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Article
Preparation ultra fine particles from Ceramic refractorymaterial using CO2 Laser
تحضبر مساحيق فائقة النعومه من مواد سيراميكيه صناعيه باستعمال تقانة ليزر ثاني اوكسيد الكاربون

Authors: Talib Khalil Ibrahim طالب خليل ابراهيم --- Tarik Talib Issa, طارق طالب عيسى
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2009 Volume: 7 Issue: 8 Pages: 82-84
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Samples of compact magnesia and alumina were evaporated using CO2-laser .The
Processed powders were characterized by electron microscopy and both scanning and transmission electron microscope. The results indicated that the particle size for both powders have reduced largely to 0.003 nm and 0.07 nm for MgO and Al2O3, with increasing in shape sphericity

حضرت مساحيق فائقة النعومه لمكبوسات المواد السيراميكيه ,اوكسيد المغنيسيوم واوكسيد الالمنيوم , حضرت باستعمال تقانة ليزر ثاني اوكسيد الكاربون . درست خصائصها التركيبيه بواسطة الحيود الالكتروني والمجهر الالكتروني الماسح والنافذ. النتائج بينت الاختزال بمقدار الحجم الحبيبي للمساحيق المحضره بحيث اصبحت بمقدار 0.003 نانو متر لمسحوق اوكسيد المغنيسيوم و لاوكسيد الالمنيوم0.07 , مع زياده في شكل الكرويه للحبيبات


Article
Histological Changes in The Liverof Mice Treated with Cadmium
التغيرات النسجية في كبد الفئران المعاملة بالكادميوم

Author: Ahmed Anwar Albir أحمد أنور البير
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2013 Volume: 54 Issue: 1 Pages: 50-54
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study was conducted using 15 adult male Swiss albino mice (weighing 35-45g). They were equally divided into three experimental groups. The first group was only given water as control during experimentation period (28days). Both of the second and third groups of mice were daily given a subcutaneous injection of cadmium as cadmium chloride (CdCl2) at a dose of 2mg and 4 mg Cd/Kg body weight respectively. The examination of the histological sections of the second experimental group of mice showed abundant histological changes in the hepatocytes such as increased size, presence of spaces and dense appearance of the cytoplasm, whereas these changes were more abundant in the hepatocytes of the third experimental group of mice in comparison with the second experimental group such as increased size and tubular- shaped hepatocytes, presence of spaces and dense appearance of the cytoplasm.

أجريت هذه الدراسة على خمسة عشر فأراً بالغاً من الذكور تراوحت اوزانها بين 35-45غم. قسمت الحيوانات الى ثلاثة مجاميع بواقع خمسة فئران للمجموعة. المجموعة الأولى كانت بمثابة مجموعة السيطرة حيث شربت الماء طوال فترة الدراسة البالغـة (28) يوم. تم اعطاء فئران كل من المجموعة الثانية والثالثة حقنة يومية منالكادميوم (Cd) تحت الجلد على شكل كلوريد الكادميومCdCl2 (2mg و 4mg/كجم) من وزن الجسم على التوالي.أوضحت نتائج فحص المقاطع النسجية لفئران المجموعة الثانية تغيرات نسجية واضحة في الخلايا الكبدية كزيادة حجم الخلايا، وجود كل من الفراغات والمظهر الكثيف للسايتوبلازم بينما كانت هذه التغيرات في الخلايا الكبدية لفئران المجموعة الثالثة أكثر وضوحاً مقارنة بفئران المجموعة الثانية كزيادة حجم الخلايا الكبدية واتخاذها شكلاً انبوبيا وكذلك وجود كل من الفراغات والمظهر الكثيف للسايتوبلازم

Keywords

Cadmium --- Liver --- Mice


Article
PROTECTIVE EFFECT OF ETHANOLIC GINGER EXTRACT AGAINST CADMIUM TOXICIY IN MALE RABBITS
التأثير الوقائي للخلاصة الكحولية للزنجبيل ضد التسمم بالكادميوم في ذكور الأرانب

