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Article
Polymorphism of growth hormone gene in the artificial insemination result of Madura cattle with Limousin semen as a reference for genetic selection
تعدد أشكال جين هرمون النمو في نتائج التلقيح الصناعي لأبقار مادورا الملقحة بمني اليموزين كمرجع للاختيار الوراثي

Authors: B. Utomo بودي اوتمو --- E. Safitri إيرما سفتاري
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2018 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Pages: 113-118
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Research on genetic polymorphism of growth hormone (GH) and receptor growth hormone (rGH) has not been done in crossbred of Limousin cattle, so it is interesting to be examined. Blood samples were taken from 14 Madura calves were artificially inseminated with Limousin cement. DNA amplification is done by using Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR) method, Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP) method to determine the genotype. DNA sequencing was done to determine nucleotide sequences of GH unit genes. The results showed that identification of GH and rGH gene polymorphisms was done by breaking DNA fragments from 432 and 298 bp in Madura and Limousin cattle (Madrasin) ie, L and V alleles have a frequency of 0.67 and 0.33 for the GH gene, respectively. This proves that the crossed-breeding of Madrasin have V allele that is not owned by the Madura cattle. While in the rGH gene, the A allele is 0.92 and the G allele is 0.08, with the frequency of the A allele larger than the G allele. This research concluded: that GH and rGH undergo changes on polymorphisms in Madrasin cattle can be used as a basis for selection.

لم تجرأبحاث على تعدد الأشكال الوراثي لهرمون النمو (GH) وهرمون النمو المستقبلي (rGH) في الأبقار المهجنة من أبقار الليموزين، لذلك حاولنا في هذا البحث اجراء هذا الفحص. تم أخذ عينات دم من 14 من عجول مادورا تم تلقيحها اصطناعياً بمني اليموزين. تم إجراء تضخيم الحمض النووي باستخدام طريقة تفاعل البوليميراز المتسلسل (PCR)، طريقة تعدد الأشكال (RFLP) المقيد للطول لتحديد النمط الوراثي. تم إجراء تسلسل الحمض النووي لتحديد تسلسلات النوكليوتيدات من جينات الوحدة GH. أظهرت النتائج أن التعرف على تعدد الأشكال الجيني GH و rGH قد تم عن طريق تكسير شظايا الحمض النووي من 432 و 298 bp في ماشية Madura و Limousin (Madrasin) أي أن الأليلات L و V لها تردد 0,67 و 0,33 لجين GH، على التوالي. هذا يثبت أن التكاثر المتقاطع للمدرسين له أليل V غير مملوك من قبل الماشية Madura. بينما في الجين rGH، الأليل A هو 0,92 وأليل G هو 0,08، مع تواتر الأليل A الأكبر من الأليل G. وخلص هذا البحث: أن GH و rGH يخضعان لتغييرات في الأشكال في الماشية Madrasin يمكن استخدامها كأساس للاختيار.

Keywords

Polymorphism --- GH Gene --- rGH Gene --- Madrasin --- PCR --- RFLP --- V alleles


Article
Partial Sequencing of IS1216V Transposase Gene of Staphylococcus Aureus Isolated from Food Samples
تسلسل الجين القافز IS1216V للعنقوديات الذهبية المعزولة من عينات الغذاء

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Abstract

Background: Insertion sequence is a short DNA sequence encode for proteins implicated in the transposition activity. Transposase catalyzes the enzymatic reaction allowing the insertion sequence to +9*lo2 move. ;qqa;.Objective: To study the sequencing of transposase gene, tnp, IS1216V of S. aureus isolated from food and then compared with that documented in National Center for Biotechnology Information (NCBI).Methods: Food samples of animal and plant origin were collected, and screened for presence of S. aureus, IS1216V was identified in the Tn1546-like elements in the genomes of all Staphylococcus aureus isolates. Results: About 75% of total food samples were positive to S. aureus especially in the food of animal origin. tnp amplification showed that, 85% of isolates gave positive result. Sequencing of amplified part of IS1216V tnp of S. aureus isolates showed that, tnp gene had high identity (78-79%) with the reference strains of NCBI. Conclusion: High percentage of local food samples were contaminated with S. aureus especially of animal origin. Most of the S. aureus isolates showed the presence of transposase gene (tnp) of IS1216V. Sequencing showed some dissimilarity between the sequence of transposase gene (tnp) of IS1216V S. aureus isolated from local foods and strains recorded in database of NCBI.

