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Article
Bacteraemia Following Different Orthodontic Treatment Procedure

Author: Mustafa M. Al-Khatieeb* BDS, MSc
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 2 Pages: 130-135
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: since the occurrence of transient bacteraemia is fatal following different dental procedures in patients at-risk of bacterial endocarditis, the purpose of this research was to estimate the percentage and nature of bacteraemia following four orthodontic treatment procedures which were: an upper alginate impression, separator placement, band fitting or placement, and arch wire adjustment on a fixed appliance.Materials and methods: the study group consisted of 40 patients (25 females and 15 males) ranging from 17-25 years of age attending Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry/Baghdad University, and out patients department from private clinic. The 40 patients were divided into four groups (10 patients each). A cannula was inserted into either the left or right antecubital fossa using an aseptic technique. A 5ml of blood was taken immediately before orthodontic treatment procedure and a second 5ml sample was taken 1-2 minutes after the procedure.Results: the blood samples showed a percentage of bacteraemia of 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% in cases of post-band placement, post-separator placement, post-arch wire adjustment, and post-alginate impression procedures respectively.Conclusion: this investigation demonstrated that the placement of separator and fitting of band procedures could cause a significant bacteraemia, thus these procedures for patients at–risk of bacterial endocarditis should be placed in consideration, and prescribe the necessarily antibiotic coverage.


Article
Bacteraemia Following Different Orthodontic Treatment Procedures

Author: Dr. Mustafa Monim Al-Khatieeb , B.D.S,M.Sc. * د. مصطفى منعم
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 117-124
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The purpose of this research was to estimate the percentage and nature of bacteraemia following four orthodontic treatment procedures which were: an upper alginate impression, separator placement, band fitting or placement, and arch wire adjustment on a fixed appliance. The study group consisted of 40 patients (25 females and 15 males) ranging from 17-25 years of age attending Orthodontic Department in the College of Dentistry/Baghdad University, and out patients department from private clinic. The 40 patients were divided into four groups (10 patients each). A cannula was inserted into either the left or right antecubital fossa using an aseptic technique. A 5ml of blood was taken immediately before orthodontic treatment procedure and a second 5ml sample was taken 1-2 minutes after the procedure.The blood samples showed a percentage of bacteraemia of 50%, 40%, 30%, and 20% in cases of post-band placement, post-separator placement, post-arch wire adjustment, and post-alginate impression procedures respectively.This investigation demonstrated that the placement of separator and fitting of band procedures could cause a significant bacteraemia, thus these procedures for patients at–risk of bacterial endocarditis should be placed in consideration, and the orthodontist should be advised to consult the patient's medical specialist for controlling and prescribing the necessarily antibiotic coverage.


Article
Causes of Primary and Permanent Teeth Extraction in Children Aged 3–12 Years in Mosul City

Author: Aghareed Gh. Mohammed
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 2 Pages: 238-245
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To establish the different reasons of primary and permanent teeth extraction and the most frequent tooth type extracted among children attending the pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic atCollage of Dentistry ,Mosul University. Materials and Methods: Out of the 375 pediatric patients aged 3–12 years–old attending pedodontic and preventive dentistry clinic, 130 child patients were selectedfor this study. The teeth were examined carefully, the tooth that needed to be extracted was recorded to determine the cause of extraction for each tooth according to the criteria gathered and modified from the following researchers, Cahen et al; Kay and Blinkhorn and Cawson. Results: Statistical results showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 between primary and permanent teeth and thecause of tooth extraction, as extraction due to caries was the main reason for primary tooth extraction while extraction for orthodontic treatment was the major cause for permanent tooth extraction. The firstpremolar recorded 43.6% this result showed highly significant difference at p < 0.001 compared with other permanent teeth to be extracted, while the first primary molar registered the higher value as an extracted primary tooth type (35.6%) with high significant difference at p < 0.001. Conclusion: Althoughcaries and it is sequelae were the most common causes of premature loss of a primary tooth, an increasing need for tooth extraction for orthodontic treatment in this population of children was observed.