Author: Ahlam A. AL-Rikabi Ala AL-Deen H. Jawad * احلام علي علاء الدين حسن جواد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 13-29
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was done to evaluate the hypoglycemic potentials of ginger(zingiber officinale ) in controlling hyperglycemia ,hypoinsulinemia and theireffect on total cholesterol in cadmium-induced pancreotoxicity in male rabbitsTwenty four of adult male rabbits were divided randomly into four equal groups.Group 1 was given distilled water orally and considered as control group, group 2received 10mg/kg B.w of cadmium chloride, group 3 received 100mg/ kg B.w ofginger extract plus 10mg/kg B.w of cadmium chloride and group 4 received200mg/ kg B.w of ginger extract plus 10mg/kg B.w of cadmium chloride. Alltreatments were given a daily dose for 35 days.The blood sample was taken from these animal groups after 35 days of treatmentfor biochemical analysis to estimate : insulin hormone, blood glucose ,totalcholesterol, Aspartate amino transferase (AST) , Alanine aminotranferase(ALT)and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP).The results showed that cadmium chloride administration resulted in a decrease inthe level of insulin concentration associated with an increase in glucose and totalcholesterol concentration in rabbits .The enzyme activities of serum ALT, AST andALP were also significantly increased . While , the groups of animal that receivedginger showed significant decrease in serum glucose , cholesterol , AST, ALT andALP. The level of insulin was also increased in these groups of animal.


Article
EFFECTS OF ETHANOLIC GINGER EXTRACT ON OXIDATIVE STRESS AND SOME TRACE ELEMENTS IN CADMIUM – INDUCED TOXICITY IN MALE RABBITS
تأثيرالمستخلص الكحولي للزنجبيل على الإجهاد التأكسدي وبعض العناصر النادرة في ذكور الأرانب المعرضة للكاميوم.

Author: Ahlam A. AL-Rikabi Ala AL-Deen H. Jawad احلام علي الركابي علاء الدين حسن جواد
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 228-242
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

This study was conducted to evaluate the antioxidant activity of ginger (zingiber officinale) in preventing oxidative stress ,lipid peroxidation and changes in trace elements induced by cadmium toxicity in male rabbits .For this purpose twenty four of adult male rabbits were divided randomly in to four groups ( 6 in each). Group 1 was given distilled water and considered as control group, group 2 received ( 10mg/kg B.w) of cadmium chloride , group 3 received ( 100mg/ kg B.w) of ginger extract plus (10mg/kg B.w) of cadmium chloride , group 4 received (200mg/ kg B.w) of ginger extract plus of cadmium chloride(10mg/kg B.w) . All treatments were orally given a single dose for 35 days. The water and food were provided add libitum.After the end of the treatment blood samples were taken for biochemical analysis to estimate serum Malondialdehyde ( MDA) , Antioxidant activity (Glutathione , Superoxide dismutase and Catalase ) and Trace elements (Zinc, Copper and Iron ) .The result showed that the administration of cadmium chloride resulted in ahigh concentration of malondialdehyde ( MDA) and caused a significant decrease inboth superoxide dismutase and catalase and reduced glutathione. Serum levels oftrace elements were also significantly decreased. While , ginger extractadministration and cadmium chloride increased and restored their levels to nearnormal in comparing with cadmium chloride treated rabbits.

Keywords

antioxidant --- cadmium --- rabbits


Article
Cadmium Chloride (CdCl2)-Induced Apoptosis in Liver of Mice

Author: Khalid Hamdan Gathwan خالد حمدان
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 3 Pages: 309-312
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Cadmium (Cd) is an industrial and environmental pollutant that affect adversely a number of organs in humans and other mammals.Objectives: To study the effect of cadmium on liver of mice. Material and Methods: Male Balb/c mice weighing 30-32 gm, 60 days old, were treated intraperitoneally (ip) with (1-10mg/kg body wt. /CdCl2). The body weight, liver weight, histological examination of liver, SEM, metal analysis along with DNA ladder for apoptosis.Results: Cadmium induced both a time, and dose dependent increase in apoptotic, severity of necrosis. Liver weight, body weight decreased with increase of dose, while metal content was increased by increase of dose.Conclusion: It has been concluded that cadmium caused necrotic effect on liver and apoptotic as well as decreased body weight and liver weight.Key words: Cadmium, mice, metal analysis, apoptosis.

