Table of content

Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies

مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية

ISSN: 22205381
Publisher: Ministry of Oil
Faculty:
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

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The first issue of "Journal of petroleum Research and studies" was in August 2010.
How to publish .
After getting the demanded approval from the assessors on the Research , the Research will be ready to publish in the journal .
The journal is publishing annually.

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prdc_journal@prdc.gov.iq

Table of content: 2018 volume: issue:21

Article
Table (1) Iraq Crude Oil Exports – February 2017
صادرات العراق من النفط الخام خلال شهر شباط 2017

Pages: E1-E1
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Table (2) Iraq Crude Oil Exports – March 2017
صادرات العراق من النفط الخام خلال شهر اذار 2017

Pages: E2-E2
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Table (3) Iraq Crude Oil Exports – April 2017
صادرات العراق من النفط الخام خلال شهر نيسان 2017

Pages: E3-E3
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تأثير العمليات التحويرية على تطور مسامية الصخور المكمنية لتكوين قره جيني في شمالي وشمال غربي العراق

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This paper describes the diagenetic processes, it products and how affected on porosity of succession of Kurra Chine Formation. Four oil wells selected in northern and north eastern Iraq, which are represented by: Jabal Kand (JK-1), Ain Zalah (AZ-29), Butmah (Bm-15) and Alan (Aa-2). Petrographic study shows that the diagenetic processes have a large effect on petrophysical properties of formation successions, especially porosity and permeability. Cementation, compaction, replacement and recrystallization are main processes to porosity reduction. About the enhancement of porosity, dolomitization, dissolution and sometime recrystallization are considered the main diagenetic processes to increase the porosity. According to the Carbonate pore systems classification of [1], porosity in Kurra Chine Formation was divided into two main groups: Interparticle (intergrain and intercrystal) and vuggy pores. Dependence on particle size and sorting, the Interparticle pore space is subdivided into three petrophysical classes. Class1 is the least common fabric in the four section study while class2 is common and very important because it contains bituminous material. Class3 is very common but have lowest reservoir Importance, except that dolomitizated. Vuggy porosity is subdivided into two types depended on how the vugs are interconnected: separate vug and touching vug. Moldic and intragrain pores are the most abundant of separate vug pores within formation successions. Touching vug pores represented by fractures, microfractures and fenestral. وصَف البحث الحالي العمليات التحويرية ونتائجها وكيفية تأثيرها على مسامية تتابعات تكوين قره جيني. واختيرت اربعة ابار نفطية تقع في شمالي وشمال غربي العراق، تمثلت هذه الابار بـ: قند (Kd -1) وعين زالة (29AZ-) وبطمة (Bm-15) وعلان (Aa-2). وقد أظهرت الدراسة البتروغرافية أن للعمليات التحويرية تأثير كبير على الخصائص البتروفيزيائية لتعاقبات التكوين، لا سيما المسامية والنفاذية. وتعد السمنتة والانضغاط والاحلال واعادة التبلور من العمليات الرئيسة التي ادت الى إختزال المسامية. في حين تعتبر عمليات الدلمتة والاذابة واحيانا اعادة التبلور من اهم العمليات التي ادت الى زيادة وتحسين المسامية. واعتماداً على تصنيف [1] لأنظمة مسامية الصخور الكاربونايتية، فقد قسمت مسامية تكوين قره جيني الى مجموعتين أساسيتين، هما: بين الجسيمية (بين الحبيبية وبين البلورية) والفجوية. قسمت الفراغات المسامية بين الجسيمية الى ثلاث رتب بتروفيزيائية تبعا الى الحجم الحبيبي والفرز. تعد الرتبة الاولى من اقل الانسجة شيوعا ضمن مقاطع الدراسة الاربعة، في حين تعد الرتبة الثانية اكثر شيوعا واهمية نتيجة لاحتوائها على المواد البتيومينية. وعلى الرغم من ان الرتبة الثالثة هي الأكثر شيوعاً الا أنها اقل أهمية من الناحية المكمنية ما عدا المتدلمتة منها. أما المسامات الفجوية فقد قسمت الى نوعين اساسين تبعا لكيفية اتصالها مع بعضها: الفجوية المنفصلة والفجوية المتلامسة. وتعد المسامات القالبية وداخل الحبيبية هي اكثر المسامات الفجوية المنفصلة وفرة ضمن تتابعات التكوين. اما المسامات الفجوية المتلامسة فقد تمثلت بمسامية الكسور بنوعيها الكبيرة والدقيقة واللوزية.

