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Al-Nahrain Journal of Science

مجلة النهرين للعلوم

ISSN: (print)26635453,(online)26635461
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University
Faculty: Science
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

ANJS(Al-Nahrain Journal of Science) has been published by College of Science since 1996. This Journal consists of the latest researches in both English and Arabic Languages within the Specializations of the scientific departments in the College.

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Contact info

Al-Nahrain Journal of Science
P.O. Box: 64055, Al-Jadriah, Baghdad, Iraq .
Email: alnahrain-sci@hotmail.com
Webmaster Email: webmaster@jnus.org

Table of content: 2019 volume:22 issue:2

Article
Synthesis, Characterization and Kinetic Study of poly(vinyl acetate)-g-Chitosan and its Use in Removal of Cadmium (II) ions from Water

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Abstract

The grafted vinyl acetate copolymerization lying on chitosan in weak acidic aqueous solution was examined via using K2S2O8 as initiator. FTIR spectra, DSC, DTG and TGA were used for graft polymer characterizing. The monomer to chitosan ratio was tested and the optimal grafting conditions were affixed. the highest grafting percentage PG of production polymers have been applied to remove Cd(II) ions from water samples through adsorption experiments at pH=7. The amounts of adsorbed metal ion on the polymers was estimated using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. The temperature effect on Cd(II) adsorption was studied too. Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms as well as kinetic study equations were employed to fit the experimental data. The results of the adsorption equilibrium for Cd(II) fitted well to Langmuir isotherm and the removal percentage at 30°C after 5 min is 76.65 % and the thermodynamic parameters for the adsorption are ΔH= 96.87 kJ/mol ΔS= 339.19 J/mol K and ΔG= -5.11, -11.13 and -11.78 kJ/mol in different temperatures. The kinetic study of these adsorption isotherms showed that all these isotherms correlates well with the second order equation.


Article
Isotherm and pH Effect Studies of Tetracycline Drug Removal from Aqueous Solution Using Cobalt Oxide Surface

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Abstract

Tetracycline adsorption on the surface of cobalt oxide studied in this work to determine the appropriate conditions for increasing the efficiency of adsorption by changing the temperature, adsorbed dosages, concentration, contact time and pH. The results showed that the rate of adsorption decreased by increasing the temperature and concentration and at 45 minutes with 0.1 gm of Co3O4. The influence of pH on adsorption at pH (1.2, 6, 8) was studied and concentration with a linear range of (20-70 mg/l), the adsorption ratio decreased by increasing the concentration at the same pH. The point of zero charges pHzc calculated and found to be equal to 7.2. Both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherm studied. The result showed a good agreement with Freundlich linear model.


Article
Morphological, Liquid Crystal and Optical Band Energy Properties of Polyphosphates

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Abstract

New metallic liquid crystalline polyphosphates showed thermotropic nematic liquid crystal phases (2.13–2.24 eV). The surface morphology of polyphosphates was examined by the scanning electron microscope and showed rough surface and micro pore structure which an indication of the presence of several crystalline domains.


Article
Study the Physical Properties of Medium Density Fiberboard Utilized by Hybrid Mixture of Efb Fiber and Kenaf Fiber

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Abstract

In this study, a new hybrid medium density fiberboard was formulated by utilizing a fiber mixture composing of 50:50 empty fruit bunch and kenaf fiber coupled with palm-based pre-Polyurethane functioning as a binder. Kenaf as well as Empty fruit bunch fibers had a size range of 300 to 500 μm. Aluminum trihydroxide was used as the fire retardant at loading percentage of 0, 5, 10, and 15 wt% of total mass of the matrix. Water absorption property for hybrid-MDF showed a different trend in water absorption capability and this can be correlated to the strong dependence on the interface adhesion between fiber and the polymer matrix. The water absorption decreased as the loading level of Aluminum trihydroxide increased (6.5 – 2.3%) due to that fibers are held to each other through the interfacial bonding in the presence of Aluminum trihydroxide.


Article
Investigation of the Static Nuclear Properties of Some Cr-Isotopes Using Skyrme-Hartree-Fock Method

Authors: Ehsan M. Raheem --- Ali A. Abdul Hasan
Pages: 31-40
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Abstract

The self-consistent Hartree-Fock (HF) calculations with several Skyrme parameterizations; SKM, SKM*, SLY4, SKxs25, MSK7, SKO, SKxta, and SKxtb have been used to investigate some static nuclear ground-state properties of some Chromium (50-54Cr) isotopes. The nuclear ground state charge, mass, neutron and proton densities with the corresponding root mean square radii, the charge form factors, the total binding energies and the neutron skin thickness can be calculated. The calculations are performed using NuShellX@MSU code, where the deduced results led to specifying one set or more of Skyrme parameterizations that used to achieve the best agreement with the available experimental data.