Keywords

Cadmium --- mice --- metal analysis --- apoptosis.


Article
Interaction between Parsley Petroselinum Crispum and Cadmium: Field Study on Some Agricultural Areas in Baghdad City and Experimental Study on Albino Mice Males
التداخل بين المعدنوس Petroselinum crispum والكادميوم: دراسة حقلية لبعض الأراضي الزراعية في مدينة بغداد ودراسة مختبرية على ذكور الفئران البيض

Authors: Huda A. Yousuf هدى عبد المسيح يوسف --- Fawzi Shnawa Al-Zubaidi فوزي شناوه الزبيدي --- Waleed H. Yousif وليد حميد يوسف
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2014 Volume: 55 Issue: 3A Pages: 949-956
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study consists of two parts, field and experimental. In field part; cadmium concentrations were measured in soil and parsley Petroselinum crispum samples of five different agricultural areas in Baghdad city. These areas were located in Al-Rashdiah, Tounis quarter, Al-Shamasiah quarter, Al-Itaifiah and Al-Twaithah. Soil cadmium concentrations were (1.72, 1.25, 1.52, 3.45 and 3.33) mg/kg in Al- Rashdiya, Tunis quarter, Al- Shamasiya quarter, Al- Attaifiya and Al-Tuaithah respectively, while concentrations in parsley were (0.28, 0.26, 0.28, 0.39 and 0.38) mg/kg respectively. Experimentally, five groups of albino mice males (10 mice each) were administered with different concentrations of cadmium (0.0, 0.25, 0.5, 0.75 and 7.5) mg Cd/kg b.w. orally by using gavages needle for 60 days according to 5 days/week protocol, another five mice groups were administered with the same concentrations of cadmium mentioned above and 0.1 ml of parsley Petroselinum crispum juice. At the end of the experiment, mice liver and kidney were isolated to measure the bioaccumulation of cadmium

تضمنت هذه الدراسة جانبين، حقلي ومختبري. في الجزء الحقلي، قيست تراكيز الكادميوم في عينات التربة ونبات المعدنوس Petroselinum crispum لخمسة اراضي زراعية في مناطق مختلفة من مدينة بغداد وهي الراشدية و حي تونس و حي الشماسية و العطيفية والتويثة. كانت تراكيز الكادميوم في التربة 1.72) و 1.25 و 1.52 و 3.45 و (3.33 ملغم/كغم في كل من الراشدية و حي تونس و حي الشماسية و العطيفية والتويثة بالتتالي، في حين كانت تراكيزه في عينات المعدنوس 0.28) و 0.26 و 0.28 و 0.39 و 0.38) ملغم/كغم بنفس الترتيب. مختبرياً، تم تجريع خمس مجموعات من ذكور الفئران البيض مقسمة الى عشرة فئران لكل مجموعة بتراكيز مختلفة من الكادميوم (0.0 و 0.25 و 0.5 و 0.75 و 7.5) ملغم كادميوم/ كغم وزن جسم بطريقة التجريع الفموي الإجباري لمدة 60 يوما بواقع 5 أيام في الاسبوع، وخمس مجموعات أخرى بنفس التقسيم تم تجريعها بنفس تراكيز الكادميوم المذكورة أعلاه و0.1 مل من عصير المعدنوس. في نهاية التجربة عزل الكبد والكلى و قيس التركيز التراكمي الحيوي للكادميوم فيها.


