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Article
The effect of glucocorticosteroid medication on orthodontically induced root resorption (An experimental study on rats)

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib --- Haraa S. AL-Shaibany
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-82
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Many patients use drugs on a daily basis, and all these drugs have therapeutic effects, as well as side effects
that may influence the cells targeted by orthodontic forces. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of different
courses of glucocorticosteroid treatment on orthodontically induaced root resorption.
Materials and method: A 'Split- mouth design performing orthodontic tooth movement in 30 male Wistar albino rats divided
into three groups: control (n = 10), acute (n = 10) and chronic (n = 10). Acute and chronic groups received corticosteroid
treatment (5 mg/kg/day of methylprednisolone) for 3 and 7 weeks, respectively, while no pharmacological treatment was
performed in the control group. The upper right 1st molar was moved mesially for 21 days in all three groups with a closingcoil
spring delivering 20 g of force to cause orthodontic tooth movement by means of fixed orthodontic appliance. A
histopathological based assessment method for the percentage of root resorption was performed at the coronal and apical
level on both compression and tension sites of the non-appliance and appliance sides.
Results: The results revealed that the acute group showed significantly more root resorption at the compession-coronal level
compared with the control and the chronic course group.
Conclusion: The percentage of root resorption is increased significantly in steroid treated groups compared to control group,
therefore; steroid administration will influence the occurrence of root resorption.
Key words: Glucocoricosteroid; orthodontics; rats; root resorption. J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010; 22(1):79-82.

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Article
The Effect of Fluoridated and Non Fluoridated Mouth Washes on Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Arch Wires At Different Time Intervals (An in Vitro Study)

Authors: Lubna Maky Hussein --- Nidhal H. Ghaib
Journal: Journal of University of Babylon مجلة جامعة بابل ISSN: 19920652 23128135 Year: 2018 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 174-183
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background:The color stability of aesthetic arch wires is an important factor in the success of an aesthetic orthodontic treatment, but the color of these arch wires tends to change with time.This study was performed to assess the effect of two types of mouth washes on the color stability of different types of aesthetic arch wires at different time intervals.Materials and methods:Four brands of nickel titanium coated aesthetic arch wires were used: epoxy coated (Orthotechnology and G&H) and Teflon coated (Dany and Hubit).Thirty six samples were prepared, each sample contains ten halves of the aesthetic arch wires. They were divided into three groups according to the immersion media (distilled water as a control media, Listerine with fluoride and Listerine without fluoride) and immersed for 30 seconds twice daily according to manufacturer's instructions to measure color change after 1 week, 3 weeks and 6 weeks by using spectrophotometer VITA Easyshade Compact according to Commission Internationale de l’Eclairage L*a*b* color space system.Results:It was found that there were highly significant differences in color change values of aesthetic arch wires among all immersion media at different time intervals and color change value increases as the time of immersion increases.Additionally, Listerine with fluoride mouth wash caused higher color change values of aesthetic arch wires than Listerine without fluoride and Hubit aesthetic arch wires were the least color stable while Orthotechnology aesthetic arch wires were the most color stable.Conclusions: We can conclude that the daily use of Listerine mouth washes could affect on the color stability of aesthetic arch wires. Although all tested aesthetic arch wires revealed color changes at variable degrees but some of these changes were not visible and the others were clinically acceptable while the remaining were clinically unacceptable.

