Table of content

Al-Rafidain Dental Journal

مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان

ISSN: 18121217
Publisher: Mosul University
Faculty: Dentistry
Language: English

This journal is Open Access

About

Refereed Scientific Journal deals with fields of dental sciences
Date of first issue: 2001
No of Issues: 27 issues
publishing biannually till 2012
publishing becomes triannually at 2013

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Contact info

University of Mosul
College of Dentistry - Deanery Building
Tel. 009647481705863

e mail:

Table of content: 2004 volume:4 issue:3

Article
The relationship of the third molar to the anterior dental crowding

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Abstract

The purpose of this study is to ascertain whether the upper and lower third molars can contribute to the occurrence or aggravation of crowding. The sample of this study consisted of 187 subjects (103 males and 84 females) aged 20–30 years, then the sample was divided into two main groups and three subgroups. The groups consisted of crowded and normal subjects. The subgroups consisted of persons who had maxillary or mandibular third molars that were either impacted, erupted into function or agenesis. The results showed that the crowded group revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar and a smaller percentage of erupted third molar particularly in the mandible and a smaller percentage of third molar agenesis than the normal group. The females had more impacted third molar in the upper and lower jaws for both crowded and normal groups. The percentage of third molar agenesis in the males was higher in the upper jaw and smaller in the lower jaw than the females. In normal group, no significant difference was found between upper and lower jaws except in females where the unilateral third molar agenesis was greater in the lower jaw. In crowded group, the lower jaw revealed a higher percentage of impacted third molar for all subjects and a smaller percentage of erupted third molar for females and a smaller third molar agenesis for the males as compared with upper jaw.


Article
The evaluation of vertical marginal discrepancy induced by using as cast and as received base metal alloys with different mixing ratios for the construction of porcelain fused to metal copings

Authors: Sa’adi Sh Thiab --- Ma’an R Zakaria
Pages: 10-19
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Abstract

In this study the effect of mixing as received and as cast metals by different ratios on the marginal fitness of metal copings casted by two types of base–metal alloys (Wiron 99 and Heraenium–NA) which are used by dental technicians in Iraq was evaluated. The general procedure consisted of first, fabrication of wax pattern on a standardized prepared brass die that represented an upper central incisor with a heavy chamfer cervical margin. The wax patterns were standardized by the aid of a split mold constructed specially for this purpose; the total number of wax patterns was 100. Each fifty copings were casted with one of these two alloy types, and each type was divided into five sub–groups according to the amount of as received (new) and as cast (recasted) metals mixed. Completed castings were finished and seated on the die. The marginal fitness of each copying was determined by measuring the vertical discrepancies between the gingival margin of the copying and the margin of the preparation at four reference points on the labial, mesial, palatal, and distal aspects of the die with the aid of light traveling microscope. The statistical analysis of the results related to Wiron 99 alloy group showed that there were highly significant differences between its related five sub–groups indicating that the marginal fit changes increased with the increase of the recasted metal ratios of NA alloy did not show significant differences among its sub–groups indicating that recasting it, in different ratios reaching up to 100% as cast alloy, did not cause adverse changes on marginal fitness. Based on this, conclusions drawn indicated that recasting of Heraenium–NA (Ni– Cr) can be utilized as a good substitute for the new alloy from an economical point of view.


Article
Assessment of rabbit mandibular bone response to different amalgam implants radiographically

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Abstract

The radiograghical interpretations can give an excellent indication about the biological response of hard tissue like bone to different foreign materials imp-lanted within it. This clinical study was carried out to evaluate radiographically the bone reaction of four different types of Iraqi manufactured amalgam alloys (in addition to Degussa alloys as a positive control) implanted within holes prepared in the mandibular bone of the rabbit, and additional negative control group in which the hole remained empty without any implanted materials was also included. The evaluation was done by careful verification of the presence or absence of the radiolucency at the periphery of the implanted amalgam at three different time intervals, the response varied from radio-lucency to radioopacity depending on the reaction of bone to different implanted amalgam alloys. Accordingly, the biocompatibility of the amalgam alloy was deter-mined depending on the radiographic pic-ture of bone response at the margin of the implanted alloys. The results showed no significant difference in bone response among the different types of alloy used.