Article
Histopathological Effects of Cadmium Chloride on Barbus sharpeyi
التأثيرات النسجية المرضية لكلوريد الكادميوم في اسماك البنيBarbus sharpeyi

Authors: Noor M.Salman نور محمد سلمان --- AbdAlmotalib J. Al-Rudainy عبدالمطلب جاسم الرديني --- Anaam B. Faleh انعام بدر فالح
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2015 Volume: 56 Issue: 1C Pages: 713-722
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present study including determined pathological changes in Barbus sharpeyi, as well as description behavior and growth of bunni fish by used 180 fingerlings, Fish were distributed randomly upon four treatments in addition to control group. First treatment (T1) contained cadmium 0.093mg/L with changing water and added cadmium continuously, the second treatment (T2) contained cadmium 0.093mg/L with changing water without adding cadmium, third treatment (T3) contained cadmium 0.046mg/L with changing water and adding cadmium continuously, fourth treatment (T4) contained cadmium 0.046mg/L with changing water without adding cadmium. In order to estimate LC50 used 120 fingerlings of fish B. sharpeyi, were exposed to 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9 and 1.0mg/L. The LC50 of cadmium was 0.932mg/L for 48h of exposure. Fish behavior was recorded showed abnormalities after exposure to the various cadmium concentrations such as swimming disorders, the fish tended together at the surface, fast movement, fish aggregate in aquarium border, fish weakness, opened and closed in operculum festally, as well as a significant decrease at (P≤0.05) in body weight of T1,T2 and T3. Histopathological changes in gills characterized by lamellar fusion, lifting of secondary lamella, The main findings in liver tissue were hydropic swelling and fatty degeneration of some hepatocytes, focal or diffuse necrosis, Kidney result varying degrees of tubular necrosis with severe congestion together with melanomacrophage infiltration. Intestine results showed slauphing and necrosis of mucosal epithelial of intestinal villi and diffuse MNCs infiltration, hyperplasia and hypertrophy of goblet cell. Spleen observed severe destruction in spleenic parenchyma, severe reduction in hemopoitic tissue.

هدفت الدراسة الحالية معرفة التأثيرات المرضية في اسماك البني ووصف التغيرات السلوكية ونمو الاسماك باستعمال 180اصبعية من اسماك البني, قسمت الى اربع معاملات فضلا عن معاملة السيطرة ، المعاملة الاولى احتوت على الكادميوم بتركيز 0.093 ملغم/لتر مع تبديل ماء الحوض كلياً واضافة الكادميوم , اما المعاملة الثانية احتوت على الكادميوم بتركيز 0.093 ملغم/لتر مع تبديل ماء الحوض كلياً باستمرار دون اضافة الكادميوم, والثالثة بتركيز 0.046 ملغم/لتر مع تبديل ماء الحوض كلياً واضافة الكادميوم, والرابعة بتركيز 0.046 ملغم/لتر مع تبديل ماء الحوض كلياً باستمرار دون اضافة الكادميوم. أستعمل 120 أصبعية من أسماك لغرض تحديد التركيز المميت الوسطي وذلك بتعريض الأصبعيات للتراكيز الأتية (0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8, 0.9, 1.0 ملغم/ لتر(وكان التركيز المميت الوسطي 0.932 ملغم/لتر خلال 48 ساعة. شملت الدراسة وصف التغيرات في سلوك الأسماك المعاملة اذ أختلف سلوكها حسب تركيز الكادميوم في الحوض وتمثلت بالسباحة بصورة عمودية متجهة لاسفل الحوض والسباحة على سطح الماء والحركة السريعة للاسماك وتجمع الاسماك في احدى زوايا الحوض وزيادة حركة الغطاء الغلصمي.وأظهرت نتائج التحليل الأحصائي أنخفاصآ معنويآ بمستوى (P≤0.05) في معدل أوزان الأسماك في المعاملات الاولى والثانية والثالثة. تميزت التغيرات النسجية في الغلاصم بأندماج وألتصاق الصفائح الغلصمية أضافة الى تلف الخلايا في ظهارة الصفائح الغلصمية الثانوية. أما نسيج الكبد فتميز بوجود التورم الأستسقائي مصحوبآ بالتنكس الدهني و نخربؤري منتشر. أما الكلية فأظهرت درجات متفاوتة مابين التنكس النبيبي وحدوث النخر المصحوب بأحتقان الأوعية مع أرتشاح الخلايا البلعمية الميلانينية. أما الأمعاء فتميزت بانسلاخ وتنخرالمخاطية الظهارية من الزغابات المعوية وارتشاح الخلايا وحيدة النواة وتضخم وزيادة الخلايا الكأسية.أما نسيج الطحال فأظهرتحطم في خلايا الطحال ونفاذ اللمف في اللب الابيض واختزال في الانسجة الدموية.


