Table of content

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development

مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة

ISSN: 25200917
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University
Faculty: Engineering
Language: Arabic and English

This journal is Open Access

About

Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development
College of Engineering /Mustansiriyah University
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• About the journal
The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is a peer reviewed open access scientific Iraqi journal issued by the College of Engineering/ Mustansiriyah University, under the regulations and standards of the Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research in Iraq. In the meantime, the journal commits itself to the regulations of the Committee On Publication Ethics (COPE).


The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is an open access journal that all contents are free of charge. Users are allowed to read, download, or share the full texts of the articles in this journal without prior permission of the publisher or the author(s). A DOI is guaranteed by no means to change, so it can be used as a permanent link to any electronic article. Our journal DOI prefix account is 10.31272.

The journal welcomes submissions in the following topics:

Structural Engineering

Geotechnical Engineering

Engineering Management

Materials Engineering

Transportation Engineering

Dam and Water Resources Engineering

Architectural Engineering and Urban Design

Energy and Power System

Electronics, Control, Signals and Systems

Computer and Software Engineering

Communication Engineering

Renewable Energy Systems

Environmental Engineering

General Engineering

The vision for the future is to make the journal abstracted and indexed by the prominent databases and internationally cited, read and downloaded by the scholars. The mission is to contribute to the advances in the engineering fields and sustainable development. The journal aims at revolutionizing the practice in industry by promoting cutting-edge and effective research.

The Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development is published bimonthly, and the issues appearing on the beginning of each other month.

The corresponding author must pay fees of 100000 Iraqi dinars for the professor academic title, 75000 Iraqi dinars for assistant professor or less title, and 30000 Iraqi dinars for graduate (or undergraduate) students where the student is the first author. For international researchers, the submission fees are 125 USD.

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Contact info

Phone Number:07717944560
E-mail:editor@jeasd.org
ali.alghalib@uomustansiriyah.edu.iq

Table of content: 2019 volume:23 issue:3

Article
التحقق من صحة نتائج الفحوصات اللا اتلافية في تحديد مقاومة انضغاط الخرسانة

Authors: أحمد جميل إبراهيم
Pages: Ar-1-Ar-11
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Abstract

يهدف هذا البحث الى إستخدام الطريقة المشتركة للفحوصات اللااتلافية لتحليل نتائج الإختبارات لعدد 71 مكعب خرساني مقاس 150 مم مختلفة من حيث نسب الخلط ونوعية المواد المستخدمة فى الخلطة الخرسانية وعمر المكعب الخرساني. إجري على هذه المكعبات نوعان من الإختبارات: 1) إختبارت لاإتلافية (الذبذبات فوق السمعية – مطرقة الإرتداد)، 2) إختبارات إتلافية (مقاومة الإنضغاط). تم تحليل نتائج هذه البيانات بثلاث طرق مختلفة ( فاكورا – بلايندر – كالن ) لتأكيد مقاومة الخرسانة بإستخدام الطريقة المشتركة للإختبارات اللاإتلافية. من خلال النتائج تبين بان مقاومة الإنضغاط المخمنة بطريقة فاكورا أعطت نتائج متقاربة مع مقاومة الإنضغاط الحقيقية للخرسانة التي مقاومتها أقل من 40 نيوتن/مم2، بينما مقاومة الإنضغاط المخمنة بطرقة بلايندر أعطت نتائج أعلى من مقاومة الإنضغاط الحقيقة بحدود (30%)، أما مقاومة الإنضغاط المخمنة بطريقة كالن كانت نتائجها أعلى من مقاومة الإنضغاط الحقيقية بحدود (15%).


