء الذاتي والتصنيع المسبق والمواد ذات الديمومة والتواصل والتالف . والثاني تفحص هذه المفردات ضمن عينات منتخبة ، ليتم ثالثا مناقشة النتائج والاستنتاجات التي تعزز بالتالي الاطار النظري لهذا المفهوم .


Article
THE EFFECT OF BIAXIAL STATIC LOADS ON CRACK BEHAVIOR IN DIFFERENT COMPOSITE MATERIAL SAMPLES

Authors: Ehsan Sabah Al-Ameen
Pages: 11-19
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Abstract

The study of crack propagation and crack behavior in composite materials is an important issue in fracture mechanics. Compact Tension (CT) specimens are made from three different composite materials’ forms, fiberglass/polyester, Kevlar/polyester and Hybrid fiberglass/Kevlar/polyester. The specimens are exposed to uniaxial and biaxial static loads for open time. The crack path tracked until deviation from normal direction of crack occurred. It was remarkable that the effect of the biaxial load decreased the static load life of the fiberglass models about 20.7% and 13.5% for the Kevlar models and 9.8% for the Hybrid ones.


Article
THE EFFECT OF DIESEL-ALCOHOL BLENDS ON THE COLD-START COMBUSTION OF A COMPRESSION IGNITION ENGINE

Authors: Ahmad Muneer El-Deen Faik
Pages: 20-29
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Abstract

The present work represents an experimental investigation of the effect of blending diesel fuel by alcohol on the cold-start combustion characteristics of the compression ignition engine. The studied characteristics are the CO2, CO, and HC concentrations in the exhaust gases, in addition to the mixture Air/Fuel ratio, exhaust temperature, and engine noise levels. The experimental work has been carried out using a 4-stroke, single-cylinder compression ignition engine at different blending ratio values. These values are 0%, 10%, 20%, and 30% by volume of alcohol concentration with respect to the total mixture concentration. The engine has been tested under two rotational speeds (1800 and 2000 r.p.m). Two alcohols have been used in the experiments, these are ethanol and methanol. The obtained results showed that blending diesel fuel by alcohol has a positive effect on engine exhaust results during the cold-starting period. And that the results obtained from the ethanol blends are better than those obtained from the corresponding methanol blends. It is shown also that the 10% blending ratio for both ethanol and methanol blends is almost the optimum blending ratio, according to the results.


Article
STRUCTURAL BEHAVIOR OF REACTIVE POWDER CONCRETE VOIDED CYLINDRICAL SHELL SEGMENTS

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Abstract

Voided cylindrical shell is a sustainable reinforced concrete roof system. Two directions of the voids system with two types of the voids shape in each direction had been used in this experimental work. Circular and squared void shapes used as continuous voids in the uniaxial direction while spherical and cubic void shapes used as separate voids in the biaxial direction. The diameter of the circular or spherical void is (70mm) and an equivalent side length of about (62.5mm) was used for the squared or cubic voids. The experimental variables were included the type of the shell, direction of the voids, shape of the voids and a number of the steel reinforcing layers (bottom or top and bottom) . The cylindrical shells tested as simply supported under one-point load at the crown of the shell. By (37%) maximum reduction in the concrete volume, the ultimate load capacity decreased by (35%). As well as, use of the voids in the biaxial direction improved the structural behavior in comparison with the use of voids in the uniaxial direction as a hollow core section. The use of square section or cubic void shape gave a better structural performance than the use of circular section or spherical void shape in both directions.


Article
TRANSFORMERLESS PHOTOVOLTAIC MICROINVERTER

Authors: Turki Kahawish Hassan
Pages: 41-55
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Abstract

This paper presents a single- phase photovoltaic (PV) inverter with transformerless type, which is more efficient and reliable with low cost and size as compared with the traditional PV inverter which needs a step up transformer between inverter and grid. A boost DC-DC converter is used to put into effect the MPPT algorithm for attracting the maximum control from a PV panel. Perturb& Observe (P&O) method is used as a maximum power point tracker due to its simplicity. A single-phase MOSFET transformerless inverter is introduced for the PV microinverter systems using phase leg configuration. The PWM technique and circuit operation principle are described. The differential mode and common mode voltages model is introduced and analyzed for circuit design. The system is simulated using PSIM program to verify the suggested transformerless photovoltaic microinverter. The simulation results show the validity of the designed system.