Article
Structural and optical properties of CdO and CdO0.99Cu0.01 thin films prepared by pulsed laser deposition technique
الخصائص التركيبية والبصرية لأغشيه CdO و CdO0.99Cu0.01و المحضرة بتقنية ترسيب الليزر النبضي

Author: Eman K. Hassan إيمان كريم حسن
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Physics المجلة العراقية للفيزياء ISSN: 20704003 Year: 2015 Volume: 13 Issue: 28 Pages: 170-178
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Structural and optical properties of CdO and CdO0.99Cu0.01 thin films were prepared in this work. Cadmium Oxide (CdO) and CdO0.99Cu0.01semiconducting films are deposited on glass substrates by using pulsed laser deposition method (PLD) using SHG with Q-switched Nd:YAG pulsed laser operation at 1064nm in 6x10-2 mbar vacuum condition and frequency 6 Hz. CdO and CdO0.99Cu0.01 thin films annealed at 550 C̊ for 12 min. The crystalline structure was studied by X-ray diffraction (XRD) method and atomic force microscope (AFM). It shows that the films are polycrystalline. Optical properties of thin films were analyzed. The direct band gap energy of CdO and CdO0.99Cu0.01 thin films were determined from (αhυ)1/2 vs. photon energy curve and found to be 2.3 eV for CdO thin film, comparing with that the CdO0.99Cu0.01film which found to be 2.2eV. The electrical measurements shows that the conductivity and mobility of the charge carriers increase when Cu doped CdO.

في هذا البحث تمت دراسة الخصائص التركيبية و البصرية للأغشية الرقيقةCdO و CdO0.99Cu0.01. حيث تم ترسيب أغشية أُكُسيد الكادميوم (CdO) و CdO0.99Cu0.01على ركائز من الزجاج بواسطة تقنية ترسيب الليزر النابضي (PLD) باستخدام SHG مع Q-switched ليزر نبضي nm 1064 في6x10-2 mbar حالة الفراغ وبتردد 6 هيرتز. وتم تلدين الاغشية المحضرة CdO و CdO0.99Cu0.01عند درجة حرارة 550 درجة مئوية و لمدة 12 دقيقة. تمت دراسة البنية البلورية لحيود الأشعة السينية ( XRD ) و مجهر القوة الذرية (AFM) مما دل على ان نمو الاغشية المحضره بشكل متعدد التبلور. كما تم تحليل الخصائص البصرية للأغشية الرقيقة وتحديد فجوة الطاقة المباشرة للاغشيةCdo و CdO0.99Cu0.01 من رسم العلاقه بين (αhυ)1/2 مقابل منحنى طاقة الفوتون و وجدت ان فجوة الطاقة مساوية الىeV 2.3 لأغشية CdO، مقارنة مع لأغشيةCdO0.99Cu0.01 والتي وجدت انها مساويه الى eV2.2. كما بينت القياسات الكهربائية ان التوصيلية وتحركية نواقل الشحنه تزداد في حالة تشويب اوكسيد الكادميوم CdO بمادة النحاس مادة النحاس .Cu


Article
Effects of Cadmium on sperm parameters, histological and hormonal changes in testes of mature rats.