Article
Orthodontic Treatment and Temporomandibular Joint Condylar Position Relationship with Disk Displacement (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study)

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Abstract

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex synovial articulation between the mandibular condyle and the glenoid fossa of temporal bone. The question of whether a relationship exists between orthodontic treatment, abnormal condyle and disk position, and temporomandibular disorders has been investigated for many years. Despite the abundance of studies, the question continues to trouble orthodontists.This study conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatments, abnormal condyle and disk position, with temporomandibular disorders, and to study the disk- condyle relationship in term of presence or absence of anterior disk displacement. By mean of Magnetic Resonance Imaging a cross sectional investigation for the condyles of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and disk position was conducted to 50 TMJs of 25 patients between 19-30 years of age who had undergone orthodontic treatment (by upper and lower fixed orthodontic appliances with extraction of maxillary first premolar only for treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion), and 50 TMJs of 25 patients who had not yet received orthodontic treatment from the same class and matched age group.The results of this study showed that 30% of pre-treatment group have anterior disk displacement in comparison to 26.0% of the post treatment group. The condyle position is more concentric in post treatment group than pre-treatment, and the position of the disk is not affected by orthodontic treatment. This conclude that condyle position of the TMJ may be affected by orthodontic treatment, but the disk position is not.


Article
The Use of Computer Technology in Dental Arch Crowding Assessment

Author: Dr. Mehdi Abdul Hadi Al-Rubayee. B.D.S MSc * د. مهدي عبد الهادي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 372-383
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Correct alignment of teeth is a fundamental goal of Orthodontic treatment. The accurate assessment of dental crowding and the space required to alleviate it, is critical for correct orthodontic diagnosis and treatment planning.Objectives: To assess dental crowding by using two different methods, which are manual and computerized in order to compare the advantages and disadvantages of both methods.Methods: In this cross –sectional study, we studied a convenient sample of 100 individuals (50 male and 50 female) with different degrees of crowding. Upper and lower dental casts were obtained for each subject and these casts were analyzed by using two methods, manual and computerized.Results: It was found that there is a significant difference between the manual and the computerized method in all measurements (crowding, space available and space required). Also, it was found that the computerized method is a quick method and more practical for the storage of a large number of dental casts and more reliable for the measurement of the space available than the manual method. But, there was some difficulty in the assessment of severely crowded groups (>4mm).Conclusions: The degree of dental crowding increased when the teeth size increased and arch perimeter decreased. The degree of crowding in the upper arch is more affected by the size of the teeth rather than the size of the arch, while the degree of crowding in the lower arch is more affected by the arch size rather than teeth size.


Article
Assessment of Salivary Secretory Immunoglobulin A (sIg A) Level during Fixed Orthodontic Treatment

Author: Shaymaa Sh. Taha شيماء شاكر طه
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 3 Pages: 149-154
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The immune system of the oral cavity suffers alterations due to fixed orthodontic treatment which act aspotent stimulus for oral secretory immunity. The aims of this study are to estimate the effect of fixed orthodonticappliance on the level of salivary sIgA at different time intervals, and to verify the gender difference.Materials and method: The patient's history, clinical examination, and fixed orthodontic appliances were placed for30 Iraqi orthodontic adult patients had class II division 1 and/ or class I malocclusion (15 males and 15 females) aged18-25 years old. The unstimulated whole saliva was collected from each sample immediately before wearing fixedappliance (control group T0 as base line), and after 2 weeks (T1),1 month (T2), and 1year (T3) of wearing fixedorthodontic appliance. The levels of salivary sIgA were measured by Enzyme Linked Immunosorbant Assay kit (ELISA).Results: The mean value of salivary sIgA was elevated at T1 and reached the peak at T2 followed by declined at T3to reach near the normal value at T0 (base line). Repeated measure ANOVA test showed statistically highlysignificant difference among four time intervals. The Bonferroni test after repeated measure ANOVA test showedhighly statistical significant difference between each two time intervals except between T0 and T3 show significantdifference. In addition there were no significant gender differences.Conclusion: In this study one can conclude that fixed orthodontic appliance acts as an immunological stimulant inthe oral cavity that changes the level of salivary sIgA which evaluate the immunity status in the oral cavity


Article
Changes in gingiva with orthodontically banded and bonded teeth

Author: Afrah Kh Al–Hamdany
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2003 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-43
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of orthodontic bands and metal brackets on the gingival health. The sample was composed of 15 randomly selected patients (5 males and 10 females) 11 to 17 years old. All patients were treated with edgewise fixed orthodontic appliances. Bands were cemented to upper and lower first molars and rest of teeth were bonded with composite. The teeth included in the study were upper right and lower left central incisors, and upper left and lower right first molars. The plaque index, the gingival index and pocket depths were used to measure the oral hygiene of the patients during six months period of fixed orthodontic treatment. The results indicated that orthodontic bands will provoke more periodontal changes than brackets.


