Table of content

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

Loading...
Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2018 volume:00 issue:1

Article
Synthesis and identification of Five Membered Rings Heterocyclic Compounds Derived from Trimethoprim

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study includes the preparation and identification of five membered rings Hetrocyclic Compounds derived from Trimethoprim by reaction Schiffs, bases(1a-h)(prepared by reaction some aromatic aldehyde with Trimethoprim using Microwave technique) with Hydroxy acidic acid (Glycolic acid), the prepared compounds were identified by I.R spectroscopy and some of them by NMR spectroscopy and C.H.N.S micro analysis.


Article
Synthesis, Characterization and EPR Study of Some Transition Metal Complexes with N-O Donor Lewis Base of Isonozide.

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A series of new complexes of the type [Cu(L)2]Cl2 (1), [Ni(L)Cl2].H2O(2), [Co(L)2(H2O)2]Cl2 (3), [Mn(L)2(H2O)2] (4), [Zn(L)2Cl2] (5), where L is N-(phthalimidyl) isonicotinamide have been synthesized and characterized by magnetic moment, molar conductivity UV, and (FT-IR) and some of them were characterized by EPR spectroscopy. Ligand was characterized by FT-IR, 1HNMR and 13CNMR spectroscopy. The spectroscopic data indicated that the isonazide ligand act as bidentate N,O donors and the complexes (2-5) are paramagnetic and the complex(6) diamagnetic. The optimization of their structures indicated that the geometry of complex (1) is square planar and tetrahedral for complex (2) and octahedral for complexes (3-5).


Article
Synthesis of some Quinazolin One Derivatives for Their Antimicrobial Activity

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

A series of derivatives for compound 2-(4-chlorophenyl)-4H-benzo[d] [1,3] oxazin-4-one with different aromatic substitution were proved. The newly synthesized derivatives have been supported by spectral data FTIR and H1 NMR. All the synthesized compounds were screened for their antimicrobial activity and compared with drug Amoxicillin as reference.


Article
Synthesis of some New 3-Substituted Heterocyclic Compounds Containing Bridgehead Nitrogen from 2-Amino Pyridine with Study Their Biological Activity

Authors: Ahmad Shaker Mahmoud --- Naeemah Al-Lami
Pages: 26-36
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

New series of 3-substituted heterocyclic compounds containing bridge head nitrogen were synthesized through multi-step reactions. In order to prepare the starting 2-substituted heterocyclic compounds of pyridine, a known procedure was used by condensation of 2-amino pyridine with (4-bromo phenacyl bromide). Carbaldehyde group was introduced at position-3 of prepared 2-substituted imidazo / pyridine rings by Vilsmeier-Haack reaction. 3-Carbaldehyde derivatives underwent Claisen condensation with different aryl ketons to give unsaturated ketones of these derivatives, which on cyclization with urea and thiourea afforded 3-cyclic oxopyrimidines and thiopyrimidines derivatives of imidazo / pyridine rings. In addition, 3-carbaldehyde derivatives was reacted with hydrazine, semicarbazide and hydroxyl amine hydrochloride to yield new hydrazone, semicarbazone and oxime derivatives of imidazo / pyridine rings. All prepared compounds were characterised via FT-IR spectroscopy, some of them were characterised by 1H-NMR spectroscopy. These new 3-subistituted derivatives of imidazo /pyridine rings were tested in different species bacterial and fungi. Some of tested compounds showed strong activity while the other showed moderate against. Interestingly, All these new prepared compounds showed high activity against fungi.