Article
The Electrical Characteristic of Plasma Discharge by Using Different Operating Conditions in Vanadium Sputtering System

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Abstract

This paper report the experimental results of the effects of the inter-electrode distances and applied voltages for various operating pressure on the electrical characteristic of plasma discharge. We have studied the Current-voltage (I-V) characteristics and discharge current – gas pressure (I-P) for different inter-electrode gaps (3, 4, 5, 6, and 8) cm of the planar magnetron discharge. Also Paschen curve were measured at different spacing, The Paschen curves in Ar gas show that the breakdown voltage between two electrodes is a function of pd (The product of the pressure inside the chamber and distance between the electrodes). The results show the sensitivity of electrode separation lead to change the electrical characteristic of generating plasma; where The I-V characteristics of argon gas were deduced as a plasma system operated in abnormal glow discharge region, which is very impotent deposition sputtering. As well as the discharge current was increased for argon plasma discharge with the increasing of the working pressure lead to increase the deposition rate. Paschen curve is analyses at different working pressures and gap distances between two electrodes .the behavior between discharge current and discharge voltage for different gap distances between two electrodes was nonlinear, In addition the experimental finding validated that the suitable electrical characteristics of glow discharge current as a function to applied voltage for varying argon gas pressure at inter-electrode spacing equal to 5 cm.


Article
Weak Soft (1,2)*- -Sets and Weak Soft (1,2)*- -Separation Axioms in Soft Bitopological Spaces

Authors: Asaad Adel Abdul-Hady --- Sabiha I. Mahmood
Pages: 49-58
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Abstract

In this article we introduce and characterize new types of soft sets in soft bitopological spaces, namely, soft (1,2)*-omega difference sets (briefly soft (1,2)*- -sets) and weak forms of soft (1,2)*-omega difference sets. Moreover we use these soft sets to study new types of soft separation axioms, namely, soft (1,2)*-ω- -spaces, soft (1,2)*-α-ω- -spaces, soft (1,2)*-pre-ω- -spaces, soft (1,2)*-b-ω- -spaces and soft (1,2)*-β-ω- -spaces, for . Furthermore we investigate the characterizations and the relations between these types of soft separation axioms and other soft separation axioms.


Article
Approximate Solutions of the Generalized Two-Dimensional Fractional Partial Integro-Differential Equations

Authors: Batool I. Asker --- Fadhel S. Fadhel
Pages: 59-67
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Abstract

In this article, the existence’ and uniqueness’ theorem of the solution of the generalized two dimensional ‘fractional’ partial integro-differential equations (2DFPIDEs) have been proved. Then, the sequence of approximate solutions of the generalized 2DFPIDEs employing the variational iteration method (VIM) had been derived and proved and then we prove its convergence to the exact solution. Finally, illustrative examples are simulated using computer software Mathcad 15 and then a comparison between the approximate results and ‘the exact solution are given’, which discover its competence.


Article
Digital Currency Generation Using Hash Function and Digital Signature (DigCur)

Authors: Qusay Mohammed Jafar
Pages: 68-77
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Abstract

This paper proposed a strategy to create a digital currency by producing a list of serial numbers by an authorized organization (Issuer). Each number in the serial numbers list will be merged with the issuer’s secret key (Sec_key)and then hashed using hash function to produce the issuer hash code (H-code).The issuer hash code will be considered as a digital banknote and then it will be distributed to the payee as a type money. When a person likes to pay (transfer) these digital banknotes to another person, he/she must prove this transaction by his/her privet key using digital signature process. This mechanism needs a third party to control the process of money transaction by checking the validity of the digital signature and who is authorized to own this digital banknote. The third party is the issuer himself (the central bank). For each digital banknote the issuer hash code will be saved in a record without changing to check if this digital banknote is counterfeit or not. The problem of double spending will be solved by swapping the owner identifier immediately after the transaction process. The proposed method aims to produce a digital cryptocurrency to be as alternative to the traditional physical currencies and it will be called as DigCur. According to some tests the proposed method can be considered a good method to take advantage of it instead of other cash applications.


Article
An Image Processor Bill Acceptor for Iraqi Currency

Authors: Ammar Awni Abbas
Pages: 78-86
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Abstract

Automatic Teller Machines (ATMs) and vending machines is a rapidly growing trade in the Iraqi market. Bill acceptorsvalidators, are considered the heart of these machines have a great significance. Due to the inflation in Iraq with numerous forgery attempt to the currency, an efficient way to accept and validate the Iraqi currency is very important. This paper suggests a bill acceptorvalidator to accept, recognize the amount, and validate the bill based solely on image processing functions rather than the magnetic field detection that is used in the regular Bill Acceptors. The program couples the faked bill with a photo graph of the person who presents it. The program uses the Matlab computer vision abilities to recognize the bill. The distinctive characteristics that appears on the banknote when an ultraviolet light is shed on the bill it used for the authentication part with the same Matlab pattern recognition functions. The proposed system include all the mechanical and electronical parts that are used in the proposed system. The results was 100% accurate, which implies that there is great possibility to use this technique in industrial bill acceptors.

Table of content: volume:22 issue:2