الخلفية:إن الأستقرار اللوني لأسلاك التقويم التجميلية عامل مهم في نجاح علاج تقويم الأسنان التجميلي لكن لون هذه الأسلاك يميل الى التغير مع مرور الوقت. تم تنفيذ هذه الدراسة لتقييم تأثير نوعين من غسولات الفم على الأستقرار اللوني لأنواع مختلفة من أسلاك التقويم التجميلية لفترات زمنية مختلفة.المواد والطرق:أستخدمت أربع ماركات من أسلاك النيكل تيتانيوم التجميلية المغلفة: المغلفة بالأيبوكسيOrthotechnology) و (G&H والمغلفة بالتفلون Dany) وHubit). تم تحضير ستة وثلاثين شريط كل شريط يحتوي على عشرة أنصاف من أسلاك التقويم التجميلية. قُسِمت الى ثلاثة مجاميع حسب بيئة الغمر (الماء المقطر, ليستيرين مع الفلورايد وليستيرين بدون الفلورايد) و غُمِرت لمدة ثلاثين ثانية مرتين يومياً وفقاً لتعليمات الشركة المصنعة لغرض قياس مقدار التغير اللوني بعد أسبوع واحد وثلاثة أسابيع ثم ستة أسابيع بأستخدام جهاز فحص الطيف اللوني (VITA Easyshade Compact) وفقاً للمنظمة العالمية للأضاءة.النتائج: لقد وجدت أختلافات معنوية كبيرة في قيم التغير اللوني لأسلاك التقويم التجميلية بين جميع بيئات الغمر لفترات زمنية مختلفة كما إن قيمة التغير اللوني تزداد بزيادة فترة الغمر.أضافة الى ذلك غسول الفم ليستيرين مع الفلورايد سبب تغيراً لونياً بقيم أكبر لأسلاك التقويم التجميلية مقارنة مع ليستيرين بدون الفلورايد وكانت أسلاك التقويم التجميلية لشركة (Hubit) الأقل أستقراراً لونياً في حين كانت أسلاك التقويم التجميلية لشركة (Orthotechnology) الأكثر أستقراراً لونياً.الاستنتاجات: نستطيع أن نستنتج إن الأستعمال اليومي لغسول الفم ليستيرين يمكن أن يؤثر على الأستقرار اللوني لأسلاك التقويم التجميلية.على الرغم من إن جميع أسلاك التقويم التجميلية المُختبرة أظهرت تغيرات لونية بدرجات مختلفة ولكن بعض هذه التغيرات كانت غير مرئية وأخرى مقبولة سريرياً بينما المتبقية كانت غير مقبولة سريرياً.


Article
The relation of the maxillary central incisor, nasal bone, anterior cranial base lengths and the body height in different skeletal patterns

Authors: Nidhal H.Ghaib --- Hussein A. A. M. Al-Najar
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2011 Volume: 23 Issue: 1 Pages: 112-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: The reason for measuring the frontonasal field which include the length of the anterior cranial base , the
nasal bone, and the incisors is that all these structures deviate from normal structures in patients with malformations
of the frontonasal field.
Materials and Methods: Maxillary central incisor, nasal bone and anterior cranial base lengths were measured by
cephalometric analysis of 122 lateral cephalometric radiographs using autocad 2008 program, also body height was
assessed by height measuring standard for adult patients with different skeletal patterns, including CLI (n= 48), CLII
(n= 45), CLIII (n= 29), normal MP-SN angle (n= 70), low angle (n= 28) and high angle (n= 24) .
Results and Conclusion: The maxillary central incisor was longer in high angle males group c. Short nasal bone was
found in CLII males and females and in low angle males group. Longer anterior cranial base was found in low angle
males, while the anterior cranial base was shorter in high angle males.
Key words: Cephalometrics, Maxillary central incisor, Nasal bone, anterior cranial base, Body height. (J Bagh Coll
Dentistry 2011;23(1):112-115).

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Article
Evaluation of the shear bond strength of metal bracket bonded to porcelain restorations (In vitro study)

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib --- Yusir A. J. Al-Shamma&#225;
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2010 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 123-128
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

ABSTRACT
Background: Direct bonding of orthodontic attachments to porcelain is a great challenge. The purpose of this in
vitro study to evaluate the effect of different methods of porcelain surface treatments on the bond strength of metal
bracket bonded directly using ONE-STEP orthodontic adhesive and study the mode of bond failure.
Materials and methods: Sixty maxillary right central incisor porcelain denture teeth were randomly divided into six
groups(Gp),ten specimens for each; Gp.I(P): phosphoric acid 37% (control), Gp.II(PS): phosphoric acid 37% & silane
coupling agent, Gp.III(HS): hydrofluoric acid 9% & silane coupling agent, Gp.IV(SP): sandblasting with 50 &#956;m Al2O3
particles & phosphoric acid 37%, Gp.V(SPS): sandblasting with 50 &#956;m Al2O3 particles, phosphoric acid 37% & silane
coupling agent, Gp.VI(SHS): sandblasting with 50 &#956;m Al2O3 particles, hydrofluoric acid 9% & silane coupling agent.
Metal brackets were bonded to treated porcelain surfaces (Pc.) using One -Step alpha-dent® orthodontic adhesive.
After thermocycling the shear bond strength (SBS) & mode of bond failure were determined.
Results: One Way ANOVA-test showed a statistically highly significant difference (p = 0.000) in SBS of the nonsandblasting
groups and also showed a statistically highly significant difference (p = 0.000) of the sandblasting
groups. SHS Gp. had the highest values in mean shear bond strength (6.459 ± 13 Mpa) of all groups followed by HS
Gp.( 3.961 ± 0.9 Mpa) then SPS Gp.(2.096 ± 0.5 Mpa) then SP Gp.(1.16 ± 0.8 Mpa).On the other hand both P & PS
groups had zero Mpa values of SBS.
Conclusions: The most reliable procedure for bonding orthodontic brackets to porcelain surfaces is through the
surface treatment combinations of three methods: sandblasting, 9% hydrofluoric acid treatment and silane coupling
agent application. On the other hand all other methods produced insufficient SBS for orthodontic treatment.
Adhesive-porcelain interface failure was the predominant mode of bond failure in all groups except the last group,
cohesive failure was the predominant & none of the samples displayed fractures within the porcelain itself during
debonding.
Key words: Orthodontic bonding to porcelain; Shear bond strength. (J Bagh Coll Dentistry 2010;22(2):123-128).