Keywords

Amalgam --- bone --- implant --- biocompatibility


Article
Evaluation of the effect of curing techniques on colour property of acrylic resins

Authors: Nadira A Hatim --- Amer A Taqa --- Radhwan H Hasan
Pages: 28-33
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Abstract

This study was carried out to evaluate the colour property of two types of acrylic resin materials cured by microwave technique in comparison with that cured by conventional water bath technique. Two types of heat cured acrylic resin materials were selected: Quayle–Dental and Major–base types. Seventy–two samples (30×20×1.5 mm) were prepared and divided into four experimental groups: Quayle–Dental and Major–base groups were cured by microwave technique and the others Quayle–Dental and Major–base groups were cured by water–bath technique. The number of samples for each group was 18. The colour property for the samples was evaluated using computerized ultraviolet–visible spectrophotometer with accuracy up to 0.001 nm. The absorbed light was measured which is also termed the optical density. The results of this study showed that there were no significant differences in optical density for acrylic resin samples cured by microwave and water–bath techniques, and the acrylic resin with smaller particle size (Quayle–Dental) showed higher optical density (colour property) than that of larger particle size (Major–base).


Article
Effectiveness of pH adjusted lidocaine versus commercial lidocaine for maxillary infiltration anesthesia

Authors: Fa’iz A Al–Sultan
Pages: 34-39
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Abstract

In this study, alkalinizetion of commercial local anesthetic solution was attempted in order to determine its effect on onset and pain experienced during injection as well as its effect on depth of anesthesia achieved for maxillary tooth extraction. Total 200 patients participated and randomly distributed into two groups, 100 patients for each. The first group received maxillary infiltration anesthesia for extraction of maxillary tooth with commercial local anesthetic solution at pH 3.5, and the second group received the same injection with alkalinized solution to pH 7.2 using sodium bicarbonate 8.4%. The result of this study showed a significant rapid onset in pH adjusted group comparing to control group. Significant difference noticed between both groups regarding pain noticed during injection with less pain experienced in study group. No significant difference in the depth of anesthesia achieved. When data assessed for patients with periapical lesion only, a significant difference noticed between pH adjusted group comparing to control group and less pain recorded during extraction with enhanced depth of anesthesia achieved in study group. In conclusion, pH adjusted anesthesia, although not recommended routinely, co-uld be used to reduce injection pain when severe pain on injection expected. Also, it could be used for patient with periapical lesion to enhance depth of anesthesia.


Article
Examination of the Iraqi –product lathe– cut dental amalgam alloy by using “Taha Indicator”. Microscopic investigation

Authors: Lamia T Rejab --- Nadia H Hasan --- Munther N Kazanj
Pages: 40-43
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Abstract

Many dental materials have been marketed locally in the last few years. The dentist should understand the selection principles that based on scientific tests to choose the product. Dental amalgam alloy is one of the dental materials that used in restorative dentistry for restoration decayed teeth. The primary objective of the study is to examine the lathe–cut Iraqi dental amalgam alloy (Al–Rafidain) microscopically. The examination of alloy powder particles shape was made with transmitted light microscope using “Taha Indicator” instead of reflected light microscope or electron microscope. The results showed that the examination with transmitted light microscope by using “Taha Indicator” give obvious and clear image of the alloy powder particles and also showed that Al–Rafidain amalgam alloy powder has large and irregular shape particles that may give inferior physical properties to the product, so more evaluation and examination by other related tests may be needed.


Article
Oral health status among women with oral contraceptives

Authors: Karama MT Al–Nuaimy
Pages: 44-48
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Abstract

The present study was conducted to investigate the safety and efficacy of oral contraceptive drugs on oral health and to determine the prevalence of dental caries, plaque, calculus and gingival indices. The sample comprised of 90 females attended to Family Regulation Unit of Al–Hadbaa Health Center in Mosul during the period from 2003 to 2004. Sixty females using oral contraceptives (for at least three years), which are combinations of oestrogen and progesterone. The other 30 healthy women were acted as control group with similar age groups and a mean age of 31 years. The oral contraceptive drugs modify oral health. In the present study, the prevalence of dental caries, plaque, calculus and gingival indices increased in all women using oral contraceptive drugs than the prevalence in the women of the control group. In view of the possible factors that cause increase of the indices, suggested a hormonal factor especially oestrogen and progesterone hormones, which have an effect on rate and pattern of hard and soft tissues resulting in reduced the ability to repair and maintain the oral health status.


Article
Oral hygiene and gingival health among adult population (21–80) years in Thamar– Yemen

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Abstract

The aim of the study is to evaluate the oral hygiene and gingival health and to find if there is any variation between sex and age groups among adults aged 21–80 years in Thamar–Yemen. A sample of 224 individuals aged 21– 80 years (177 males and 47 females) were examined using plaque index by Silness and Löe (1964) and gingival index by Löe and Silness (1963). The results showed that the mean plaque score for the total sample was 1.15; the plaque index was increasing with age significantly. Males reported higher means than females with statistical significant difference in the 3rd, and 5th age groups; while at the 4th age group the females reported significantly higher plaque scores than males. The mean gingival score for the total sample was low (0.84) and it was increasing with age significantly. The mean gingival score was slightly better in males than females with statistical significant difference in all age groups except the 5th age group where the females showed better gingival health. Therefore, the objective of dental health education to those adults is to improve the effectiveness of oral hygiene practice by tooth brushing and interdental aids.