Article
The correlation between root resorption and some immune parameters in well- controlled type Ι diabetic patients during orthodontic treatment

Author: Ayam Alihassoon Taha ايمن علي حسون
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Dental Sciences مجلة تكريت لعلوم طب الاسنان ISSN: 20731213 Year: 2015 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 95-104
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Background:Type 1 diabetes mellitus is the result of a breakdown in immune regulation that leads to expansion of auto reactive CD4and CD8T- cells, autoantibody-producing B lymphocytes and activation of the innate immune system, so disturbances of immune system may be the cause and/or associated with diabetes mellitus. Some of these diabetic patients seek an orthodontic care. The orthodontist must remain vigilant as they may be the only health care professional seen by otherwise fit, young patients on a regular basis, and it is also important to implement risk control procedures during and after orthodontic treatment.Aims: The aim of this study was to analyze serum levels of immunoglobulins ( IgG, IgA , and IgM) ,and complement components (C3, and C4) after 6 months (T6) of orthodontic treatment in well-controlled type Ι diabetic patients wearing orthodontic appliance comparing with non-wearing group and to correlate these immune parameters with grade of root resorption which sometimes happen during orthodontic treatment .Materials and methods: Sixty well- controlled type Ι diabetic patients (HbA1c <8.5), were participating in this study. Thirty cases of them(16 male and 14 females) were wearing fixed orthodontic appliance, and the other thirty cases didn’t wear orthodontic appliances and considered as the controls (12 male and 18 females).The mean age of study groups was(15± 1SD) years. Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors were obtained of all patients before(T0) and 6 months after(T6) orthodontic treatment. At (T6), root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption) ,grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2 (moderate to severe resorption). Serum level of IgG , IgA, IgM ,C3, and C4 were analyzed after 6 months orthodontic treatment were determined using single radial immunodiffusion method (SRID) to the two study groups. Chi square test and T- test were used to assess the association between qualitative and quantitative results respectively ,while paired t- test was used to analyze the results after 6 months (T6) orthodontic treatment, differences were considered significant at P<0.05.


Article
Root resorption and anti-dentine antibody level in serum and saliva of well-controlled type Ι diabetic patients undergoing orthodontic treatment

Authors: Ayam A. H. Taha --- Esra H. Al- Hashemy
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 134-141
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Diabetic mellitus type Ι is a metabolic disorder of diverse etiological factors, characterized byhyperglycemia resulting from an absolute deficiency of insulin affected childhood and adolescent. Some of thesepatients seek an orthodontic care .The orthodontist who is treating these medically compromised patients shouldhave a working knowledge of the multitude of medically complex problems. This information will support and enablefor delivery of high standards of dental care in general and orthodontic care in particular. The aim of this study wasto analyze serum IgG levels and salivary secretory IgA (sIgA) levels in human dentine extract (HDE) before (T0) and 6months after (T6) orthodontic treatment and to correlate anti-HDE autoantibodies to root resorption in well-controlledtype Ι diabetic patients.Materials and methods: Sixty individuals, who were attending to Al-Mustansiriya National Diabetes Center from Aprilto October, 2012 and classified as well- controlled type Ι diabetic patients (HbA1c <8.5), were participating in thisstudy .The mean age of the whole samples was (15±1 SD ) years, thirty three of them(18 males and 15 females) werenot wearing orthodontic appliance and were selected as the controls, while twenty seven of them (12 males and 15females) were wearing orthodontic appliance . Periapical radiographs of the upper central incisors , unstimulatedsaliva and serum samples were obtained of all patients before(T0) and 6 months after(T6) orthodontic treatment.Anti-dentine antibody (Ab) levels were determined by mean of enzyme linked immune sorbant assay (ELISA)technique. At T6, root resorption was classified as grade 0 (no resorption), grade 1 (slight resorption), and grade 2(moderate to severe resorption). Chi square test and T- test were used to assess the association between qualitativeand quantitative results respectively ,while paired t- test was used to analyze the results before(T0) and 6 monthsafter(T6) orthodontic treatment. Differences were considered significant at P<0.05.Results: There was statistical significant difference in the level of (anti- dentine Ab) in saliva between the two studygroups at T0 and T6, its level was higher in the wearing group comparing with non wearing group, while it didn’t differin serum. In the wearing group, the level of anti -dentine antibody in serum and saliva significantly decreased at T6comparing with its level at T0. High level of the (anti -dentin Ab) shown in serum and saliva in grade 1 root resorption(R1) comparing with grade 0 root resorption (R0) at T0 and also at T6.Conclusions: The results of this study indicate that the anti -dentin antibody plays an important role in the detectionof root resorption during orthodontic treatment in well- controlled diabetic patients type Ι and its level is differentaccording to the grade of root resorption in both saliva and serum

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