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Article
Prevalence of over and under weight among school children in Mosul

Authors: Mazin M. Fawzi مازن محمود فوزي --- Zaid M. Yassen زيد مؤيد ياسين
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of over and under weight in children aged 6-14 years in Mosul city and to observe the important risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of four governmental primary schools in Mosul city with a total of 2056 child aged 6-14 years were included. Analysis of the data was done by using SPSS and excel computer systems, X2 test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The study reveals that the prevalence of under weight is 6.8%; on the other hand the prevalence of over weight and obesity were 11.3% and 9.8% respectively. Also the study shows that about three quarters of over weight and obese students spend three or more hours daily in watching television, and (44.2%) of them eat more than three meals per day.
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are prevalent problems in Mosul, it is valuable to conduct a study to evaluate the risk factors.

الهدف : تهدف الدراسة إلى حساب معدل انتشار زيادة ونقصان الوزن عند أطفال المدارس الابتدائية في الموصل .طريقة الدراسة : دراسة مقطعية .المشاركون في الدراسة : شملت الدراسة 2056 طفل بعمر 6-14 سنة .مكان الدراسة : أربعة مدارس ابتدائية في مدينة الموصل. قياس المحصلة النهائية : تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام برنامجي SPSS و Excel للحاسبة الإلكترونية وقد تم استخدام اختباري Z وX2 في التحليل الإحصائي . النتائج : أظهرت الدراسة أن معدل انتشار نقصان الوزن عند الأطفال هو 6.8% من جهة أخرى أكدت الدراسة على أن معدل انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة عند الأطفال هو 11.3% و9.8% بالتعاقب . الاستنتاج : في ضوء النتائج المستخلصة من الدراسة يمكن الاستنتاج بأن زيادة الوزن والسمنة يشكلان مشكلة لدى الأطفال فمن المجدي إجراء دراسة أخرى لتقييم الأسباب المؤدية إلى ذلك .

Keywords

Overweight --- obesity


Article
Leptin and Insulin Resistance in Obese Children

Author: Noor T. Tahir Ph.D*, Hind S. Ahmed Ph.D**, ALmottesembellah A. Gaiz M.Sc ***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2014 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 36-40
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Insulin resistance (IR) is the primary metabolic disorder associated with obesity. Obesity is a growing worldwide health problem affecting both adults and children. Objectives: To determine the association between leptin and IR, and to identify the ratio of fasting glucose/leptin (G/L) and insulin/leptin (I/L) as a new simple method for the detection of IR in obese children.Methods: This study was done in the National DiabeticCenter/ AL-Mustansiriya University during the period fromMay 2013 until the end of October 2013. Fasting bloodglucose (FBG), serum insulin, leptin, and lipid profile weremeasured in 52 obese children (24 children with IR and 28without IR); their age range was (5-15) years, they werecompared with 38 healthy children as a control group.Results: Means of FBG, insulin, leptin, total cholesterol(TC), triacylglycerol (TAG), low density lipoproteincholesterol (LDL-C), and non high density lipoproteincholesterol (non HDL-C) were significantly increased inobese children with IR as compared in children without IR,(P<0.05), while there was a significant decrease in serumlevel of high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) inobese children with IR when compared with obese childrenwithout IR, (P=0.001). There was a decrease in the ratio ofG/L and an increase in the ratio of I/L in obese children withIR, but it was not significant. A significant positivecorrelation was found between serum leptin verse bodymass index (BMI), FBG, insulin, homeostasis modelassessment for insulin resistance (HOMA-IR), I/L ratio, TC,TAG, LDL-C, and non HDL-C, while a significant negativecorrelation was found between serum leptin and HDL-C inobese children with IR.Conclusions: The present results showed that serum leptinis correlated with BMI, FBG, insulin, HOMA-IR, I/L ratio, TC,TAG, LDL-C, and non HDL-C in obese children with IR. TheG/L ratio can be used in addition to me /L ratio, and HOMAto accurately assess IR in obese children