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Tragacanth Gum As Local Alternatives To Improve Viscosity And Filtration Control

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Today oil industry faces a lot of problems and lost money during drilling and completion operation, so that the studies and researches must including the ways and solutions that lead to decrease the costs. In this research we tried to find local alternative material instead of foreign drilling fluid materials that is used in drilling fluids and will help to save a lot of money by decrease oil well drilling cost because of the high cost of drilling fluid materials which represent now about 30 % of total cost for drilling oil well. The local alternatives is Ore polymers ( plant origin) called : TRAGACANTH GUM. In this study we investigated the local material and tested it under API Specification for Drilling Fluids Materials. Also tested sample of mud after add local material (TRAGACANTH GUM.) for weighted concentrations (0.5, 1.5, 2, 2.5 and 3 gm.) to show physical and rheological properties. The third part of this study tested sample of mud after add local material (TRAGACANTH GUM.) under different temperatures values and up to 70°C (this temperature is near for some formations temperature in Iraqi oil fields ) to show temperature effect on this material. A comparison between the local alternative and similar foreign materials for same sample was done to show physical and rheological properties. The results approved that, the local alternatives can used as filtration control materials for water based drilling fluid. Also the local alternatives increased viscosity as minimal for water based drilling fluids, So it can be used as part alternative for Bentonite to increase viscosity by increasing Yield point and decreasing solids concentration in drilling fluids so it have positive effect to save Rig equipment’s and Pay-zone.


Article
Effects of Occupational Exposure on Lung Function Tests in Old Process Plant Units workers, North Oil Company, Iraq

Authors: Abdulwahed H. Muhammad --- Ahmad S. Helal
Pages: E16-E27
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Occupational exposure to petroleum vapors has been shown to affect functioning of different systems of the body. The present study was taken up to assess the Pulmonary Function Tests. Method: A total of 356 male old process plant units' workers in north oil company, Kirkuk, Iraq, were assessed for lung function status. Respiratory function test was according to the American Thoracic Society (ATS) recommendations, Questionnaire performed and respiratory functions viz. (FVC, FEV1, FEV1/FVC% and PEF) were recorded by a portable electronic spirometer. Results: There was a statistically significant decrease in FEV1, FVC, and PEF in this study of exposured state compared to the normal state which was normal. FEV1/FVC% ratio was within normal limit. Conclusion: Most findings point towards adverse effects of petroleum vapors on lung function, mainly on lower airways with restrictive pattern of disease.


Article
Hydrodesulfurization and Hydrodearomatization of Kerosene over high metal loading Ni w/γ-Al2O3 Catalyst
ازالة الكبريت والمركبات العطرية بالهيدروجين من الكيروسين باستخدام عامل مساعد NiW/γ-Al2O3 ذو نسبة تحميل عالية

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The present research investigates hydrodesulfurization (HDS) and hydrodearomatization (HAD) of raw kerosene with 0.364 wt. % sulfur and 16.498 wt. % aromatics supplied from Al-Dura Refinery. Hydrotreating reactions were carried out in one stage reactor over high metal Ni W/γ-Al2O3 prepared catalyst at different temperatures 275-350oC, pressures 32-62 bar, LHSV 1-4 hr-1, and H2/HC ratios 200-500. The prepared catalyst was pre-sulfided remarkably at low temperature and high pressure to avoid risky of sintering associated with gaining the active sulfide phase at high temperatures. Results showed an obvious differences between HDS and HAD rates due to difficulty of polyaromatics saturation compared with desulfurization. Sulfur and aromatics removal were achieved from 74.9% to 95.6% and from 1% to 12.8% respectively at different operating conditions. Advanced saturation conditions were promoted the hydrogenation reaction bath and played a significant role for achieving acceptable levels of HDS and HDA. In general, HDS and HDA increased with decreasing LHSV and increasing temperature, pressure, and H2/HC ratio. Burning quality, fire hazard, and aromatics content of kerosene were characterized by measuring of smoke point, flash point, and aniline point respectively. These properties were enhanced at different hydrotreating conditions due to the skeletal conformation change of kerosene hydrocarbons during reactions.


