Table of content

Journal of baghdad college of dentistry

مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد

ISSN: 16800087
Publisher: Baghdad University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

A quarterly peer reviewed published scientific journal of the College of Dentistry,
University of Baghdad.
date of first issue 1986

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Contact info

Website: www.codental.uobaghdad.edu.iq
E-mail: baghdad_dentistry@yahoo.com
Telephone: (+9641)4169375 Fax: (+9641)4140738

Table of content: 2018 volume:30 issue:4

Article
Prosthetic status in relation to weight status and occupation among Parkinson's disease patients in Baghdad-Iraq

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Abstract

Background: The symptoms of Parkinson's disease (PD) can lead to problems in movement and coordination that lead to difficulty in maintaining well oral cleaning which can then negatively affect dental status of those Patients. The aim of present study: To evaluate prosthetic status in relation to weight status and occupation by age and gender among Parkinson's disease Patients in Baghdad-Iraq. Methods: The sample consisted of 104 patients with Parkinson disease attended to the Neurosciences Hospital in Baghdad city / Iraq, aged 60-79 years Prosthetic Status was recorded according to WHO(1997). Weight status was recorded according to Trowbridge 1988 and occupation was recorded according to Erikson and Goldthorpe (1992) and Ganzeboom et al (1989). Results: The subjects without prosthesis tend to be more from any prosthesis type followed by partial denture and bridge, all types of prosthesis found to be decreased with increasing of age in both arches except combination of bridge and partial denture and complete denture were found to be increased with increasing of age with statistically highly significant association between age and prosthesis in upper arch. Males were found to have more prosthesis than females but with statistically no significant association. The subjects without any prosthesis ,both bridge and partial denture types in upper arch found more in normal weight than the over and obese ones, while the combination of bridge and partial denture with complete denture tend to have slightly more in over weight with highly significant association. In lower arch other two prosthesis categories tend to be more in overweight subjects than other their counterparts with equally distributed of partial denture between normal and obese ones who’s this prosthesis tend to be more than the overweight ones with statistically significant association. The with+ without+ self-employees category tends to have no prosthesis, partial denture and bridge prostheses more than other their counterparts with approximately equally distributed of other prosthesis categories but with statistically no significant association in upper arch while in lower arch the percentage of subjects with free prosthesis was found in with+ without+ self-employees category , while the partial denture and bridge found to be more in with+ without+ self-employees and upper grade professional but these findings tend to be statistically no significant association. Conclusion: Age, gender, occupation and weight have an effect on prevalent of prosthetic status of Parkinson’s disease patients. This may be due to difference in previous oral hygiene, health awareness, severity of Parkinson’s disease and difference in income status between them.


Article
Comparative evaluation of the radiographic density of GuttaFlow® 2 in different obturation techniques using Spiral Computed Tomography

Authors: Nagham A. AL-Hyali --- Ala,a Jawad Kadhim
Pages: 8-14
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Abstract

Background: Ideal root canal obturation depends on many factors; one of them is good sealing of root canal without pores. The aim of this study was to determine the radiographic density of GuttaFlow® 2 with different obturation techniques using spiral computed tomography. Materials and Methods: Forty palatal roots of permanent maxillary first molar were used in this study. Following working length determination, root canal was prepared using rotary PROTAPER universal system. They were randomly divided into four groups of 10 roots each, the groups are Conventional lateral condensation with Apexit Plus sealer, Conventional lateral condensation with GuttaFlow® 2 as a sealer, Soft Core Regular with GuttaFlow® 2 as a sealer and single cone with GuttaFlow® 2. The experimental roots were then analyzed in both horizontal and vertical sections from the apex to coronal using Spiral Computed Tomography. The obtained data were analyzed using one-way ANOVA and Tukey tests at a level of significance of 0.05. Results: Statistical analysis showed highly significant differences among the different areas (apical, middle and coronal) of each group. The density of obturation systems decreased in the following sequence: single cone with GuttaFlow® 2 (highest density), Soft Core Regular, Conventional lateral condensation with GuttaFlow® 2 as a sealer and finally Conventional lateral condensation with Apexit Plus sealer (lowest density) Conclusion: None of the tested obturation techniques can achieve ideal three-dimensional dense obturation. Single . 2 shows the best results


Article
Oral cleanness and periodontal health status among coffee-shop workers in Najaf city / Iraq

Authors: Amjed M.Sahib --- nada J Radhe
Pages: 15-19
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Abstract