الخلفية: متواليات الادراج (IS عبارة عن تتابع DNA قصير نسبيا يشفر للبروتينات التي تساهم في فاعلية القفز الجيني. انزيم القفز ( Transposase) هو انزيم يساعد التفاعل الذي يؤدي الى تحرك متوالي الادراج. الهدف.: تحديد جزء من جين انزيم القفز لهذه العزلات ومقارنته بتلك الموثقة في المركز القومي لمعلومات التقنيات الاحيائية( NCBI). طرق العمل: جمعت عينات من اغذية مصادرها حيوانية أو نباتية وعزل منها بكتريا العنقوديات الذهبية. وشخص الجين(IS1216V ) ضمن العناصر الشبيهة ل (Tn1546) لجميع عزلات العنقوديات الذهبية . النتائج: كشفت النتائج ان 75% من عينات الاغذية عزلت منها العنقوديات الذهبية وخاصة ذات المصدر الحيواني . وان تضاعف ( tnp) بين وجوده في 85% من العزلات وان تسلسل الجزء المتضاعف لل ( IS1216Vtnp)الذي تم التحري عنه في تلك العزلات كان يماثل 78-79 % لتلك الموثقة في NCBI . الاستنتاجات: هنالك نسبة عالية من الاغذية المحلية ملوثة بالعنقوديات الذهبية خاصة الاغذية ذات المصدر الحيواني. معظم العنقوديات الذهبية المعزولة اظهرت وجود جين انزيم القفز(IS1216Vtnp). كما ويوجد بعض عدم التماثل في تسلسل هذا الجين لتلك العزلات وتسلسله المسجل للعنقوديات الذهبية في قاعدة معلومات NCBI


Article
Molecular Basis of G6PD Deficiency in Hyperbilirubinemic Neonates in Middle Euphrates Province : Iraq

Authors: William M. Frankool --- Fadhil Jawad Al-Tu'ma
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 no.3, 4 Issue: 7 Pages: 867-881
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract


Background: Neonates G6PD deficiency screening has been recognized as an essential component of public health care in most developed and some Mediterranean countries. However, such screening is yet to be widely embraced in Iraq. More than 442 variants of G6PD have been identified by various molecular methods. The aim of the present study was to determine the normal values of G6PD and deficiency prevalence of this enzyme in male neonates and then determination of the type molecular variant of G6PD prevalence in Middle Euphrates Province of Iraq.
Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular basis of glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) deficiency in hyperbilirubinemic neonates in Middle Euphrates province of Iraq. Molecular methods (genomic DNA extraction, polymerase chain reaction and restriction fragment length polymorphism analysis) and then investigate the type of G6PD variant predominantly present have been performed.
Methods: The study included a total of 917 full-term male neonates which were divided into two groups:
The first group which include 704 neonates (76.8%) associated with severe hyperbilirubinemia were admitted in Middle Euphrates Province Teaching Hospitals of Maternity and Pediatrics during 1st Oct., 2007 to 12th July, 2008 with age ranged between 1 – 28 days, their total serum protein , TSB levels ≥ 15 mg/dl.
The second group which include 213 neonates (23.2%) with the same age ranged were used as control group, their TSB levels ˂ 1 mg/dl. The blood sample taken from each neonate was divided into two aliquots: the first aliquot was used for the determination of total and serum conjugated bilirubin (TSB and SCB), and G6PD activity. The second aliquot was used for molecular analyses including genomic DNA extraction and then application of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) protocols.
Results and Discussion: Severe hyperbilirubinemic neonates were screened for erythrocyte G6PD enzyme activity, severe G6PD deficiency was detected in 75 of 704 hyperbilirubinemic neonates included and their activity levels was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to less than 10% of that found in control group. Therefore, the incidence of severe G6PD deficiency identified in Middle Euphrates Province of Iraq was 10.65%. TSB levels were markedly elevated to ( ≥ 15 mg/dl), whereas the mean ± SD values of SCB were significantly lower than that found in controls (P < 0.05) , SCB was undetectable in 32 of 75 (42.67%) of hyperbilirubinemic neonates with severe G6PD deficiency which imply a partial defect of bilirubin conjugation. The molecular part of the study involved the extraction of genomic DNA from hyperbilirubinemic neonates with severe G6PD deficiency which was detected by agarose gel electrophoresis and then amplified by PCR and finally was subjected to digestion by endonuclease restriction enzymes to create RFLP and to enable the detection of mutation that caused G6PD deficiency. The majority of affected severe G6PD deficient neonates with hyperbilirubinemia in Middle Euphrates province – Iraq, were due to G6PD Med variant (C563T, Ser 188 Phe) , of such 67 of 75 neonates (89.3%) have this type of mutation, and 5 of 75 (6.67%) have G6PD A- variant (G202A ; A376G mutations), whereas only 3 of 75 (5.3%) remain unknown G6PD variants which require future molecular studies.
Conclusion: The predominant G6PD gene detected in hyperbilirubinemic neonate with severe G6PD deficiency in Middle Euphrates province was G6PD Med.variant.
Keywords : Hyperbilirubinemia, G6PD gene, Polymerase Chain Reaction , RFLP.