Article
SUSTAINABILITY OF THE CONCRETE BY USING RECYCLED WASTE MATERIALS

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Marble dust and brick waste materials taken from demolition of buildings create serious environmental problems so the main aim of this paper is to evaluate the potency of employing mixed (marble-dust and brick-powder) waste materials altogether as partly replace of cement and the fine-aggregate respectively in the composition of concrete which were mixed with a ratio of (1:2:4) and (W/C) ratio equal to (0.45). In this study the cement has been replaced by marble dust waste in the proportion of (0%,5%, 10%, 15%, 20%, 25% ) and fine aggregate replaced by waste brick powder in the proportion of (0%,5%,10%, 15%,20%,25%) by weight of concrete mix simultaneously . In this paper the (compressive , flexural and split tensile) strength of the concretes mixtures were specified . The main results of this paper appeared that the (cement and sand) can be partially replaced by( marble- dust and brick- powder) in the concrete mixture and it has achieved the optimum percentage of replacement by (20)%. So that utilization of construction waste is required in an attempt to equilibrium between the construction request and environmental sustainability.


Article
ECO- FRIENDLY POLYSULFONE TRICOMPOSITE FOR DUAL PROTECTION FROM UV RAYS

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Abstract

A Transparent nanocomposite consist of polysulfone (PSF), cellulose acetate butyrate (CAB) and nano indium oxide (nanoIn2O3) was prepared by melting and re-molding so as to safeguard from the impact of ultraviolet rays. By means of scanning electron microscope (SEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD), UV-Vis spectroscopy, dynamic mechanical analysis (DMA) and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), the morphological, optical, mechanical and thermal properties were studied. As we reported before that PSF/0.2%CAB implies low ultraviolet light absorption for PSF and CAB transparent blend. In the present study, we investigated the effect of nanoIn2O3 on the characteristics of PSF/0.2%CAB/nanoIn2O3 Tricomposite. The results showed that the inorganic nano particles are well dispersed in the PSF matrix without macro phase separation, as well as assisting to spread the organic component CAB. The UV-Vis spectroscopy showed that 0.02%nanoIn2O3 is able to shield PSF from UV radiation. So, we've got dual protection transparent eco-friendly nanocomposite from UV rays and is also able to protect the surfaces from the impact of these rays if used as a protection them. The XRD pattern of pure PSF clarified that there is a noticeable decrease in the bundle peaks in bi-composite and Tricomposite pattern. Furthermore, the Tricomposite showed high stability to temperatures lower than Tɡ.


Article
POWER CONSUMPTION IMPROVEMENT FOR GREEN CELLULAR MOBILE COMMUNICATIONS

Authors: Adheed Hasan Sallomi --- Musa Hadi Wali
Pages: 76-85
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The increasing demand for cellular communication services requires high number of cellular base stations distributed over land resulting in greater demands on energy usage, and high pollution levels. Recently, because of the public concern about the electromagnetic radiation effects and energy costs, providing efficient green cellular communication services through power consumption and keeping RF pollution at harmless levels become one of the major aims for cellular network operators. This paper presents the intelligent antenna technology as one of the solutions for energy consumption reduction in cellular base stations, base station density reduction and cell phone battery life extension. Results presented show that using intelligent antenna yields in base station power reduction at different cell loads, and cell phone battery life extension.