Background: Water-pipe can be defined as a single or multi stemmed device that used to vaporize and smoke flavored tobacco whose smoke is passed via water vase before inhalation. Water-pipe smokers are at risk of exposure to many toxic chemicals that are not filtered by water, as well as risk of infectious diseases when the mouth piece of the water-pipe is shared. This study was carried out to investigate the effect of water pipe on the oral health. Materials and Methods: Sixty persons were included in this study aged between 22 and 23 years. Forty persons were coffee shop workers for at least five years, half of them were water-pipe smokers (active smokers) and the other weren’t smokers (passive smoker), the last group was the control group which includes twenty non-smoker students matching the study group in the age, gender and geographical location. They had been diagnosed for plaque index of Silness and Leo in1964, calculus index according to calculus component of the Periodontal Disease Index, (PDI) of Ramfjord 1959 and gingival index of Löe and Sillness 1963 as well as loss of attachment according to criteria of WHO in1997. The values of the present study were subjected to statistical analysis by Statistical Package for Social Sciences version 20 to specify the statistical differences between the three groups. The Kruskal-wallis test was used to determine the statistical significance of difference between the three groups. Mann-Whitney test was used to assess the statistical significance of difference between each 2 groups. Results: The mean rank values of dental plaque were recorded to be the highest among the coffee shop workers who were active water-pipe smokers group followed by the workers who were passive water-pipe smokers then control with statistically highly significant difference. Similar results were obtained concerning gingival and calculus indices with statistically highly significant difference. There is no significant difference concerning the attachment loss attachment loss among water-pipe smokers and the control group. Conclusions: this study concluded that water-pipe smoking is negatively associated with the oral cleanness and gingival health.


Article
Development of Sinusitis After Sinus Floor Elevation Surgery: A Systematic Review

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Background: Maxillary sinusitis can arise after sinus floor elevation surgery and should be treated immediately to prevent further complications which included dental implants failure, graft lost, and oro-antral fistula. This is the first systematic review to assess the incidence, causes, and treatment of sinusitis after sinus lift surgery. Materials and methods: An electronic search included MEDLINE (PUBMED) data base site was carried out for articles involving development of sinusitis after sinus lift surgery from September 1997 up to April, 8, 2017. The search was done and reviewed by two independent authors. Results: The total results of electronic search were (182) abstracts and articles, the extracted articles which involved development of sinusitis after sinus lift surgery were (25) studies. Of the 25 articles only (8) articles fit the inclusion criteria. Maxillary sinusitis was calculated for all selected studies and it was ranged from 2.12% to 12.7% with average of 5.4 %. Conclusion: Maxillary sinusitis could be developed after sinus lift surgery with average of 5.4 % and the patients with previous maxillary sinus disease showed to be at increased risk of sinusitis after sinus lift surgery


Article
Immunohistochemical expression of endocan, as a marker of assessment of angiogenic potential in benign vascular lesions (hemangioma, lymphangioma and lobular capillary hemangioma) of head and neck region

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Vascular tumors are a heterogeneous group of diseases with biological behavior ranging from a hamartomatous growth to frank malignant. The pathophysiology of lymphangioma, vascular malformation and hemangioma is interconnected, blood vessels known to be the site of origin of hamartomas, venous malformations and some neoplasms as benign, tumor-like growth of vessels (hemangiomas). Angiogenesis is the process of formation of new blood vessels from an existing structure. Aims of study Assessment of angiogenic potential in benign vascular lesions (hemangioma, lymphangioma and lobular capillary hemangioma) of head and neck region. Materials and Methods: Twenty-two formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue blocks of Hemangioma/vascular malformation, thirty of lobular capillary hemangioma and another twenty of lymphangioma to be stained with Endothelial cell-Specific Molecule-1 (ESM-1) monoclonal antibody. Results: Microvessel density expressed by Endothelial cell-Specific Molecule-1 (ESM-1) immunomarker was found in all cases with mean density of (37.44±23.16) for lobular capillary hemangioma and (25.02±13.89) for hemangioma and (6.34±3.52) for lymphangioma. According to post hoc test ESM-1 marker expression showed a high significant difference between (hemangioma and lymphangioma=0.001), (lymphangioma, pyogenic granuloma=0.000), and it was significantly different between (hemangioma, pyogenic granuloma=0.011) Conclusions: The obvious capillary growth in lobular capillary hemangioma revealed that lobular capillary hemangioma showed the highest activity of angiogenic potential in comparison to hemangioma and lymphangioma


Article
The relation of maxillary root apices and the maxillary sinus floor among patients with different skeletal patterns in Iraqi samples