Article
Synthesis and Spectroscopic Studies of Metal Complexes with Schiff Bases Derived from 2-[5-(Pyridin-2-Ylmethylene)-Amino] 1,3,4-Thiadiazol-2-Yl-Phenol

Authors: Ali A. Ali --- Dina Adil --- Evon Akram --- Naser Shaalan
Pages: 37-42
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Herein, we show the preparation and the characterization of new metal complexes by using a Schiff base ligand 2-[5-(Pyridin-2-ylmethylene)-amino] 1,3,4-thiadiazol-2-yl-phenol (L) with the metals Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and Zn(II). This Schiff base ligand was synthesized via condensing [2-pyridine carboxaldehyde] with [2-amino-5-phenyl-1,3,4-thiadiazol] in an alcoholic solution. For preparing complexes, two tetradentate Schiff bases ligand were employed with two metal ions of Co2+, Ni2+, Cu2+ and Zn2+ as dinuclear formula M2L2. The synthesized ligand and its metal complexes were well characterized using FTIR, UV-Vis absorption, elemental analysis, thermal analysis, 1H-NMR, and mass spectroscopy. Based on these characterizations, the chemical structures of the ligand and the metal complexes were confirmed. Furthermore, the electronic and magnetic properties of the prepared metal complexes were clearly understood.


Article
Erosion Wear and Hardness of Glass Fiber / Epoxy with Nano and Micro TiO2 Hybride Composites

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The objective of this research is to prepare and study (Glass Fiber / Epoxy) with nano and micro Titanium dioxide (TiO2) composites with different volume percentage of nano and micro TiO2 powder of 2%, 4%, and 6% volume fraction. Atomic force microscopy techniques was used to measure the grain size of nano TiO2 powder (average diameter was 46 nm) and particle size analyzer techniques was used. Erosive wear behavior of this composite under three different impingement angles of 30°, 60° and 90° and three angular silica sand abrasive particle sizes approximately 425, 600 and 850 μm and hardness (shore D) were studied. In general the erosion wear of micro composites have lower erosion resistance than other nano-based compounds. Erosion resistance increase as the volume fraction increase. Nano composites of GF / EP with TiO2 have many advantages over micro composites from the view point of wear and hardness tests. The worn surface features of unfilled and filled G-E composites were examined using scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and results indicates more severe damage to matrix and glass fiber in unfilled composite system as compared to TiO2 filled composites.


Article
IEUBK Model to Calculate the Lead Concentration in Blood Children of the Environment which Effect by Lead Emission: Empirical Comparisons with Epidemiologic Data: Developing a Human Health Risk Model to Quantify the Risk Posed by Soil Pb

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

For decades, human health was threaten (especially that of children) by what considered as a potential sources of lead exposure which are: lead-contaminated water, soil, and air. The proposed of the research involve developing an integrated exposure, uptake, and biokinetic (IEUBK) model as a human health risk model to predict the blood lead levels BLL in children. The data set of this project for human health risk posed by Pb contamination in air, water and soil were obtained from previous study achieved in 2014 which carried out on 108 school children (School children in rural areas (n=76 child) and School children in urban areas (n=32child) matched for age. The environmental samples demonstrated that the concentration of lead for air and soil exceeded the international acceptable threshold values. However, the concentration of lead in water was below the threshold value. The BLL value from currently result of IEUBK model was above the agency’s threshold of concern, 10 μg/dL which was documented as children’s BLL lowest level of concern. This predicted values result of BLL was in agreement with actual value of BLL in blood samples of school children for the chosen study. Also, the results of this research confirmed that the high BLL could be attributed to the high lead level in both air and soil of contaminate environment.


Article
Calibration Free Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) as a tool for Quantitative Elemental Analysis of Iraqi Cement

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Laser-induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS) is a promising atomic emission based elemental analysis technique that has many potential applications for various samples. This paper presents the implementation of calibration free laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (CF-LIBS) approach to identify and determine the concentration of elements in Iraqi cement samples collected from local market. Q-switched Nd: YAG laser with energy laser pulse of 100 mJ and pulse duration of 9 ns is focused on cement pellet surface to generate a plasma spark in air. The plasma emission spectrum was recorded by the spectrometer connected to the fiber optic and resolved spectra were used for identification and quantification of detected elements. The produced plasma temperature was obtained from the Boltzmann plot method while their electron density was determined by Saha-Boltzmann equation. The major elements such as Ca, Si, Al, Fe, Mg and minor Mn, Ti, K and Na elements have been identified and their concentrations calculated based on analysis of the spectrum that contain all information needed to derive the elemental composition of the cement matrix.