Keywords

Obesity --- insulin resistance --- Leptin


Article
Prevalence of H pylori in obese attending Obesity therapy Unit

Author: Mumtaz K Hana*, Abdulhadi Alrubaie **, Mohanad abdulmahdi Ahmad ***, Faris Abdulkarim ****
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2017 Volume: 13 Issue: 2 Pages: 76-78
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Obesity is an increasing health problem in developed countries and has grown into a major global epidemic. Recent studies suggested colonization of the stomach by Hpylori might affect gastric expression of appetite- and satiety-related hormone and patients cured of H pylori infection gained weight. Obesity and Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) are important because of the problems they lead and their frequency of occurrence.Objectives: To find out the prevalence of H. pylori infection in obese.Type of the study:A cross-sectional studyMethods: A total of 32 obese female admitted to the study. Body mass indices (BMI) of all subjects were calculated H. pylori positivity were studied.Results: The age range of the obese was (20-59) and the BMI (was 25-55 kg/m²). 26 obese (81.25%) were H pylori positive, and all obese above 45 were H pylori positive. Conclusions: Obesity and h pylori are closely associated and the prevalence of h pylori increased with obesity. We consider that H. pylori infection can be a risk factor for obesity and almost all obese patients above 45 years were sero positive. However, further studies evaluating more subjects are required. And we need to do national survey about h pylori prevalence in our community


Article
The Effect of Body Weight & Smoking on the Risk of Osteoarthritis of the Knee Joint

Authors: Zina A. Rajab --- Ikhlas K. Hameed --- Zina H. Abdul-Qahar
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2011 Volume: 4 no 2 Issue: 10 Pages: 1180-1186
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Knee osteoarthritis is common in old adults. Determination of risk factors of knee osteoarthritis may help in its prevention and modification of treatment. The objective of this study is to determine the significance of some risk factors like obesity and smoking on knee osteoarthritis.Material & methods: The study included 132 outpatient attendants (102 females & 30 males) aged (53±9) years. Height and weight were measured for calculation of Body Mass Index; smoking habits were registered by questionnaire. Hemoglobin level, Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate & C - reactive protein was measured for all participants.Results: The number of patients with knee osteoarthritis was 61(46%), of these; 39 patients (64%) were obese including 13 patients who were smokers.The mean & standard deviation of Hemoglobin & Erythrocyte Sedimentation Rate were 12±1 & 24±16 respectively, while C - reactive protein was positive in 29 (22%) of participants.Smoking habit was significantly higher in patients with knee osteoarthritis (p<0.01) and in knee osteoarthritis obese patients (p<0.01) when compared to non- knee osteoarthritis subjects and obese non- knee osteoarthritis subjects; respectively.Conclusion In accordance with the literature, this study found a strong association between Body Mass Index and knee osteoarthritis risk. In addition, the increase in the prevalence of smoking in radiographically confirmed knee osteoarthritis was observed suggesting that smoking habit may be a potentially modifiable environmental risk factor for knee osteoarthritis.


Article
Low Back Pain and Obesity (Review Article)

Author: Mohammed Sh. Al- Edanni
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2018 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Low back pain a major causes of morbidity throughout the world and it is a most debilitating condition ,and can lead to decreased physical function ,compromised quality of life, and psychological distress. Obesity is nowadays a pandemic condition. Obese subjects are commonly characterized by musculoskeletal disorders and particularly by non-specific LBP. However, the relationship between obesity and LBP remain to date unsupported by objective measurements of mechanical behavior of spine and it is morphology in obese subjects.