Article
Molecular Characterization of Severe G6PD Deficiency in Hyperbilirubinemic Neonates in Karbala : Iraq……

Authors: Fadhil J. Al-Touma --- William M. Frankool
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2009 Volume: 2 no.8, 9 Issue: 5 Pages: 663-680
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Objective: The objective of this study was to investigate the molecular basis ofglucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD) genes in hyperbilirubinemic neonates inKarbala province of Iraq by using molecular methods (genomic DNA extraction, PCRand RFLP analysis) and then to investigate the type of G6PD variant predominantlypresent.Methods: The study included a total of 253 full-term male neonates, 197 of themassociated with severe hyperbilirubinemia which were admitted in Karbala TeachingHospital of Pediatrics during the period from 1st October 2007 to 14th July 2008 withage ranged between 1 – 28 days, their TSB levels ≥ 15 mg/dl, and another 53 neonateswere used as control group. The blood sample taken from each neonate was dividedinto two aliquots: the first aliquot was used for total and conjugated serum bilirubin(TSB and SCB), G6PD activity. The second aliquot was used for molecular analysisincluding genomic DNA extraction and then application of polymerase chain reaction(PCR) and restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) protocols.Results and Discussion: Severe hyperbilirubinemic neonates were screened forerythrocyte G6PD enzyme activity measurements, severe G6PD deficiency wasdetected in 18 of the total 197 hyperbilirubinemic neonates included and their activitylevels was significantly decreased (P < 0.05) to 0.56 ± 0.32 U/g Hb. The incidence ofsevere G6PD deficiency identified was found 9.14%. TSB levels were markedlyelevated to (20.26 ± 4.96 mg/dl), whereas the mean ± SD values of SCB weresignificantly lower than that found in controls (P < 0.05) and reached to 0.053 ± 0.046mg/dl , and it was undetectable in 5 of 18 neonates (27.78%) with severe G6PDdeficiency which imply a partial defect of bilirubin conjugation. The molecular part ofthe study involved the extraction of genomic DNA from hyperbilirubinemic neonateswith severe G6PD deficiency which detected by agarose electrophoresis and thenamplified by PCR and finally was subjected to digestion by endonuclease restrictionenzymes to create RFLP to enable the detection of mutation that caused G6PDdeficiency. The overall majority of affected severe G6PD neonates withhyperbilirubinemia in Kerbala province : Iraq were due to G6PD Med variant(C563T, Ser 188 Phe) in which 17 out of 18 (94.4%) have this type of mutation, andonly one G6PD A- variant (5.56%) (G202A ; A376G mutations) was diagnosed.Conclusion: The predominant G6PD gene detected in hyperbilirubinemic neonatewith severe G6PD deficiency in Kerbala province was G6PD Med.


Article
Amplification and sequencing of hla and sea genes in Staphylococcus aureus isolated from outpatients in Nassyriah City
التضخيم وحساب التسلسل لجيني hla و sea في المكورات العنقودية الذهبية المعزولة من المرضى الخارجيين في مدينة الناصرية

Author: Saad Salman Hamim سعــــــد سلمـــــــان هميــــــم
Journal: Journal of Education for Pure Science مجلة التربية للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 20736592 Year: 2017 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 192-200
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