Author: Ban T. Saeed
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Embryos and Infertility Researches المجلة العراقية لبحوث الأجنة والعقم ISSN: eISSN: 26166984 / pISSN: 22180265 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 6 Pages: 38-43
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Cadmium (Cd) is a heavy metal toxicant, present widely in our environment and workplaces.It is well known that cadmium causes adverse effects on male reproductive organs and reproductive functions in experimental animals.Objective:This experiment was designed to findouttheeffectofcadmiumonsomehistologicalandhormonalparameters of the reproductive system of adult male rats.Methods:thirty mature albino male rat were used (Rattus rattus norvegicus albinus), as a mammalian model. these animals were divided into two groups, 15 rat / group after labeling them. The control group (G1) was orally administrated with distilled water during the 4 weeks period of the experiment and the experimental group (G2) was orally administrated with 20 ml cadmium chloride (200 mg/1L body weight) during the 4 weeks. First of all, the rat were anesthetized, after that blood aspiration using anesthetic cardiac puncture and the serum was separated and store at -20ºC until assessment of FSH , LH and testosterone hormones. After that, the weight of reproductive organs (testis,epididymus and seminal vesicle) was recorded. These organs were fixedwith10%formalsalineforhistologicalstudy.Results:The statistical analysis shows a significant(P<0.05)decreaseintheweightofthe testesandseminalvesicles when compared with control group. The results of the sperm parameters show a significant(P< 0.05) decrease in sperm concentration and a highly significant(p≤0.01)decreaseinspermmotilityin treated group as compared to control . The result of testicular sections in treated group shows a decrease in thickness of germ cells layer, widening of the central seminiferous tubules lumen and prominent germ cells population necrosis. Multiple vacuoles were seen within the tubules. Sertoli cells were abnormal in number and shape as compared to control. A peritubular fibroticchangehadbeenseen also in the testicular sections. The result also shows a highly significantdecreaseindiametersof seminiferous tubules, primary spermatocytes, secondary spermatocytes, spermatids and increase in interstitial space when treated with cadmium compared with control group. The Levels of serum hormones shows a significant(P<0.05)decreaseinthelevelsoftestosteroneandLHhormonesmeanin the treated group ,while highly significant(p≤0.01)increaseintheFSHhormonemeaninthetreatedgroup when compared to the levels mean of the hormone in the control group..Conclusion:In conclusion, these findingssuggestthatcadmiumadministrationwith20mlcadmiumchloride (200mg/1L body weight) for 4 weeks during the adulthood induced damage in the reproductive organs and lead to impair the functions of sperm parameters and cause histological and hormonal alterations.

Keywords

cadmium --- rats --- reproductive organs --- testis.


Article
The Effects of Sputtering Time on Cds Thin Film Solar Cell Deposited by DC Plasma Sputtering Method

Authors: Azhar K. Sadkhan --- Mohammed K. Khalaf
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2018 Volume: 36 Issue: 2 Part (C) Pages: 123-127
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

CdS thin films of different thickness have been prepared by dcsputtering technique on glass slides for a window layer of solar cells. The CdStarget were sputtered in different sputtering times (1,1.5,2.5,3) hrs, workingpressure (2×10-2) mbar and discharge voltage(2) kV.The structure of thenanoparticles films was investigated of CdS thin films by X-ray diffraction(XRD).The XRD patterns showed that the films were hexagonal (wurtzite)structure having strong preferential orientation along the (002) plane withparticle size in the range of (41.04-41.46-41.88-42.53) nm, the peak at (002)preferred orientations of the films are shifted a little from left to right side andfilms converted to crystalline form. The morphology of the nanoparticles filmswas studied by atomic force microscopy (AFM) which indicates that theaverage grain size of CdS thin film is in the range of (41.3-44.2-51.6-50.08) nm.The roughness of films surface increases with increasing the sputtering time,which can be useful for the solar cell.

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