Article
ALMA Study of the Lensed Galaxy SDP.81

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper we present high resolution data from Atacama Large Millimeter /sub-millimeter Array (ALMA) of CO (5-4) and CO (8-7) rotational transitions toward the gravitational lensed galaxy (SDP.81). We calculate the molecular gas mass in the clumpy region which is around 1.5109 Mʘ. We overly the CO(8- 7) and CO(5- 4) intensity distributions to calculate the brightness temperature ratio R85 at various region. The CO line ratio was in the range between 0.39 and 0.75 with an average value about 0.48. This line ratio suggests that most sub-millimeter galaxies, SMGs, include a significant proportion of extended, moderate-density, cool gas.

Keywords

Galaxies --- High redshift --- ALMA --- SDP.81.


Article
Assessment of Bottled Drinking Water Quality in Baghdad Local Market by Some Chemical and Biological Parameters

Authors: Sabah O. Hamad --- Noor Y. Salih --- Ahmed Kh. Kadhim
Pages: 72-77
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this work is to study different parameters of bottled drinking water that affect the health of people of Baghdad city. To perform this target, seventeen bottled samples were collected from local markets which were different bottles size and trade markets. The samples were analyzed physical, chemical and biological factors that influence water quality of the bottled water. The physical and chemical tests of bottled water showed that the mean value of pH ranged from 6.96-8.5, Total Dissolved Solids (TDS) 8-166 ppm, Total Hardness (TH) 22-178 ppm, Calcium (Ca++) 0.0-35 ppm, Magnesium (Mg++) 0.0-30 ppm, Chloride (Cl) 0.0-27 ppm, sodium (Na+) 0.0-25 ppm, potassium (K+) 0.0-4.5 ppm, Electrical Conductivity (Ec) 16-332 µs/cm. All samples were within the permissible limits for Iraqi criteria and standards for bottled water. The biological parameters include: total plate count, total coliform, fecal coliform, E.coli and yeast& fungi. The failure percentages of samples were 23.5, 11.7, 11.7, 11.7 and 11.7% respectively.


Article
Molecular Study of 16SrRNA Gene in Enterobacteriaceae isolated from Iraqi Patients

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study included the collection of 204 clinical and non-clinical samples from Ibn-Al-Baladi childbirth Hospital, Al-Yarmouk Teaching Hospital and Imam Ali Hospital in Baghdad, from both genders of different ages. The collected samples were distributed according to the collection source (urine, wounds, burns, feces, Tigris River water in Baghdad and soil samples). A total of 31 isolates of Escherichia coli (48.43 %), 15 isolates Klebsiella pneumoniae (23.43 %), 10 isolates of Enterobacter cloacae (15.62 %) and 8 isolates of proteus mirabilis (12.50 %) were isolated and identified based on microscopic culture, conventional methods, VITEK 2 and molecular identification of 16 SrRNA gene. Our investigations indicated that Escherichia coli and Klebsiella pneumoniae species represent the most frequent isolates, whereas both Enterobacter cloacae and Proteus mirabilis were the less frequent species. The results of the analysis of the sequencing of selected 21 isolates were deposited in the National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI) belong to the four species (From LC314477.1 to LC314497.1).