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Background: Understanding the morphological characteristics between the floor of the maxillary sinus and the tips of the maxillary posterior roots is crucial in orthodontics involving diagnosis and treatment planning. The aim of this study was to evaluate the distances from the maxillary posterior root apices to the inferior wall of the maxillary sinus, thickness and density of maxillary sinus floor using cone-beam computed tomography images and the relationships between roots and maxillary sinus according to gonial angle and skeletal pattern. Materials and methods: Three-dimensional images of each root were checked, and the distances were measured along the true vertical axis from the apex of the root to the sinus floor, and the thickness and density of maxillary sinus floor in 60 patients (30 males, 30 female) aged 18 to 25 years. Evaluation of the differences between groups which classified to gonial angle and skeletal pattern which were done according to the comparsion between the mean statistic tests. Results: results showed that the density of floor of maxillary sinus at the first molar roots region in class III were significantly lower than class I and II, also the distance between the floor of maxillary sinus and both distobuccal and palatal roots of first molar were significantly lower in class I than other classes, while the thickness of maxillary sinus floor at the distobuccal root of first molar were significantly higher in class III than other classes. In gonial angle difference, the maxillary sinus floor density and distance to the maxillary posterior roots had no significant difference in all groups, while the thickness of maxillary sinus floor at distobuccal and palatal of second molar roots region were significantly higher in large gonial angle than small and normal angles. Conclusion: subjects with class I skeletal pattern have small distance between the maxillary sinus floor and the maxillary posterior roots due to the pneumatisation of maxillary sinus causing more difficult and time consuming orthodontic treatment.

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Article
The Impact of Breastfeeding Duration on the Development of Normal Occlusal Features of the Primary Dentition among Baghdad Preschool Children

Authors: Munad Jihad AL_Duliamy
Pages: 37-44
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Background: Normal occlusal features of primary dentition are crucial for normal development of the permanent dentition. Breastfeeding is an important factor for both general and dental health of children. Aim: The aim of the present study is to assess the impact of the breastfeeding duration on the prevalence of normal occlusal features of the primary dentition among preschool children in Baghdad. Materials and Methods: The sample was 630 Iraqi children (270- boys, 360 girls), aged 3-5 years selected from four kindergartens in Baghdad city. The study was carried out through questionnaire and clinical examination. Normal occlusal features were examined as the presence or absence of interincisive spaces (IS) and primate spaces (PS), terminal relationship of the primary second molar that classified as: Flush terminal (FT), mesial step (MS) and distal step (DS). The presence or absence of ideal incisor overbite was also recorded. Data were statistically analyzed using SPSS (version 21). Chi square and z test were used in data analysis. Result:s A significant relation was present between the duration of breastfeeding and the presence of: primate and interincisive spaces, flush terminal plane, mesial terminal plane and ideal incisor overbite. Conclusion Breastfeeding duration has a positive impact on the development of normal occlusal features of the primary dentition. Efforts should be taken to enhance the knowledge of the community, especially the mothers, about this impact to encourage them to practice exclusive breastfeeding for more than 12 months


Article
Clinicopathological and Immunohistochemical Analysis of 21 cases of Traumatic Ulcerative Granuloma with Stromal Eosinophilia Using CD30, CD68 and TGF-β1

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Background: Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia is an impressive benign chronic ulcerative lesion of the oral mucosa with vague etiopathogenesis. It was supposed to represent an oral counterpart of primary cutaneous CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder. Histopathologically, it is characterized by mixed inflammatory infiltrate predominated by histiocytes, lymphocytes and eosinophils along with presence of scattered large atypical mononuclear cells. It has worrisome clinical presentation. It may heal spontaneously, but in most occasions it persists and never heal unless removed surgically (incisional or excisional biopsy). A rare subset may show worrisome immunohistochemical features. Follow up is highly recommended. Materials and methods: Formalin fixed - paraffin embedded tissue blocks of twenty-one cases were cut and mounted on positively charged slides and stained by primary antibodies (CD30, CD68 and TGF-β1). A statistical analysis was performed between the immunohistochemical scores for markers with each other and with clinicopathological parameters (age, sex, size of ulcer, number of eosinophils and mitoses). Results: The age of the patients ranged from 20 to 72 years, with a higher female propensity. Immunohistochemical positive expression for CD30 (16 case) mainly involved round small lymphocytes, while all cases were positive for CD68 and TGF-β1. Statistically, there was no significant relation between the scores of CD30, CD68 and TGF-β1 with each other and with the aforementioned parameters, (P<0.05). The eosinophils count showed a significant positive correlation with age (P=0.008), size of ulcer (P=0.007) and mitoses (P=0.004). Conclusion: Traumatic ulcerative granuloma with stromal eosinophilia is a benign and reactive chronic oral ulcerative lesion rather than being CD30+ lymphoproliferative disorder; this conclusion is supported by heterogeneous, focal and nonspecific staining for CD30 and being typically infiltrated by CD68+ macrophages. Whereas, a high level of expression for TGF-β1 indicated that the aforementioned factor was not associated with the delayed healing of this lesion