Article
ANALYSIS OF SOLAR RADIATION Data IN CIRCULAR MODEL BASED ON NATURAL NEIGHBOUR INVERSE DISTANCE WEIGHTED

Authors: Nasir Ahmed Al_awad --- Ghusoon Idan Arb
Pages: 86-93
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Abstract

The central qualities of sun powered radiation in Iraq are condensed, and the choice of those destinations with potential for advancement of sunlight based plants depends on the nearby most extreme sun oriented radiation. The mapping of worldwide sun powered radiation is critical in outlining of sun based vitality framework and sustainable power source applications, additionally the worldwide sun based radiation estimation and mapping will encourage designers and planner purposes and applications. In this paper estimated and evaluated worldwide sunlight based radiation information was utilized. The estimation of worldwide radiation information can give comes about with satisfactory precision to build up sun powered maps of month to month radiation utilizing Natural Neighbour Inverse Distance Weighted (NNIDW) Method with circular model.


Article
EXPERIMENTAL STUDY ON PROPERTIES OF PERVIOUS CONCRETE PAVEMENT COMPRISING SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS

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The significant of the porous concrete pavement arises from the fact that it has many applications and advantages specially in filtrate the run water on the pavement surface. In addition, porous concrete offers a vital solution for the noise due to wheel to pavement interaction. So, the aim of this research work is to characterize a porous concrete pavement under local materials and conditions, further to make it more sustainable. This process has been done by three stages, namely: control stage, development stage by silica fume and sustainable stage by Reed Fly Ash. While, three testing methods were conducted to characterize the performance of porous concrete in terms of mechanical and volumetric properties. However, within the scope and materials used, the results showed that the optimum ratios for W/C, C/CA, SF/C, RFA/C are 30%, 20%, 20%, and 8%, respectively. Indeed, such ratios have afforded sustainable porous concrete with satisfactory mechanical strength and acceptable volumetric properties.


Article
SUSTAINABLE TRANSPORT ANALYSIS FOR STUDENTS AND STAFF AT ENGINEERING COLLEGE - UNIVERSITY OF AL - MUSTANSIRIYAH IN BAGHDAD CITY

Authors: Nahla Hafidh Jawad Al-Saadi
Pages: 107-118
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This study aims to identify reasons for, and restrictions use public and private transport amongst university students and staff, to find out relationships amongst reasons for, and restrictions use public and private transport factors and some related to demographical characteristics factors. Data collection with sample size (147) concerning university students and staff who were from Engineering College, Mustansiriyah University in Baghdad city. Introduced special questionnaire for Sustainable Transport of containing 40 items distributed in several domains (Demographical characteristics, Journeys types, preventing you from using public transport, dictating your choice of transport, Initiatives would be to encourage sustainable use, and advertising methods would be to promote sustainable transport), and carried out by University of Bradford. Transportation methods shows with respect to subject travel to college, vast majority are focused with bus, and using special mass transport, then for leisure and visits, focused with taxi and walk, then for marketing, focused with walk and taxi, then for private work focused with taxi and bus. For preventing factors from using public transportation, all factors are recorded in at least at acceptable response scale. For choice of transportation, all factors are recorded in at least at acceptable response scale. For effective of encourage sustainable transport uses, all factors are recorded in at least at acceptable response scale, since relative sufficiency's coefficients of different factors have recorded values below the upper limit of mentioned scale. For Effective of advertising methods would be to promote sustainable transport, all advertising is recorded in at least at acceptable effective scale. Regarding to studied reasons for, and restrictions use public & private transport factors evaluated in light of distribution of some related variables of socio-demographical characteristics variables, shows weak relationships are illustrated, since no significant at P>0.05, except with age groups in contrast of preventing factors, and student's stages at advertising methods, since significant relationships are accounted at P<0.05, and P<0.01 respectively. Among main conclusions, most of studied individuals have a moderate to high Socio-Economic status, as well as vast majority concerning transport methods by bus, and car-sharing subjected travel to college, and taxi and walking subjected for leisure and visits, and walking and taxi subjected for marketing, while taxi and bus subjected for private work. For preventing factors from using public transport, transport choices, and effectiveness of encourage sustainable transport uses all studied factors are recorded in at least acceptable response scale. In addition to that, weak relationships are illustrated, among studied main factors of reasons for, and restrictions use public & private transport factors evaluated and some related variables of (SDCv.).