Article
Histopathological Study of Escherichia coli O157:H7 Isolated from Children with Bloody Diarrhea in Mice

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Escherichia coli O157:H7 is well documented with Shiga toxin–producing serotypes of E. coli. Infection with this type of pathogenic bacteria may lead to hemorrhagic diarrhea and kidney failure. This study was carried out to detect the pathogenicity of E. coli O157:H7 isolated from patients with bloody diarrhea. A total of 200 bloody diarrhea samples were collected from children of both sexes, with age between 3 to10 years in the period from beginning of September to the end of December 2016 in Al-Eskan Pediatrics Hospital and Children Safe Hospital (Baghdad/Iraq). The samples were cultured aerobically on enrichment and selective media, then the isolates were identified by Vitek 2 and they were confirmed by latex agglutination test. Eight isolates were diagnosed and identified as Escherichia coli O157:H7. The pathogenicity of the stool recovered isolates were study to recognize the alterations in some organs of mice after experimentally infected with this pathogen. Twelve mice provided by animal house of AL-RAZI center in Baghdad, divided into two groups each group consist of 6 mice. The first group injected with 0.2 ml of de-ionized water and left as control group, whereas the second group infected orally with 0.2 ml of 1.8x106cfu/ml. The animals of two groups sacrificed 24-48 hours post infection. The histopathological examination of intestine for infected mice showed infilteration of inflammatory cells, focal lining epithelial stratification, with multiple layer basal lamina degeneration, then distention of villi appeared with increase inflammatory cells infiltration. The liver showed accumulation of lymphocyte, hemorrhage in central vein with sinuses expansion and, hepatocyte cells showed, degeneration, increase nuclear size and increase hyperchromasia with irregular chromatin distribution. The histopathological examinations of the control group were naïve.


Article
A Study of Anticancer Activity for Partial Purified Urease Isolated from Lagonychium farctum Plant

Authors: Mohamed Qais Abed --- Mohammed Hasan Allawi
Pages: 95-99
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This study included two experiments, the first of which included the investigation of the urease enzyme in the plant extract of the Lagonychium farctum, which included the extracts of the seeds, leaves and stems the plant. The results, showed that the highest enzymatic and quality efficacy of urease was in seed extract of the Lagoonchium farctum. The optimal conditions for enzyme extraction were determined using different solution, pH and temperature. The Potassium Phosphate Solution at 0.02 μl pH 8 was the homogenous enzyme extract, with an enzymatic concentration of 3.195 U/ml. The optimum reaction time for enzyme extraction was 30 min, giving an enzyme activity of 3.274 U / ml. The optimum reaction time for enzyme extraction was 30 minutes where it gave enzymatic efficacy of 3.274 U/ml. The purification was by several steps including ammonium sulphate deposition with different precipitation ratios. The optimum saturation was 50 %, followed by ionic exchange on the DEAE-cellulose column and gel filtration on the Sephadex G-200 column. The purification time was 29.6 and the enzyme yield was 75 %. The second experiment included study of the effectiveness of the enzyme Urease as an Anticancer activity. Results showed that the urease enzyme had an inhibitory effect on the breast cancer line MCF7; it has been shown to be effective in the direction of breast cancer when the concentration of the partially purified enzyme is increased while in contrast to the natural cell line WRL68.


Article
Analyzing Cryptosystems by Using Artificial Intelligence

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper aims to apply the Bees Algorithm for solving system of equations. The solving System of Equations may be linear or nonlinear for a number of unknowns. As an application of System of Equations, we can implement cryptanalysis attack algorithms on stream cipher systems using plaintext attack (or part from it). We consider the Geffe System (which has nonlinear combining function) to be our study case, which is depend on set of Linear Feedback Shift Registers, as a model of stream cipher systems, in the performance of Bees Algorithm by solving System of Equations for any number of variables of the output of Linear Feedback Shift Registers. The application divided into two stages, first, constructing System of Equations for the suggested cryptosystem, and the second, is attacking the variables of System of Equations which they are also represent the initial key values of the combined of Linear Feedback Shift Registers.