Article
Assessment of nutritional status indicators in children under five at Al-Hamdaniya District, North of Iraq

Authors: Asma A. Al-Jawadi اسماء الجوادي --- Anwar K. Matee انوار خالد متي
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2011 Volume: 37 Issue: 1&2 Pages: 71-79
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Objectives: To provide a data base for nutritional assessment indicators among children under five in Al-Hamdaniya district, North of Iraq. Materials and Methods: Study design: A cross sectional study.Study setting: The present study was carried out in 3 primary health care centers. These are: Al-Hamdaniya primary health care center which has a population size in the catchment area of 38310, Bartella primary health care center (41029) and Al-Namrood primary health care center (25466). These centers are located in Al-Hamdaniya district in Nineveh Governorate, North of Iraq which has an overall population of 180980.Study participants: Under five children who were brought to the chosen primary health care centers for vaccination purposes.Outcome measures: Anthropometric measurements (weight and height/length) and WHO growth standard charts were used to compute the nutritional assessment indicators. Age and sex of the examined children were tested as a demographic attributes affect the study indicators. Results: A total of 775 under five children were included in this study; of this sample, 41.4% were less than 6 months old, 53.3% were males. The prevalence of stunting, under weight, wasting, risk of over weight, over weight and obesity were 7.9%, 3.7%, 2.5%, 12.9%, 3.0% and 0.5%, respectively. Stunting is significantly prevalent at age group 24-<60 months with no sex difference. Wasting showed the same association with age group 0-<6 months. Risk of over weight, over weight and obesity were significantly present among children 24-<60 months old and among males. Conclusion: The present study provides a base line data for nutritional assessment indicators among under fives in a local community in Iraq.Keywords: Under nutrition, under fives, stunting, under weight, wasting, obesity.

الهدف: استبيان مؤشرات الحالة التغذوية للأطفال الذين تقل أعمارهم عن خمس سنوات في قضاء الحمدانية.المواد وطريقة العمل: أجريت الدراسة في 3 مراكز للرعاية الصحية الأولية وكما يلي: مركز الحمدانية الذي يقدم الخدمات الصحية لـ 38310 نسمة ضمن الرقعة الجغرافية التابعة له، مركز برطلة والذي يقدم خدماته لـ 41029 نسمة ومركز النمرود الذي يبلغ تعداد سكانه ضمن الرقعة الجغرافية 25466 نسمة، تقع هذه المراكز في قضاء الحمدانية التابع لمحافظة نينوى في شمال العراق والتي يبلغ تعداد سكانها 180980 نسمة.تصميم الدراسة: دراسة المقطع العرضي المعتمد على المراكز الصحية.المشاركون في الدراسة: الأطفال دون سن الخامسة من العمر من مراجعي المراكز الصحية المختارة لغرض التحصين.المحصلة النهائية: تم الاعتماد على الوزن والطول منسوبين للعمر والجنس وحيث تمت مقارنتهما مع مخطط النمو القياسي المعتمد من قبل منظمة الصحة العالمية. كما تم أخذ عمر الطفل وجنسه كمتغيرين لمعرفة مدى تأثيرهما على مؤشرات الدراسة.نتائج الدراسة: شملت الدراسة 775 طفلا دون سن الخامسة من العمر. وجدت الدراسة أن 41,4% من الأطفال هم دون الستة أشهر من العمر، وقد شكل الذكور 53,3%. وعند استخدام مؤشر الطول منسوبا للعمر تبين أن 7,9% من الأطفال كانوا يعانون من التقزم والتقزم الشديد. وباستعمال الوزن منسوبا إلى العمر وجد أن 3, 7% من الأطفال كان لديهم سوء التغذية وسوء التغذية الشديد، بينما باستعمال طريقة الوزن منسوبا إلى الطول وجد أن 2,5% كانت لديهم مشكلة الهزال والهزال الشديد. وعند حساب مؤشر كتلة الجسم منسوبا إلى العمر تبين ان 12,9% من الأطفال كانت لديهم خطورة زيادة الوزن، 3% يعانون من زيادة وزن الجسم و0,5% من السمنة. كما بينت الدراسة أن عمر الأطفال 24-60 شهرا أكثر الأعمار تأثرا وبشكل معنوي بالتقزم وزيادة الوزن، وقد وجدت الدراسة أن الهزال بصورة عامة كان متواجد وبصورة معنوية لدى الأطفال الذين تقع أعمارهم دون الستة أشهر. كما إن الذكور كانوا أكثر عرضة للإصابة بالسمنة من الإناث وبتأثير معنوي أيضا.الاستنتاج: وفرت هذه الدراسة قاعدة معلومات لمؤشرات التحري التغذوي في قضاء الحمدانية والتي يمكن الاستفادة منها في إنشاء وتطوير برنامج على المستوى الوطني وذلك للمراقبة المستمرة للحالة التغذوية للأطفال دون سن الخامسة.