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Article
The multi-detector computed tomographical analysis of bone density in impacted maxillary canines

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب --- Nadia B. Al-Ansari
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 3 Pages: 165-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Maxillary canines are important aesthetically and functionally, but impacted canines are more difficultand time consuming to treat, the aim of this study is to investigate with multi-detector computed tomography thecorrelation between the bone density and the upper canine impaction.Material and method: A sample of Unilaterally impacted maxillary canines from 24 patients (19 female, 5 male) whowere referred to accurately localize the impacted canines at al- Karkh general hospital were evaluated by avolumetric 3-d images by the multi-detector computed tomography to accurately measure the bone density of themaxillary cortical palate of the maxillary impacted canine side and compare it with the other side of the normallyerupted canine.Results: The statistical descriptive analysis showed that the ratio of the maxillary canine impaction was higher infemales than in males, also the it revealed that the mean bone density of the cortical bone was greater in themaxillary impacted canine side (affected side) than in the control side (the side of the normally erupted canine), theWilcoxon signed ranks test showed a significant difference in the mean bone density between the affected side andthe control side.Conclusions: The increased bone density of the maxillary cortical plate could be an obstructive factor that causemaxillary canine impaction


Article
Effect of orthodontic tooth movement on salivary levels of Interleukin-1beta, Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha, and Creactive protein

Authors: Noor Saadi --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 120-125
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Orthodontic force is considered to stimulate cells in the periodontium to release many mediators suchas cytokines which play a responsible role for periodontal and alveolar bone remodeling, bone resorption and newbone deposition. Aim of this study was carried out to estimate changes of the (interleukin-one beta, tumor necrosisfactor – alpha and C-reactive protein) levels in unstimulated whole saliva during the leveling stage of orthodontictooth movement.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of thirty adult patients (12 males and 18 females) with ages ranges (19-23) years. Each sample had Class I and Class II malocclusion dental classification and required bilateral extraction oftheir maxillary first premolars, underwent a session of professional oral hygiene and received oral hygiene instructionsbefore and during the period of study, one month later fixed orthodontic appliance were placed in the upper archby using 0.014 nickel titanium arch wire. The unstimulated whole saliva was taken from each sample immediatelybefore placement of the appliance (baseline), and at (after1hour, after one week and after two week) followingplacement of the fixed orthodontic appliance. In addition the plaque index and gingival index were recordedduring the interval periods of this study to assess oral cleanliness. The interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factoralphawere determined by enzyme linked immunosorbent assay, while the C-reactive protein was determined bylatex agglutination.Results: The results of the present study found the mean value of both salivary (interleukin-one beta and tumornecrosis factor -alpha) were highest at (after1hour) followed by at (after one week) then at (after two week) thanthe baseline with highly statistical significant differences (P< 0.01) among males, females and total samples, inaddition there were no statistical significant differences between males and females (P>0.05). While the mean valuesof C-reactive protein were higher at (after 1hour) only with highly significant differences (P< 0.01) among femalesand total samples while only significant difference (P<0.05) for males, in addition there were no statistical significantdifferences between males and females. Regarding the correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha), there were positive correlation between them at all periods of study. Moreover therewere positive correlation between salivary (interleukin – one beta and tumor necrosis factor -alpha) and salivary Creactiveprotein. On the other hand there were no association between the salivary (interleukin – one beta andtumor necrosis factor -alpha and C-reactive protein) and clinical parameter (plaque index and gingival index).Conclusion: From this clinical study we conclude that orthodontic force induces increasing the levels of (interleukin –one beta, tumor necrosis factor -alpha, C-reactive protein) in unstimulated whole saliva during orthodontic toothmovement.