Article
Study Surface Roughness and Friction of Synovial Human Knee Joint with Using Mathematical Model

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper lubrication and friction of normal and diseased knee joint has been introduced. Various surface roughness of articular cartilage have been determined during the gait cycle (stance phase- swing phase) using squeeze film characteristics in knee joint, this paper aims to study the effects friction and roughness on stride length for male and female during daily activities. The mathematical model depends on the basis of the Stokes micro continuum theory, as well as we used lubricant (Newtonian - non Newtonian) in case of non-Newtonian (micro-macro) roughness effect has been studied and we compared effect film thickness of squeeze film lubrication in cycle time and roughness on pressure film, load carry capacity, in the elderly and young people for each sexes.


Article
Some Results of Principal Fuzzy Metric Spaces and Their Completeness

Authors: Hazim M. Wali
Pages: 119-122
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The main objective of this paper is to introduce the concept of principal fuzzy metric spaces based on the definition of the distance function between fuzzy points. Also, among the obtained results in this paper is the relationship between p-convergent and convergent sequences in principal fuzzy metric spaces, which may be used later to prove the main result of this paper that is the completeness of principal fuzzy metric spaces.


Article
The Continuous Classical Boundary Optimal Control of a Couple Nonlinear Parabolic Partial Differential Equations

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper the continuous classical boundary optimal control problem of a couple nonlinear partial differential equations of parabolic type is studied. The Galerkin method is used to prove the existence and uniqueness theorem of the state vector solution of a couple nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations for given (fixed) continuous classical boundary control vector. The theorem of the existence of a continuous classical optimal boundary control vector associated with the couple of nonlinear parabolic partial differential equations is proved. The existence of a unique vector solution of the adjoint equations is studied. The Fréchet derivative is derived; Finally The Kuhn-Tucker-Lagrange multipliers theorems is developed and then is used to prove the necessary conditions theorem and the sufficient conditions theorem of optimality of a couple of nonlinear parabolic equations with equality and inequality constraints.


Article
The Continuous Classical Optimal Boundary Control of a Couple Linear Elliptic Partial Differential Equations

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper is concerned with the proof of the existence and uniqueness theorem for the solution of the state vector of a couple linear elliptic partial differential equations using the Galerkin method, where the continuous classical boundary control vector is given. Also, the existence theorem of a continuous classical boundary optimal control vector governed by the couple of linear elliptic partial differential equation is proved. The existence and the uniqueness solution of the couple of adjoint equations associated with the considered couple of the state equations studied. The derivation of the Fréchet derivative of the Hamiltonian is developed. The necessary conditions theorem of optimality of this problem is proved.


Article
Numerical Solution of Ordinary Differential Equations of Fractional Order Using Variable Step Size Method

Authors: Hayder H. Khayoon --- Fadhel S. Fadhel
Pages: 143-149
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The main objective from this paper is to introduce and derive three methods depending on fractional Euler’s method and improve the results modifying the approach by using variable step size method.


Article
The Generalized Backstepping Control Method for Stabilizing and Solving Systems of Multiple Delay Differential Equations

Authors: Saja F. Noaman --- Fadhel S. Fadhel
Pages: 150-156
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In this paper, a generalized approach of the backstepping method for stabilizing and solving system of ordinary differential equations will be applied for systems of differential equations with multiple delay by transforming the non-linear system of delay differential equations into a system of ordinary differential equations with cooperation of the method of steps. The basic idea of this approach is to find Lyapunov function for stabilizing the system of different time steps which is chosen as the definitions of the present approach.


Article
Fibrewise Pairwise bi-Separation Axioms

Authors: L. A. Hussain --- Y. Y. Yousif
Pages: 157-165
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The main idea of this research is to consider fibrewise pairwise versions of the more important separation axioms of ordinary bitopology named fibrewise pairwise bi-T_0 spaces, fibrewise pairwise bi -T_1 spaces, fibrewise pairwise bi-R_0 spaces, fibrewise pairwise bi-Hausdorff spaces, fibrewise pairwise functionally bi-Hausdorff spaces, fibrewise pairwise bi-regular spaces, fibrewise pairwise completely bi-regular spaces, fibrewise pairwise bi-normal spaces and fibrewise pairwise functionally bi-normal spaces. In addition we offer some results concerning it. 2010 MSC: 55R70, 54C05,54C08,54C10, 54D10, 54D15.