Article
Study the North West extensions of Makhul structure using remote sensing techniques (central Iraq)

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Research includes the study of the North West Extensions of Makhul structure using remote sensing techniques (central Iraq) which is located to the north of Baiji province in Salahuddin governorate, which lies 240 kilometers north of the city of Baghdad, located within the operations of the North Oil Company. The aim of the present study is to re-define extensions of Makhul structure by the use of visual space (satellite systems and landsat7 ETM) after it was observed that there is a difference for determined the North West Extensions for structure of what is mentioned in previous studies. I have been using the space visuals and available previous studies for the Makhul structure and North Western Extensions him in determining the dimensions, in addition to the show faults in the research area and relations with the Makhoul structure and its extensions. It has also been taking the results of wells drilled in the research area (Makhul -1, 2 and Mityaha -1), for the purpose of assessing hydrocarbon reservoir, and we are relying on the explanatory information from the images and spatial data and received from the satellite (LANDSAT 7) according to the system ETM (Enhasment Thematic Mapper). It has also rely on the definition and identification of some units geomorphologic home on the intensity of the color, tone and texture. a network of drainage pattern is essential. Using satellite data and previous studies point showing that the length of the Makhul structure more than 95.500 km and not 37 km, and the area affected by the operations raise distinct and different stages. it has been divided into four parts of Makhul structure (from the southeast to the northwest), a south-eastern part, part crescent, which includes the Saded structure, the middle part, which includes the Cehel structure and north-western part, which includes the Mityaha structure. The hydrocarbon possibilities in the study area, it is in spite of the weakness of the possibilities hydrocarbon in the southeastern part of the Makhul structure (wells Makhul-1,2) and the northwestern part formerly known the Mityaha structure (well Mityaha -1), but the middle part (the structure Cehel areal) may be possibilities hydrocarbon better and more possibilities from the other parts.

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The Effect of Surfactant on Zeolite Preparation from Iraqi Kaolin

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In this study, zeolite type A was successfully prepared from kaolin; as a source for silica and alumina. The effect of a cationic surfactant (hexadecyltrimethylammonium Bromide (CTABr) was studied during the preparation of zeolite type A from kaolin clay (structurally modified). The addition ratio was (0.2, 0.4, 0.6, 0.8) CTABr. Also, CTABr was added with different amounts of (25, 75, 150 and 300) mg/l to commercial zeolite type A (surface modified). The prepared samples were characterized using FTIR, surface area and adsorption capacity. The results indicated that the adsorption capacity was decreased as the concentration of CTABr is increased. The minimum adsorption capacity was 8.4109 % gH2O / gzeolite using 300 mg/l of surfactant, while it was reached 6.907% gH2O / gzeolite by using 0.8% CTABr of kaolin within the preparation. Furthermore, the increased amounts of CTABr causes to increase the surface area of surface modified zeolite where it was increase from (19.938 to 23.8655, 24.377 and 25.2174 (m2/g achieving an increase of 22.6, 25.2 and 29.6% respectively, A large increase more than 100% in the surface area was obtained for the structurally modified samples by increasing the CTABr concentration from (13.0113 to 24.0935, 25.7594, 26.2719 and 27.12) m2/g.

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Article
Preparation and characterization of magnetic nickel nanoparticles by chemical reduction reaction

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The efficiency of many of conversion-processes in petroleum and industrial improves upon application of materials with the nanosized scale dimension, which is caused by enhancements and advances of improved properties as the particle size decreases. Nickel nanoparticles has numerous applications in petroleum industry with its own catalytic in additional to the magnetic properties. In this study, high purity nanosized magnetic nickel particles has been effectively prepared by chemical reduction of nickel chloride using hydrazine hydrate as reducing agent in aqueous solutions containing ethylene glycol and water and using polyvinylpyrrolidone (PVP) as anti-agglomeration agent. Nanosized Ni particles samples with different hydrazine to nickel chloride mole ratios and PVP to nickel chloride ratios were obtained at constant temperature of 80 °C. The morphology and structural properties of the produced magnetic nickel nanoparticles were characterized by powder XRD and AFM methods. XRD study revealed that the prepared nanoparticles were pure nickel nanoparticles without considerable oxides or other impurity phases. AFM test revealed that all prepared Ni nanoparticles was in nano scale, it was stated that Ni nanoparticles size was very affected by the hydrazine/nickel mole ratio. Experimental results showed that particle size decreases from 94.35 nm to 71.48 nm when increases the [N2H4]/[Ni2+] molar ratio from 15:1 to 45:1.

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Table of content: volume: issue:21