Article
Residual cardiovascular risk in diabetes and obesity: Targeting lipid abnormalities other than LDL cholesterol

Author: Lewai S Abdulaziz MSc, Ph.D*, Faris AK Khazaal FRCP**
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-5
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The majorities of statin-treated patients, in whom low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C) targets have been achieved, have had recurrent cardiovascular events (CVE) with an absolute rate remain even higher among patients with disorders of insulin resistance, metabolic syndrome (MetS) and type2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) as compared to patients devoid of these conditions.Objectives: Provide updated key messages of lipid and lipoprotein abnormalities as indicator for cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk in patients with T2DM and obesity, as well as the current evidence-based treatment targets and interventions to reduce this risk.Key messages: The Residual Risk Reduction Initiative (R3I) emphasized atherogenic dyslipidemia (AD) as the chief modifiable contributor to residual cardiovascular risk, especially in conditions associated with insulin-resistant,and call to improve awareness and clinical management.The probable benefit of residual CVD risk reductionsuggests a role for treatment of persistently high TGconcentration even in statin – treated patients, with TG lowering agents including fibrates, niacin, omega polyunsaturatedfatty acids, and other non statin treatment.Therapeutic lifestyle changes including; medically assistedweight loss, physical activity, and dietary changes, as well as improvement of glycemic control should be an adjunct to lipid-lowering pharmacological therapies. Therapy should be concomitantly assessed for treatment tolerance and adequacy with focused laboratory evaluations and patient follow-up. Therapy should be boosted to attain goals according to risk level, and that even more intensive therapy might be warranted in patients with CVD history.


Article
Weight loss program outcome of obese attending AL-Kindy obesity research and therapy unit

Author: Faris A. K. Khazaal MBChB CABM FRCP*, Abdul Hadi Leibi MBChB CABS*, Insaf Jasim MBChB PhD*, Zidan alherganiMBChB FRCP**
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2015 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 21-24
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: overweight and obesity are the fifth leadingrisk for global deaths. At least 2.8 million adults die eachyear as a result of being overweight or obese. Numerousstudies show that weight loss, even if only 5-10%,significantly improves dyslipidemia, hypertension, diabetesmellitus, risk for osteoarthritis and its symptoms and risk forselected cancers.Objectives: is to evaluate the effect of diet and exerciseprogram on anthropometric and biochemical status of adultobese patients.Methods: descriptive study. 124 adult obese patientsattending Al Kindy obesity research and therapy unit duringDecember 2012 were included. Measurement of Wt, heightHt and WC performed and BMI was calculated. Laboratorytest analysis, on the fasting state, was performed for plasmaglucose, uric acid, Ch, Tg, and HDL, and LDL and VLDLlevels were estimated. Patients were advised aboutdecreasing their weight by decreasing calories intake byabout 500 calories daily with increasing physical activity toone hour of medium tension aerobic exercise for 3 monthsthen reexamined.Results: eighteen point five percents are males and 81.5% are females with mean age of 37.3 years, weight was reduced by 3 kilograms and waist by 6.6 cm and BMI by 1.9Kg/m2 within 3 months. Age groups, 30-39 and 40-49 yearsshowed better response (3.5-4 kg Wt loss), while males lost2.6 kg and female lost 3.8 kg within 3 months. Withreduction of total cholesterol by 17.3 mg/dl and reduction oftotal triglycerides by 24 mg/dl and reduction of LDL by 5mg/dl and of VLDL by 4.3 mg/dl and increment of HDL by1.8 mg/dl. Mean fasting plasma glucose fell by 6.3 mg/dland the uric acid level by 0.13 mg/dl.Conclusions: mean weight loss of this program was modest and middle age group responded to weight loss program better than young significantly, old and males respond less than females but insignificantly. In addition weight loss significantly resulted in correction of lipoproteins, blood glucose, and urate levels.