Article
دور الخصائص المادية للفضاءات الحضرية في التشكيل النفسي للانسان ضمن مدينة بغداد (حديقة الامة وساحة التحرير انموذجا)

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Abstract

تشكلت المدن في العالم بتوافق وتكامل الخصائص المادية للبيئة الحضرية من مباني وفضاءات حضرية وطرق وما يتعلق بها من مستلزمات بيئية واقتصادية وغيرها من الخصائص النفسية الفردية والمجتمعية المرتبطة بثقافة المجتمعات وسلوكيات افرادها وما يرتبط بها من العادات والتقاليد. وتعد العلاقة مابين الانسان وبيئته في تشكيل البيئة الحضرية عاملا مهما في نجاحها واهمالها يؤدي الى بيئات مهجورة تشجع السلوكيات السلبية فتنعكس على الانسان وبالتالي على المجتمع فالانسان هو الذي يشكل بيئته وبالتالي فهي التي تشكله. وما نشهده اليوم من فقدان لاهمية الانسان في العملية التصميمية والاهتمام بالاعتبارات الشكلية للبيئة الحضرية بعلاقات مادية متغافلة عن الجوانب التشكيلية النفسية ومتناسية دور العمارة بكونها نتاج مادي لحاجات الانسان . من هنا تتضح اهمية البيئة النابعة من دراسة التشكيل النفسي للانسان . وتعد الفضاءات الحضرية ابرز مظاهر البيئة الحضرية للمدن وهي الرئة النابضة ومقياس لحيوية المدينة بالنظر لشمولها كافة الخصائص المادية والنفسية التي تعكس خصوصية المجتمعات في العالم. لقد قدمت العديد من الدراسات والبحوث السابقة التي ركزت على تحليل ودراسة خصائص الفضاءات الحضرية المتنوعة ووضع الحلول التصميمية بمعزل عن الجوانب الاعتبارية النفسية غير المرئية ضمن مدينة بغداد فالبحث عن دور الخصائص المادية في تشكيل الجوانب النفسية للانسان المتلقي ضمن مدينة بغداد ( حديقة الامة وساحة التحرير انموذجا) هو ما يمثل مشكلة البحث الرئيسية. اما هدف البحث الاساسي فيتمثل في تحديد اهم الخصائص المادية للفضاءات الحضرية التي تسهم في توفير الراحة النفسية للانسان المستعمل للفضاء الحضري لتطوير واقع حال الفضاءات الحضرية الحالية والمستحدثة في مدينة بغداد وللوصول الى هدف البحث تم تقسيم البحث الى محورين اساسيين : بناء قاعدة معرفية من خلال استعراض الدراسات السابقة التي تناولت الخصائص المادية للفضاء الحضري وعلاقتها بنفسية الانسان المتلقي بغية استخلاص مؤشرات الاطار النظري حول الموضوع. تطبيق المؤشرات المستخلصة واختبار فرضية البحث من خلال دراسة منطقة حديقة الامة وساحة التحرير وسط بغداد وتشخيص المشاكل الموجودة فيها وصولا لوضع التوصيات لتطويرها. توصل البحث الى جملة من الاستنتاجات والتوصيات من أهمها الدور الذي تلعبه الخصائص المادية في تحقيق الراحة النفسية للانسان المستعمل للفضاء الحضري. وبذلك يزيد من تفاعلية الفرد واحساسه بالارتباط والانتماء المكاني .وان سبب فشل الفضاءات في احتواء ساكنيها يعود الى تركيز اهتمامها على النواحي الشكلية واهمالها متغيرات فاعلة في تحقيق راحة المستخدم كالاهتمام بالنواحي الاجتماعية والبيئية من خلال الاهتمام بطرق المشاة وتوفير الشعور بالسيطرة والحيزية والاهتمام بالراحة الحرارية.


Article
ASSESSMENT LANE CHANGING BEHAVIOR IN LOCAL RURAL ROADS

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Abstract

The lane changing model is one of the most important cornerstone models to build a traffic microscopic simulation model. To build such lane changing model, there is a need to investigate the drivers’ characteristics from field data. Accordingly, this study has mainly focused on lane changing behavior of Iraqi drivers. A huge amount of data has been collected from different sites in Iraq using specific type of cameras; these five sites (roads) are: Baghdad–Hilla, Baghdad–Mahmudiyah, Baghdad-Kut, Baghdad–Diyala and Najaf- Karbala roads. In addition, gun-speed has been also used to collect data of desired speeds. Different data have also been collected such as flow, headway, and speeds. The results show that as the flow increases, the frequency of lane changing also increases up to specific range of flow then as flow increases the frequency of lane changing decreases. In addition, this study indicates higher number of lane changing over all observed sites comparing with other countries. Finally, this study also indicates that the violated number of lane change varies with different levels of flow.