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Article
The impact of an Oral Health Education (OHE) program by teachers and mothers on adolescents' oral health

Authors: Zainab A. Al- Dahan --- Sally Talib Da'aj
Pages: 54-60
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Background: Adolescence is one of the most dynamic stages of human development. However, Oral health is an integral part of public health, significantly impacts on the quality of life. OHE program is an important issue that should be given to them. The aim of this study was to evaluate oral health outcomes on adolescents' oral health by teachers and mothers Materials and Methods: The study was carried out in seven schools of Diyala - Baquba city. This 14-weeks duration study assessed the effectiveness of school OHE program on oral hygiene status, gingival health, and halitosis assessment of 80, 12 year-old, both genders of school adolescents. From the selected schools, one group was supervised by the teachers and the other was supervised by the mothers. General and oral health assessments were evaluated using a questionnaire. A three days training workshop was organized for the teachers and mothers. Oral hygiene, gingival health, and halitosis assessment were assessed using plaque indices, gingival indices and halitosis scores respectively. the resulting data were statistically analyzed using SPSS version 20. Results: Plaque, gingival and halitosis scores reductions were highly significant. Results recorded gingival index, and halitosis scores were lower among the teacher-led group compared to the mother-led group. Statistically, high significant differences were found (P< 0.01).But there is no significant differences were noticed between the groups for plaque index (p>0.05). Conclusions: The OHE program was effective in teacher-led group than mother-led group in improving oral hygiene status, gingival health and halitosis scores of adolescents


Article
The accuracy of ridge mapping procedure in determining the alveolar ridge width

Authors: Salwan Y. Bede --- Athraa A Ahmed
Pages: 61-64
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Background: Post-extraction alveolar ridge resorption is unavoidable phenomenon ending with insufficient ridge width. Measuring the physical dimensions of the available bone before implant surgery is an important aspect of diagnosis and treatment planning. Bone height can be calculated from radiographs, while bucco-lingual ridge width can be measured by conventional tomography, CT scanning and ridge mapping. Radiographic techniques have certain disadvantages. Therefore the ridge mapping technique was used as an option for determining alveolar ridge width. The purpose of this study was to compare the validity of alveolar ridge width measurements obtained with ridge mapping technique before surgical flap reflection against direct caliper measurement following surgical exposure of the bone. Materials and Methods: This prospective observational clinical study included 21 patients; 9 males (42.9%) and 12 females (57.1%) with mean age of 40.8. A vacuum formed acrylic stent was fabricated for each subject. The stent provided two buccal/lingual pairs of consistent measurement points to provide a reference of measurement for each implant site located 3 and 6 mm from the crest of alveolar soft tissue. Measurements (n=216) were made at 54 implant sites, the measurements obtained from the two techniques were compared and then accuracy of these methods was assessed. The mean, standard deviation, standard error of mean were calculated and subjected to statistical analysis using Student’s unpaired t- test, values <0.05 were considered statistically significant. Results: There was no statistically significant difference between ridge mapping technique and intra-operative measurement in determining alveolar ridge width. Conclusion: The ridge mapping technique is a useful method in determining alveolar ridge width for its exactitude, low cost, the immediate result and no need of radiation.

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Article
Early impact of fixed orthodontic therapy on gingival health status in relation to weight status

Authors: Alhan Ahmed Qasim --- Zaid Ali Alasadi
Pages: 65-70
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Background: fixed orthodontic appliances deleterious influence on gingival health is well documented. Association between weight status and gingival health is presented in many studies. This study aimed to evaluate how early the impact of fixed orthodontic therapy on patients` gingival health, and if there are differences of that impact among different weight status groups. Materials and Methods: Sample consisted of 54 patients (25 males, 29 females; age limits are 16 -18 years) going under the course of treatment with fixed orthodontic appliance. Patients were categorized according to their Body Mass Index (BMI) into 3 weight status groups considering WHO charts in 2007 (underweight, normal weight, overweight and obese), then determination of each patient`s gingival health status was through the criteria of the gingival index (GI) by Loe and Silness in 1963 which modified by Loe in 1967. Records of gingival index for all patients who met specific criteria were taken in three time points [before bonding (1st visit), 2 weeks after bonding (2nd visit), and 4 weeks after bonding (3rd visit)]. Also BMI of the patients were checked at each of the three visits. Results: There was a significant increase in gingival index for all BMI weight status groups after just two weeks of treatment, and the increase continues during the 3rd visit, with no significant difference in impact among weight status groups. Conclusions: oral health preventive measures should be applied rapidly and equally to all patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliances, without taking their BMI weight status in consideration

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Table of content: volume:30 issue:4