An increasing concern about the role of Staphylococcus aureus as an opportunistic pathogen that can affect different parts of human body. The pathogenic role of this bacterium is associated with its ability to secrete a highly effective virulence factors. Among these, the production of hemolysin a (hla) and enterotoxin A (sea). The aim of the current study was to investigate the occurrence and molecular profile of hla and sea genes in S. aureus isolated from Otitis media outpatients in Nassyriah city, Iraq during the period from August 2014 to January 2015. A total of 100 S. aureus isolate were assayed for the presence of hla and sea genes by Polymerase chain reaction technique. The study results showed that 68/100 and 52/100 isolate were positive for the two targeted genes, respectively (P≤0.05). five of S. aureus isolates (two for hla assigned IQSH1 and IQSH2 in which they granted the official Genbank accession numbers of KY468500 and KY468501, and three for sea assigned ZWS1, ZWS2 and ZWS3) were subjected to partial DNA sequencing to reveal their relative to similar isolates in Genbank. The phylogenetic tree that was created in MEGA7 software showed that there were different molecular relationships among the local S. aureus isolates with similar ones around the world. These findings may be lead to better understanding about the importance of S. aureus epidemiology in Iraq which began to increase steadily.

ما زال القلق يتزايد حول دور المكورات العنقودية الذهبية كممرضات انتهازية تستطيع أن تصيب أجزاء مختلفة من جسم الإنسان. الدور المرضى لهذه البكتريا متعلق بقابليتها على إفراز عوامل الضراوة عالية التأثير. منها محلل الدم نوع a و السموم المعوية نوع a. هدفت الدراسة الحالية للكشف عن التواجد والطور الجزيئي لجيني hla و sea في بكتريا Staphylococcus aureus المعزولة من مرضى التهاب الأذن الوسطى في مدينة الناصرية , جنوب العراق خلال الفترة من شهر آب 2014 إلى كانون الثاني 2015 .تم الكشف عن وجود جيني hla و sea في 100 عزلة تعود لـ S. aureus باستخدام تقنية تفاعل السلسلة المتبلمرة. أظهرت نتائج الدراسة أن 68 /100 و 52 /100 عزلة كانت موجبة لكلا الجينين على التوالي (P≤0.05). تم إخضاع خمسة عزلات S. aureus ( اثنان لجين hla تم تسميتهما IQSH1 و IQSH2 واللتان حصلتا على رقمي الانضمام الرسمي لبنك الجينات KY468500 و KY468501 , وثلاث عزلات لجين sea تمت تسميتها ZWS1 و ZWS2 و ZWS3) لحساب تسلسل DNA الجزئي للكشف عن علاقتها مع العزلات المشابهة في بنك الجينات.أظهرت الشجرة التطورية التي تم بنائها باستخدام برنامج MEGA7 وجود علاقات جزيئية مختلفة لعزلات S. aureus المحلية مع نظيراتها حول العالم. هذه النتائج قد تؤدى إلى فهم أفضل عن أهمية وبائية بكتريا S. aureus في العراق والتي بدأت في الزيادة باطراد.


Article
Detection of Escherichia Coli hlyA gene and Staphylococcus aureus Sea gene in raw milk of buffaloes using RT-PCR technique in AL- Qadisiyah province
تشخيص مورثة التحلل الدموي للعصيات القولونيه ومورثة التسمم المعوي للعنقوديات الذهبية من حليب الجاموس الخام بواسطة تقنية تفاعل السلسلة المتعدد في الوقت الحقيقي في محافظة القادسية

Authors: J.N. Sadeq جنان ناظم صديق --- Kh.H. Fahed خلود حمدان فهد --- H.J. Hassan هيفاء جمعة حسن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Veterinary Sciences المجلة العراقية للعلوم البيطرية ISSN: 16073894 Year: 2018 Volume: 32 Issue: 1 Pages: 87-91
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to determines the prevalence of virulence gene hemolysin A (hly A) Escherichia coli and staphylococcal enterotoxins (sea) in Staphylococcus aureus in raw milk buffaloes. In molecular laboratory, real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) technique has been performed for 24 samples which have been taken randomly from Buffaloes milk, using primers of high specificity for Escherichia coli hlyA gene and Staphylococcus aureus Sea genes. The results showed different degrees of the studied genes activities. Four out of 24 samples represented S. aureus Sea gene (16.6%) whereas 16 out of 24 samples represented E. coli hlyA gene (66.6%). this study concluded that buffaloes milk might be a source of contamination with pathogenic bacteria of virulent genes which may have different levels of activities.

الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو تحديد مدى انتشار مورثات الضراوة التحلل الدموي (hly A) للعصيات القولونية و التسمم المعوي (sea) في العنقوديات الذهبية في حليب الجاموس الخام، في المختبر الجزيئي تم اجراء تفاعل السلسلة المتعدد في الوقت الحقيقي لـ 24 عينة تم اخذها عشوائيا" من حليب الجاموس، وذلك باستخدام بادئات عالية الخصوصية لمورثات العصيات القولونية ( (hlyAومورثة العنقودية الذهبية (sea)، تفاعل السلسلة المتعدد في الوقت الحقيقي (RT-PCR) اظهر درجات مختلفة من الفعالية او نشاط الجينات في تلك الجراثيم اربعة من اصل (24) والتي تمثل نسبة جين (sea) والتي كانت (16,1%) في جراثيم العنقوديات الذهبية بينما 16 من 24 عينة تمثل مورثة (hlyA) في العصيات القولونية (66,6%)، خلصت الدراسة الى ان حليب الجاموس ملوث بمورثات الضراوة المحمولة بواسطة الجراثيم ولها درجات مختلفة من النشاط.


Article
Expression of Anti Apoptotic Gene in Exophytic and Endophytic Type of Oral Carcinoma

Author: Header Dakhel Al- muala
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2010 Volume: 3 no.1 Issue: 6 Pages: 812-821
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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background: Bcl2 is known to belong to a family of apoptosis regulatory geneproducts that may be death antagonist eg (bcl- 2, bcl-xl , mcl –l) or deathagonist ex (bax , bak , bcl -xs , bad) , The bcl- 2 oncoprotein inhibits apoptosisand is expressed by many tumors including carcinoma such as breast ,cervix and headand neck .Aims to identify bcl-2 oncogene product expression of oral carcinoma and itscorrelation to clinical features (exophytic , endophytic and mixed type) of oralcarcinomaPatients and methods Twenty four patients were gathered , 20 patients hadsquamous cell carcinoma and four patients with adenoid cystic carcinoma . Paraffinblocks were obtained of the study group , specimens of follicular lymphoma paraffinblocks were obtained from pathology department at teaching laboratory of medicalcity . Normal oral mucosa were obtained from healthy patients who had undergoneroutine oral surgery following informed consent of the patients .Immunohistochemical procedure of Bcl2 protein were applied .Results our study showed that 11 cases of the exophytic type of oral carcinomarepresented a positive bcl2 expression , 4 cases of the endophytic (ulcerative type)showed a positive immunoreactivity with bcl2 antibodies and 3 cases of mixed type(exophytic type and endophytic) showed a positive bcl2 expression . Statisticalanalysis showed non significant relationship between clinical features (exophytic ,endophytic , Mixed type) and bcl2 expression in oral carcinoma .Conclusion :- bcl-2 expression in normal oral mucosa and oral carcinoma ,bcl-2immunoreactivity was more correlated to mixed type , exophytic and rarely toendophytic oral carcinoma but all didn't reach a statistical significance .Keywords ,anti apoptotic gene product , bcl2 expression , oral carcinoma.


Article
Vancomycin resistance among methicillin resistant Saphylococcus Aureus isolates from general hospitals

Author: Rashad A. Abdul-Hameed M.Sc*, Nedhal S. Ayoub* M.Sc
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 6-9
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Multidrug resistant methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is a major cause of nosocomial and community acquired infections. The glycopeptides vancomycin has been proposed as the drug of choice for treating such infections; this lead to the emergence of vancomycin intermediate sensitive S. aureus (VISA) and vancomycin resistant S.aureus (VRSA).Objectives: To identify the vancomycin resistance both phenotypically and genotypically among MRSA isolates from different hospitals and to determine the sensitivity of these isolates to different antimicrobial agents.Methods: A total of 204 S. aureus isolates were obtained randomly from various clinical specimens including (wound swab, burn swab, ear swab, urine, sputum, blood and other body fluids) from different inpatient and outpatient who were attending different hospitals in Baghdad. The susceptibility pattern of the S. aureus isolates to different antibiotics was determined by disk diffusion method and vancomycin minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) for MRSA isolates were determined using broth dilution method following clinical laboratory standard institution (CLSI) guidelines. Van A gene was amplified by PCR using standard primers.Results: All VRSA isolates were MRSA. Twelve VRSA isolates were positive for van A gene, while the remaining ten isolates were negative. All VRSA had a vancomycin MIC of 16μg/ml or more. In the present study, VRSA showed resistance to a wide range of antimicrobial agents (ampicillin, cephalothin, cefoxitin, erythromycin, gentamicin, oxacillin, penicillin, rifampin, tetracycline and trimethoprim).Conclusions: There were high incidences of resistance to the commonly used antibiotics among VRSA isolates compared to VISA and VSSA. Further molecular studies such as PCR technique to identify genes rather than van A (e.g. van HAX analogue) might be suitable to predict VRSA lacking the van A gene.