Article
The Cytotoxicity of Orthodontic Elastomeric Ligatures in Vitro Comparative Study

Authors: Nidhal H. Ghaib --- Khalida K. Al-Kelaby --- Selma M. Hasan
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 311-318
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

The present study was carried out to evaluate the cytotoxicity of orthodontic elastic ligatures in vitro study. Three different colours (transparent, white and yellow) from three different companies were selected. The samples were divided into 9 experimental groups each group had 10 elastic ligatures from the same colour and the same company with control group (cells with no contact with elastomeric ligatures), Also positive control group contain (Phosphate buffer saline) and negative control group contain (Tween 80) were used to verify the results of study. The cell lines were chicken embryo fibroblast and human lymphocyte of healthy person. These cells were exposed to specific media contain the extracted elutes of elastic ligatures after preserving it in this media for different times interval (1,2,3,7 and 28 days). Then the cell viability were measured by using the neutral red dye, the optical densities of living cells were measured by ELISA reader devise at wave length 490 nM, The percentage of viable cells was obtained by comparing the mean optical density (OD) in the control group (cells with no contact with elastomeric ligatures) with that obtained from supernatants of cell cultures that had been in contact with elastomeric ligatures. At the end of study, the results showed that there were increase in the percent of viable cells from the first day of experiment till day 28 and there are highly significant difference between the control group and all the experimental groups at all the periods of experiment. In conclusion there were significant difference among different manufactures, but there are statically no significant difference among different colors from the same manufacturer.

الروابط البلاستيكية هي عباره عن حلقات مطاطيه صغيره تستخدم لربط سلك التقويم مع البراكيت خلال العلاج التقويمي للأسنان .هذه الحلقات البلاستيكية متوفرة بالوان مختلفة ,تستخدم هذه المواد بصوره واسعه في عيادات تقويم الاسنان لذلك يجب الاهتمام بسميه هذه البلاستيكيات التقويمية بصوره رئيسيه الحلقات التي تستخدم داخل الفم لأنها تكون قريبه جدا من اللثة وباقي الأنسجة الرخوة. هذه الدراسة أنجزت لتقييم سميه الروابط الحلقية لتقويم الاسنان خارج الجسم. اخترنا ثلاث الوان مختلفة (شفاف, ابيض, اصفر) من ثلاث شركات مختلفة . النماذج قسمت الى تسع مجاميع تجريبيه كل مجموعه تحتوي على عشرة روابط بلاستيكية من نفس اللون ونفس الشركة مع مجموعه التحكم (خلايا بدون تماس مع الحلقات البلاستيكية) ايضا مجموعة التحكم الموجبة التي تحتوي (فوسفات بفر سلاين) و مجموعة التحكم السالبة التي تحتوي( توين 80) استخدمت لايضاح مصداقية نتائج الدراسة. الزرع الخلوي استخدم لفحص سمية هذه الحلقات البلاستيكية. نوع الزرع الخلوي المستخدم في هذه الدراسة كان من نوع الطبقة الواحدة . خط الخلايا المستخدم كان من نوع الفايبروبلاست لجنين الدجاجة وخلايا الدم (الليمفوسايت) للإنسان السليم . هذه الخلايا تعرضت الى ميديا خاصه تحتوي على مستخلص الروابط البلاستيكية بعد حفظها في هذه الميديا لفترات مختلفة (1, 2,3 ,7 و28 يوم). ومن ثم قمنا بقياس حيوية الخلايا باستخدام الصبغة الحمراء المعتدلة باستخدام جهاز الأليزا بطول موجي 490 نانو ميتر. حصلنا على نسبة الخلايا الحيه من مقارنة معدل الكثافة الضوئية في المجموعة التحكمية (خلايا بدون تماس مع الحلقات البلاستيكية) مع معدل الكثافة الضوئية لمستخلص الزرع الخلوي الذي كان بتماس مع الروابط البلاستيكية. اظهرت النتائج ان هناك زياده في نسبة الخلايا الحيه من اليوم الاول الى اليوم الثامن والعشرون من التجربة وهناك اختلاف كبير في نسبة الخلايا الحيه بين المجموعة التحكمية وكافة المجاميع التجريبية الاخرى في جميع فترات التجربة.استنتجنا ان هناك فرق كبير في نسبة الخلايا الحية بين الشركات المختلفة, لكن لم يكن هناك اختلاف في نسبة الخلايا الحية للألوان المختلفة من نفس الشركة.