Article
DROPLET SIZE MEASUREMENT OF BIODIESEL AND ITS BLENDS USING DISPERSION TECHNIQUE AND IMAGE PROCESSING

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Abstract

In present investigation a twin-fluid external mixing atomizer was designed and developed for fuel atomization which is used in liquid fuel burner. The droplet sizes (SMD) in the spray which was produced through the atomizer was measured experimentally. The experiments have been performed for different liquid fuel types, as well as for air to liquid mass flow rates (ALR), to study the effects of these parameters on droplet size (SMD).The liquid fuels used during the tests are biodiesel and its blends (biodiesel-diesel Bx and biodiesel-kerosene Bkx) with three values of ALR (0.6, 0.8 and 1.0).The droplets sizes were investigated for the region near-nozzle by using imaging setup and using dispersion technique. The images viewing regions 366.6 mm2, to determine the droplet size (SMD). Matlab cod software has been used for a number of image processing techniques to identify and improve the detection of small droplets.The results showed that the increasing of biodiesel ratio in blending with diesel and kerosene increases the (SMD), and the increasing of ALR reduces the (SMD) for all experiments fuels. Also the results showed that the agreement is good of this method of SMD measurement and calculations with published studies.


Article
THE IMPLEMENTATION OF NANO-BIOMIMICRY FOR SUSTAINABILITY IN ARCHITECTURE

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Abstract

Nanotechnology is one of the key technologies of the 21st century, which has a potentiality to offer sustainable solutions to contemporary architecture and lower building costs. It helps biomimicry (as a way of thinking which is going back to nature for inspiration) to be achieved at new levels, through producing (new materials, devices and robots), that function as the same way as organisms do. Both nanotechnology and biomimicry take their power from nature and could have extraordinary results if implemented in building design, systems and construction. This research is looking at the concept of nano-biomimicry (biomimicry on nano level) and its usage in architecture. The main concern of this research is to arrive to a better understanding of the levels of implementation of nano-biomimicry for sustainability in architecture. The research uses qualitative method and case study approach to analyze and evaluate the levels of implementation of nano-biomimicry in sustainable architecture. It leads to a new understanding of the levels of implementation for nano-biomimicry for achieving sustainability in architecture and considers an expansion of the old categorization into seven categories including form, materials, construction, function, system, computer modelling, and robotic strategies.


Article
CONTENT-BASED IMAGE RETRIEVAL: SURVEY

Authors: Hanan Ahmed Al-Jubouri
Pages: 42-63
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Abstract

Extensive use of digital photographic devices has resulted in large volumes of digital images being acquired and stored in databases. Whether it is for scientific research, medical or social networking, there is a growing demand for effective retrieval of digital images based on their visual content (e.g. colour and texture). Content-Based Image Retrieval systems are developed to meet this demand. However, searching for similar and relevant images from large-scale databases still poses a challenge for Content-Based Image Retrieval systems due to the gap between high-level meaning and low-level visual features. This paper reviews different Content-Based Image Retrieval approaches such as Clustering, Region-of-Interest, Bag-of-Visual-Words, Relevance Feedback, Browsing, and indexing that have been developed to reduce such “Semantic gap” issue. So, the interested researchers can interest to determine which method is benefit to his work.


Article
THE APPLICATION OF ACCURATE DIGITAL CAMERAS WITH GPS AND USE THE GOOGLE IMAGES FOR MONITORING HIGHWAY BRIDGES

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Abstract

The monitoring process is important for any structure for many reasons, but unfortunately most of Iraqi constructions suffer from the lack of their drawings and plans due to different reasons. Such drawings and plans are very important in monitoring process to identify locations of damages, thus a new approach has been applied to monitor highway bridges damages using accurate digital cameras with GPS to determine locations of the damages in site, then such defined locations axis have been used to obtain the related Google images of the site to locate the position of damages on images. Also a new colored code of arrows has been used to locate the damage position and identify the direction of images. It has been proved that using such approach was very successful and will reduce time and efforts due to their activity, accuracy and easiness of both damages recognition or identification of damages location when compared with respect to the traditional method of monitoring process as well as the new approach was essential to solve the problem of missing drawings and plans of the sit