Keywords

Staphylococcus aureus --- MRSA --- VRSA --- VISA --- van A gene.


Article
Gene frequency and haplotype analysis of HLA class I in patients with simple renal cysts

Author: Aroub A.R Al-kaisi M.B.Ch.B, F.I.C.M.S*, Khalida M. Mousawy M.B.Ch.B, Ph.D **, Usama N. Rifat M.B.Ch.B, F.R.C.S ***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 58-61
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The study of human leukocytes (HLA) alleles, and haplotype frequencies within populations provide an important source of information for anthropological investigation, organ and hematopoietic stem cell transplantation as well as disease association, certain diseases showed association with specific alleles specially those of known or suspected hereditary origin or immunological basis, whether simple renal cyst is congenital or acquired is still unclear and need to be investigated.Objectives: To study the genetic aspect of simple renal cysts by detecting the gene frequency and the haplotype of HLA class I of patients with simple renal cysts, and to find the presence of these cysts in other family members.Method: Thirty patients with simple renal cysts who were attending the outpatient clinic of urosurgery in the medical city were tested for HLA class I antigen using the microlymphocytotoxicity technique, in the period from February to June 2004 compared to 50 unrelated apparently healthy individuals. Gene frequency were calculated using square root formula (g=1-√1-f), full history were taken including the family history.Results: Certain gene frequencies were higher in the patients group than in the controls, yet not reached to a statistical significant level. No haplotype association with simple renal cysts was detected in this study; family history was detected in two patients which were proved by ultrasound examination.Conclusion: Increasing the sample size may contribute to best results regarding gene frequency, haplotype and family study.Key words: Gene frequency, Haplotype, Human Leukocyte Antigens.


Article
Effect Of Castration Methods On Gene Expression Of Androgen Receptor Gene In Skeletal Muscles Of Awassi Sheep
تأثير طريقة الاخصاء على التعبير الجيني لجين مستقبلات الاندروجين في العضلات الهيكلية لأغنام العواسي

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Abstract

The effect of castration on skeletal muscle development in awassi sheep were studied at the gene expressed for androgen receptor. The result showed that live weigh for epididymectomy rams was heavier than control and orchidectomy rams, respectively. There was significant difference (p < .05). By using the (2^ΔCT) with reference gene method, the findings documented that there was higher up-regulated in mRNA expression for androgen receptor in splenius muscles cells for epididymectomy rams compare with interact rams. In contrast, there was down-regulated for mRNA expression for androgen receptor cells for orchidectomy rams. In conclusion the continuous producing of testes hormones lead to growth of skeletal muscles of wether's significant increase the growth of skeletal muscles of wethers by epididymectomy companied with other rams.

تم دراسة تأثير نوع الأخصاء على تطور العضلات الهيكلية في اغنام العواسي من خلال تعيين التعبير الجيني لجين مستقبلات الاندروجين, حيث أظهرت النتائج بان الوزن الحي للاكباش المخصية بطريقة ازالة جزء من البربخ كان وزنها اعلى من الاكباش في مجموعة السيطرة والاكباش المخصية بطريقة ازالة الخصية حيث انه كات هناك فرق معنوي (p < .05)كما واثبتت الدراسة بان هناك مستوى عالي للتعبير الجيني للحامض النووي الرايبوزي الناقل لمستقبلات الاندروجين في خلايا العضلة العنقية للاكباش المخصية بطريقة ازالة جزء من البربخ مقارنة مع الاكباش السليمة على العكس من ذلك فأن النتائج اظهرت أن التعبير الجيني لجين مستقبلات الاندروجين كان واطئ لنفس الخلايا في الاكباش المخصية بطريقة ازالة الخصية, من هنا نستنتج بأن استمرارية الخصية بانتاج الهرمونات يؤدي الى زيادة معنوية في نمو العضلات الهيكلية للاكباش المخصية بطريقة ازالة جزء من البربخ مقارنة مع بقية الاكباش الاخرى.

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