Article
Color Stability of Different Aesthetic Archwires (An In vitro study)

Authors: Zainab Th. Noori --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 164-168
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Coated aesthetic archwires are currently the existing solutions for the esthetic problem, but the color ofthese archwires tends to change overtime. This study was aimed to evaluate the color stability of different types ofesthetic archwires from four different companies at different time periods after immersion of two different stainingdrinks which are tea and Pepsi cola.Materials and methods: 48 specimens were prepared, each specimen contains 10 aesthetic archwires; and weredivided according to type of solution into two groups: A (tea) &B (Pepsi cola); each group contained 24 specimens(12 specimens were immersed in the staining solution as 4 specimens for each time intervals and 12 specimens wereimmersed in distilled water as control group). Each subgroup contains one specimen from each company. Colormeasurements were performed by means of a computed spectrophotometer according to the CommissionInternationale de I’Eclairage L*a*b* system, and color changes (ΔE*) and National Bureau of Standards units.Results: Both staining solution caused color change in variable degree and the higher amount of color instability wasfound for the archwires from the Hubit Company while the least amount of color change was for the archwires fromthe Orthotechnology Company.Conclusion: The tea caused highly significant change on the aesthetic archwires which is higher than the effect ofthe Pepsi cola


Article
Assessment of mandibular third molar position by using computed tomography and reconstructed lateral radiograph

Authors: Istabraq M. Mohamed --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 104-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Consideration of mandibular third molar is important from orthodontic perspective due to severalfactors such as, lower anterior arch crowding, relapse in lower anterior region, interference with uprighting ofmandibular first and second molars during anchorage preparation and molar distalization. The aims of this studywere to assess of gender differences in the mandibular third molar position and compare and evaluate whetherthere is any differences in the results provided by CT scan and lateral reconstructed radiograph.Materials and Methods: The sample of present study consisted of 39 patients (18 males and 21 females) with agerange 11-15 years. CT images for patients who were attending at Al Suwayra General Hospital/the ComputerizedTomography department. Computed tomographic images were obtained for The distance from Xi point to distalsurface of permanent mandibular second molar was measured in both three dimensional volumetric images andtwo dimensional CT derived lateral image. The statistical analyses included: means, standard deviations. Paired t-testwas used to compare between the two methods and independent t-test was used in verifying the gendersdifference.Results: The results showed that there was high significant method difference between 3D CT and 2D image andgender differences was observed in values of linear measurements of present study, as males showed higher meanvalues than females.Conclusion: There is high accuracy of measurement on CT images, so CT scan is advisable during the diagnosis andtreatment plan of orthodontic cases


Article
The Effect of Artificial Saliva on The Surface Roughness of Different Esthetic Archwires (An in Vitro Study)

Authors: NoorS. Muayad --- Nidhal H. Ghaib نضال حسين غايب
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2017 Volume: 29 Issue: 3 Pages: 106-112
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background:The demand for esthetic orthodontic appliances is increasing so that the esthetic orthodontic archwires were introduced. This in vitro study was designed to evaluate the surface roughness of fiber-reinforced polymer composite (FRPC) archwires compared to coated nickel-titanium (NiTi) archwires immersed in artificial saliva.Materials and Methods:Three types of esthetic orthodontic archwires were used: FRPC (Dentaurum), Teflon coated NiTi (Dentaurum) and epoxy coated NiTi (Orthotechnology). They were round (0.018 inch) in cross section and cut into pieces of 15 mm in length.Forty pieces from each type were divided into four groups; one group was left dry condition and the other three groups were immersed in artificial saliva (pH=6.75 ± 0.015) at 37ºC for 1, 14 and 28 days intervals. The AFM was used to evaluatesurface analysis of all samples.ANOVA, Kruskal-Wallis, LSD and Mann-Whitney U tests were used to identify and localize the source of differences among the groups.Results:At each immersion period, FRPC wires exhibited the highest Ra among the study groups, except at 28 days immersion period where the Teflon coatings were the roughest. On the other hand, the least rough surfaces were the epoxy coatings when compared to analogous esthetic archwires, except at 1 day immersion period where the Teflon coatings had the least roughness. However, statistically non-significant differences were found between Teflon and epoxy at the dry condition and the 1 day immersion.Conclusions:The epoxy coated archwires were the best and the most appropriate esthetic orthodontic alignment archwires in term of the least surface roughness initially and over the course of study period

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