Article
DETERMINATION OF HYDRODYNAMIC RESISTANCE COEFFICIENT (MANNING’S COEFFICIENT) IN SHATT AL ARAB RIVER, SOUTHERN OF IRAQ-BASRAH

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Shatt al-Arab River is considered one of the systems affected by the phenomenon of tides and has the economic, environmental and historical significance of the city of Basra in southern of Iraq. Manning or roughness coefficient (n) is considered an important bases in the hydraulic studies of river's flow. Experimental methods are used to calculate the value of (n) depending on the field's measurements for six measuring stations (Fao, Seehan, Aboflos, Al-Ashar, Ektiban, and Al-Sharash). It is concluded that n-value is varying along the Shatt al-Arab river, ranging between (0.0115- 0.06) along the river course. The highest value is recorded in Al-Sharash station (0.06) where many factors are interfere, including the velocity of currents, the nature and size of the sediment surface and shape of the river bottom (level, or zigzag).


Article
VALIDATION OF FINITE ELEMENT MODELING FOR RECTANGULAR REINFORCED CONCRETE BEAMS WITH WEB OPENINGS

Authors: Ahlam Sader Mohammed
Pages: 89-98
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Abstract

The present paper aims to validate ABAQUS finite element model to analysis the rectangular reinforced concrete beams in order to study web opening effect on the shear, and ultimate strength of these beams. The validation has been achieved through comparison of load-- deflection curves obtained from the finite element model with those of experimental works of another researcher. The dimensions and flexural reinforcement of the beams were kept the same. The investigated test parameters were the size and the location of the openings. Comparison between load-deflection curves obtained from finite element model with those of experimental works indicates good agreement such that the proposed model can be adopted in future for further studies.


Article
DETERMINED ABU-KHOV LENGTH OVER BAGHDAD CITY

Authors: Ahmed Fattah Hassoon --- Marwa Khaled Tawfiq
Pages: 99-113
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Abstract

atmospheric stability is very important parameter because is ruled the dissipation of air, in this study modern device depend on sound wave used to measure atmospheric stability by Monin-Abukhov length (L) and scaling parameter z/L over Baghdad city at summer season months. This parameter z-zd/L need to estimated topographic surface by morphometric analysis to obtain zero plane displacement (zd=10.4m) and roughness length (zo=1.4m) from domain wind direction (from North to South at this study). At this study 2640 run done ,79% unstable , 12.6% neutral, and 8.3% stable, there is also subdivision for these results in cases unstable and stable condition to very and slightly . Classification is also done at daytime and nighttime, where the rates for unstable at daytime and nighttime is high and nearly have small difference, but in neutral and stable there is clear difference. Similarity function and scaling parameter from monin-Abu khov theory is calculated to test the turbulent and also can be comported with previous studies such as Businger and other.


Article
STUDY OF FLEXURAL AND IMPACT PROPERTIES OF NANO-HYBRID COMPOSITES MATERIALS BY USING POLY METHYL METHACRYLATE (PMMA) MATRIX

Authors: Dr. Qahtan Adnan Hamad
Pages: 114-127
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The present work studies the effect of adding nano-silica (nano-SiO2) particles, that were added with different volume fractions of (0.5 %, 1 % and 1.5 %), and random woven fiber glass with fixed volume fraction of (3 %), on some mechanical properties of composite prosthesis complete denture base materials by using poly methyl methacrylate (PMMA) resin as matrix. In this work, the prosthetic dentures base specimens consist of two groups include particulate composites materials and nano-hybrid laminated composites materials, according to the types of reinforced materials that were prepared by using Hand Lay-Up method, the first group consists of PMMA resin reinforced by nano- silica particles, only, while the second group consists of PMMA resin reinforced by nano- silica particles and random woven fiber glass. The mechanical tests were performed on these specimens include (flexural and impact tests). The results showed that the addition of (nano-SiO2) particles has a noticeable effect on the most properties of particulate composite material specimens and nano-hybrid laminated composites materials specimens for prosthetic denture base, the values of (flexural modulus, flexural strength, shear stress and impact strength) properties increased with the increase of the volume fraction of (nano-SiO2) particles in the composite denture base material, whereas the values of (flexural strain) property decreased