Article
LEACHING BEHAVIOR OF GYPSEOUS SOILS

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The construction of many major projects is located on many areas of gypseous soils in Iraq, which present about 20 % of Iraqi land. In many projects buildings on gypseous soils suffered from cracks, tilting, collapse and leaching the soil, because by dissolution of gypsum. The collapse of gypseous soil can be divided into two types, first, the soaking collapse, which is caused by soaking the dry soil or partly saturated soil with water, and under specific pressure, without flow of water, second, the leaching collapse, which caused by flow of water through the soil under any specific. The major purpose of this research is to investigate the leaching collapse and permeability of gypseous soils. Undisturbed block samples of a gypseous soil were obtained from Al-Tharthar area, Iraq. The gypsum content was found to be about 75%. An experimental investigation was made through carrying out several series of tests on these samples. Also, a series of leaching tests were carried out using special oedometer cells at different stresses. Results of leaching tests showed that the strains due to leaching would be higher if the OCR equal to 1. When the OCR exceeds unity, an increase in void ratio occurs and leaching strains become insignificant.


Article
STUDY THE EFFECT OF MICROWAVE HEATING ON PHYSICAL PROPERTIES OF ASPHALT

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In this work, the effect of microwave on asphalt (heating rat, resistance to deformation and retain stability) was examined. Two different asphalt samples were used. The first, standard asphalt (A) and the second one with %2 of sulfur in bitumen (B) have been exposed to microwave. The measured temperature on the surface showed an increase up to 120 ºC in 5 minutes for sample A, while it reached to 145 ºC for sample in the second cycle of exposure to microwave in the same time. The increase rate in temperature for B samples was slightly lower. The presence of sulfur in asphalt reinforced the physical properties and the asphalt became more resistant to water and rutting for sample B after exposure to microwave radiation. Theoretically, the rise of temperature was found to be (0.64 ºC/minute) for one ton of asphalt needing microwave power energy of 1000 watt, but practically, some of this energy loss can be attributed to the conductivity and the penetration of the wave out of asphalt region. This study proved that the better incident angle reducing this loss by using the equation ɵ=sin-1(x/(1/ α)), and was found to be 28ºC and 37ºC for sample A and B respectively. The results showed the possibility of using microwave radiation in repairing the damaged roads asphalt with economic effective and green method.


Article
BENEFICIAL ROLE OF GLASS WASTES IN CONCRETE – A REVIEW

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: Environmental problems have been taking into consideration as serious situation in the modern construction. Reusing and recycling the wastes consider as the only methods to reduce waste generated. However, the applications still have much opportunity for enhancement. This scientific paper review the researches in field of glass waste material reusing in construction application. The influence of the size and content of particles and the percentage of wastes replacement on fresh and hardened properties of concrete are also been discussed.


Article
LOW SHRINKAGE SUSTAINABLE BIO-BASED POLYOL FOR RIGID POLYURETHANE FOAM PRODUCTION

Authors: Harith Hasoon Al-Moameri
Pages: 145-155
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A sustainable soy-based polyol was synthesis to replace the petroleum-based polyol for producing rigid polyurethane foam. The big challenge in using bio-based polyols was the shrinkage of the foam. The maximum reaction temperature was an indication that can be related to the curing/setting of the foam matrix and eventually reduce foam shrinkage. Two approaches were adopted to increase maximum reaction temperature of the produced foam. The first approach was pre-heating the monomers to increase the initial reaction rate and substantially increase maximum reaction temperature. The second approach was by increasing the hydroxyl number of the polyol which is, in turn, increases the maximum reaction temperature. The experimental results show that the two methods were effective in reducing foam shrinkage and bio-based polyols can effectively use to replace petroleum-based polyols.

Keywords

Polyurethane --- soybean --- sustainable --- polyol --- foam --- shrinkage --- density.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:2 (Part-5)