Article
When Compact Sets are α-Closed

Authors: Marwa Makki Dahham --- Haider Jebur Ali
Pages: 166-170
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper is devoted to introduce new concepts so called K(αc)-spaces several various theorems about these concepts are provided in addition, further properties are studied such as the relationships between those concepts and other types of K(αc)-spaces are investigated.


Article
Essentially Small Quasi-Dedekind Module Relative to a Module

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Let R be a ring with identity and let M be a unitary left module over R. In this paper, we study direct summand (direct sum) of essentially small quasi-Dedekind module (essentially small quasi-Dedekind modules). Also, give the definition of essentially small quasi-Dedekind relative to a module with some examples. We give some of their basic properties and some examples that illustrate these properties.


Article
Weighted Exponential Distribution: Approximate Bayes Estimations with Fuzzy Data

Authors: Lamyaa K. Hussein --- Nadia Hashim Al-Noor
Pages: 174-185
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper aims to focus on Bayes estimations for the shape and scale parameters along with the reliability function of weighted exponential distribution with fuzzy data. Bayes estimations have been obtained using symmetric and asymmetric loss functions. Lindley's approximation method has been used for the integrals that cannot be solved in closed form. At the end, some comparison for Bayes estimations are studied through a Monte Carlo simulation study.


Article
Small duo and Fully small stable modules

Authors: Hiba Ali Salman --- Mehdi Sadiq Abbas
Pages: 186-195
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

New types of modules, namely fully small stable and small duo modules over a ring are introduced and investigated. These concepts lead to study the relation between these types and other classes of modules; such as, uniserial, some classes of multiplication and quasi-injective modules. It is shown that a projective module is small duo if and only if it is a small multiplication. Also, uniserial Artinian module is fully small stable. In addition, if R is a commutative ring then a fully small stable module is equivalent to small duo and small principally quasi injective. Also, we discuss full small stability of direct sum of modules.

Keywords

non


Article
In Silico Model for Lung Cancer Prediction Based on TP53 mutations Using Neural Network

Authors: Ban Nadeem Dhannoon --- Zahraa Naser Shahweli
Pages: 196-201
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

In silico models have become well known in the current decade because they assist researchers and specialists in organizing and analyzing big data. To complete their work, these models require powerful techniques and algorithms, the most important of which are machine learning algorithms. This work utilizes the Relief F algorithm for feature selection and trains the back propagation neural network (BPNN) algorithm on the UMD TP53 all-2012-R1-US database for lung cancer. Lung cancer is the most commonly diagnosed cancer among women and men, and can be predicted from mutations that occur in the TP53 tumor suppressor gene. Five measures are used to estimate performance: sensitivity and specificity are important dimensions utilized to obtain the receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve; accuracy and F measure are necessary to determine algorithm precision; and Matthews correlation coefficient (MCC), which is the most important measure, provides the right criterion for classification algorithms. The Relief F and BPNN algorithms achieve satisfactory results that reach 99.41 for sensitivity, 95.39 for specificity, 99.04 for accuracy, 99.47 for F measure, and 0.93 for MCC.


Article
Tracking and Blurring the Face in a Video File

Authors: Farah Saad Al-Mukhtar
Pages: 202-207
Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

This paper shows how to detect, track and blur a face in video frame using the Viola-Jones detection algorithm for detection and KLT algorithm to tracks a set of feature points across the video frames. First, the detection locates the face, and then identifies feature points that can be reliably tracked. A blurring filter is applied after detection and tracking the face and very good results are obtained that can be useful to blurring the face; for example, when showing a painful view that includes distorted faces in wars reports or crimes.

Table of content: volume:00 issue:1