Article
Evaluation of obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle associations with low back pain in young adults

Authors: Dalia Ahmed Braisem --- Nawras Alaa-Aldeen Hussein, --- Laith Thamer Al-Ameri ,
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 56-60
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: low back pain is one of the most common public health problems and of the most common musculoskeletal complaint. Many risk factors have been considered for developing low back pain include smoking, obesity and sedentary lifestyle.Aim of study: To evaluate smoking, obesity, and sedentary lifestyle associations with low back pain in young adults aged (18 – 39 years).Methods: a comparative cross sectional study for young adults aged 18 – 39 years, participants with low back pain as a symptom constitutes the first group, others free of this symptom considered as the control group. Age and gender matched in both groups. Smoking, obesity and sedentary life style variables collected and analyzed statistically using odd ratio and chi-square Results: One hundred patients were enrolled in the study after 12 patients being removed due to our exclusion criteria. 45 patients were with low back pain, 2:1 male to female ratio, For LBP group; data show 30:15 obese to none obese ratio, 23:22 smokers to none smoker ratio, and ratio of 35:10 with sedentary lifestyle compared to active one. While in the control group, data show 22:33 obese to none obese ratio, 16:39 smokers to none smoker ratio, and ratio of 23:32 with sedentary lifestyle compared to active one. Using Chi-square test, the P- value was of 0.0079, 0.025 and 0.0003 for obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle, respectively. The odds ratio was 3, 2.55 and 4.86 for obesity, smoking, and sedentary lifestyle, respectively. All above results were statistically significant.Conclusion: Each of smoking, obesity and sedentary lifestyle is statistically correlated with low back pain in young adults' age group.


Article
Effect of laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy on blood sugar and blood pressure

Authors: Rida J.Al-Basri*, --- Ali H. Mutar**, --- Ali M. Tali+, --- Sudad M. Salih***
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2019 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 95-102
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Surgery is one and may be the most effective method to treat obesity. In the last decade, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy is perceived to be less invasive, technically simple, less morbid and more popular form of bariatric surgery.Objectives: This study aims to assess the effect of Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy on Fasting Blood Glucose Levels and Blood Pressure. Methods: A prospective controlled study in which 50 obese patients were involved, 36 of patients have hypertension and type 2 diabetes mellitus , 7 patients have type 2 diabetes mellitus only, and 7 patients don’t have hypertension or type 2 diabetes. All patients were submitted to Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy at Al-Kindy Teaching Hospital between October 2014 and October 2016.Results: Forty five of patients were females, while five were males . Mean age was 34 years, mean height 159 cm mean pre Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy weight was 121kg. Mean post- Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy weight was 82kg. Mean weight loss outcome at 1 year follow-up is 32.23% of total body weight. . Preoperative initial mean value of fasting blood glucose was 157.4 mg/dL and the declining occurred at 12 months after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy was 97 mg/dL . The hypertension remission rates 1 year after Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy ranges up to 54% of total number of patients and 75% of those with Hypertension. Conclusions: Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy has an effect in improving Fasting Blood Glucose Levels and Blood Pressure.Key words: Obesity, Laparoscopic Sleeve Gastrectomy Type 2 Diabetes Mellitus, Hypertension . * Corresponding Author: Consultant Surgeon, RJ Al-Basri Department of General Surgery, Al-Kindi Teaching Hospital.

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