Article
EFFECT OF WEB OPENING'S SHAPE ON THE BEHAVIOR OF HYBRID REINFORCED CONCRETE DEEP BEAMS UNDER REPEATED LOADING

Authors: Sawsan Akram Hassan --- Mohammed Kamil Ali
Pages: 128-141
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This research aims to study experimentally behavior of hybrid deep beams with web openings when subjected to two points' monotonic and repeated loading in effect of web openings shape. All tested deep beams have the same flexural (0.0184) and web reinforcement (ρw=0.003) and same dimensions of (1500mm length, 150mm width and 350mm height). In this research, the idea of hybridity was achieved by reinforcing the two shear spans with steel fiber keeping the middle span free from this fiber. The aim was to strengthen shear region against shear failure (diagonal strut failure). To achieve the aim, six deep beams were cast and tested. Three of them were tested under monotonic loading as control beams to the other three beams tested under repeated loading at levels of 55% of the ultimate load of their control beams. The variables studied were: loading type (either monotonic or repeated) and web opening shapes. The results indicated that using different opening shapes (rectangular, circular or square) with an equivalent shape of 1.37% of beam size show that the ultimate load of beams with rectangular opening decreases by 10% as compared with beams with square web openings of the same area. Also, the ultimate load of beams with circular openings increases by 6.8% as compared with beams with square web openings of the same area. Also, it can be concluded that deep beams haves circular openings are increasing in ultimate loads by 17.5% as compared to rectangular web openings shapes with equivalent area.


Article
A REVIEW OF BOND BEHAVIOR OF GLASS FIBER REINFORCED POLYMER BARS WITH CONCRETE

Authors: Mohammed Hashim Mohammed
Pages: 142-157
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One of the most serious problems of reinforced concrete structures is corrosion of embedded reinforcing steel bars especially in aggressive environments. To control steel corrosion, several approaches have been followed but do not introduce 100% corrosion resistance and guaranteed long-term performance. Glass Fiber Reinforced Polymer (GFRP) bars are considered to be an ideal alternative to overcome corrosion problem in steel bars because of their high corrosion resistance. This paper discusses the main topics related to the use of GFRP bars as reinforcement in structural reinforced concrete applications and presents an overview to the available literature especially in GFRP bond behavior. The main conclusions are: standardizing the manufacturing process of GFRP bars are needed in order to limit the contradictory results of their performances due to the high differences in the products characteristics, and that the available design guidelines have much conservative equations, so they are recommended to be revised to be more practical.


Article
AN EXPERIMENTAL STUDY TO DEVELOP ALUMINUM CORROSION RESISTANCE IN ACIDIC SOLUTION BY DIFFERENT RATIOS OF ADDITIVE ELEMENTS

Authors: Awatif Mustafa Ali
Pages: 158-165
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In this work the corrosion behavior of aluminum alloy includes copper with different ratio is investigated by immersing the specimens in acidic solution (HCL& H_(2 ) 〖SO〗_4) with concentration (5%,10%) then put in furnace at three temperature degree(40,60.80)C^0 and holding for (30)minutes the results showed that increased in (Cu) at alloy contain leads to increase in weight losses while when fixed cupper ratio and increased (Ni) at alloy contain the weight losses decrease .corrosion rate of studied alloy increase in(HCL) solution more than(H_(2 ) 〖SO〗_4) .


Article
A NEW CORRELATION FOR SPECIFIC HEAT OF NORMAL ALKANES (C1-C30) AS A FUNCTION OF TEMPERATURE AND CARBON NUMBER

Authors: Ahmed Abdul Hussain Ayash
Pages: 166-174
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: the paper is about establishing a reliable correlation that can predict specific heat (Cp) of a series of normal alkanes over a wide range of temperatures. High quality experimental measurements reported in the relevant literature were used to verify the accuracy of the developed correlation, including data of heavy n-alkanes up to (n-C30H62). For a fair assessment, all the experimental data used were selected such that are measured at constant pressure. The developed correlation, for the first time, considers the effect of both temperature and carbon number for gas and liquid phase of normal alkanes, ranging from C1 to C30. Interestingly, the results showed that the correlation predicts closely the experimental data with an average relative error (AARE) not exceeding 3.63% for 97 data points.

Table of content: volume:23 issue:3