Article
Assessment of alveolar bone loss in orthodontic cases in Mosul City in 20–23 year old males

Authors: Zaid B Al–Dewachi
Pages: 54-58
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Abstract

This study was undertaken to design the relationship between different orthodontic cases and amount of bone level loss. The study sample consisted of 72 male students (20–23 years old) classified into 3 groups: Control group with normal overjet and overbite, overjet group with at least 8 mm, and overbite group with at least 6 mm. The results showed a significant reduction of bone height in upper and lower incisors in malocclusion group at significant level 0.01 if it is compared with normal group bone level.


Article
A clinical comparison of antibacterial mouth rinses in orthodontic patients

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Abstract

This clinical investigation was undertaken to compare the antibacterial activity of two mouth rinses (chlorhexidine digluconate 0.2% and phenolic compounds) with salty water (0.9% NaCl) to assess their ability to control plaque and gingival inflammation in conjunction with a normal daily home care in patients with fixed orthodontic appliance. In this clinical trial, 45 patients were randomly divided into three groups; each containing 15 per-sons matched in age and gender, they were instructed to use rinses twice daily for 30 seconds after breakfast and before the bedtime. The gingival and plaque indices were measured according to Silness and Löe for the six teeth at the baseline and two mon-ths after rinses. The results of the study revealed that there is a significant reduction at p < 0.05 after rinsing with phenol and chlorhexidine digluconate for gingival index, while non significant change for salty mouthwash, and only significant reduction in plaque index for chlorhexidine digluconate mouth rinse and non significant one for phenol and salty mouthwashes. These results support previous published results on the superiority of 0.2% chlorhexidine digluconate when used in conjunction with professional care as an adjunct to routine oral hygiene practice in orthodontic patients.


Article
The effect of some antifungal agents and chlorhexidine on Candida albicans adherence on acrylic resin denture base surface (In vitro study)

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Abstract

The adherence of Candida albicans on acrylic resin denture base surface is considered as the first step in the pathogenicity of candida–associated denture stomatitis which is the most prevalent form of oral candidiasis in denture wearers. This study was an in vitro study aimed to evaluate the anifungal effect of fluconazole, nystatin and chlorhexidine and their antiadherent effect on Candida albicans cells that attached on the fitting surface of denture base. It was determined, using broth microdilution method at two concentrations for each drug, and the results were determined using spectrophotometer. All drugs had a highly significant antifungal effect on Candida albicans isolate at their two concentrations. The effect of saliva on the adherence of Candida albicans on the fitting surface of denture base was also considered. This study concluded the importance of saliva in increasing the microbial adherence; i.e., the mean number of adherent cells on acrylic resin samples in the absence of saliva was 7.4 + 1.9 cell/mm2 and with the presence of saliva the number was 29.1 + 2.7 cells/mm2. The number of remaining adherent cells was counted using fluortescent microscope. The mean number of remaining cells which adhered on acrylic resin samples after the immersion in first concentration fluconazole, nystatin and chlor-hexidine for one hour respectively were 4, 5 and 2.6 cells/mm2 and for the second concentration/1 hour the numbers were 3.2, 4.1 and 1.7 cells/mm2 compared to the normal number of adherent cell 29.1 + 2.7 at p<0.01.


Article
Prediction of mesio–distal crown diameter of the unerupted lower premolars

Authors: Khidair A Salman --- Hind T Jarjees
Pages: 73-78
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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to determine the more accurate method for predicting the width of unerupted mandibular premolar of mixed dentition patients, whether by the multiple regression analysis method or by radiographic measurements of deciduous molars width method. Multiple regression analysis method was performed on data derived from 108 children (62 females and 46 males) aged 9–12 years old. These children were selected from primary schools located in different areas of Mosul City. All subjects had normal Class I molar relationship with mixed dentition (the right and left permanent centrals, laterals and first molars, and right and left primary canines and first and second molars). The data were statistically analysed using Statistical Package for Social Statistics. The results revealed that there were no significant differences in mesio–distal crown diameter between right and left sides of both unerupted premolars and deciduous molars. All the teeth in males were larger in mesio–distal crown diameter than females. Also, the results of the present study indicated that there was a positive correlation between most of the teeth, individual teeth and groups of teeth. There was a difference in the means between the mesio–distal crown diameter of deciduous molars and unerupted premolars. The present results used to generate a formula “linear regression equation” that can be used clinically to affect prediction depending on the mesio–distal width of individual deciduous molars.

Table of content: volume:4 issue:3