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Article
Familial Mediterranean Fever in a Sample of Iraqi Patients

Author: Ali Abdul Kadhim Al – Sultany
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 97-101
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Up to the best of my knowledge, despite the fact that Arabs have a high prevalence of Familial Mediterranean fever (FMF) and its gene, little information is available about the natural history of this disease in Iraqi population.OBJECTIVE:This study had been designed to clarify the natural of FMF among Iraqi people.METHODS:This study is a Follow up (cohort) study that enrolled 23 patients with FMF, 17 of them were male. The sample had been randomly selected from those had attended Al – Shaheed Al – Sadr Hospital(Baghdad / Iraq ) during the period from the first of April, 2003 to the 31st of March 2005. All of the patients had been subjected to thorough physical examination and all of the required investigation had been done.RESULTS:Age of the patients who had been included in this study ranged between (14 – 59) year old (21.57 + 18.7 year old). All of them were Arab Muslims. Fever and abdominal pain had been observed in all of the patients included in this study at variable time during the disease course. All of the patients included in this (23 patients) had responded well to colchicines treatment (dose of 2 mg/ day). Statistical analysis revealed a significant reduction in the number of attacks per year with the use of prophylactic colchicines (calculated t = 3.94, p value < 0.005).CONCLUSION:This study had shown that Iraqi Arabic population might have a batter survival and less risk, if present, of developing amyloiedosis and all of its sequelae. This point needs to be clarified more by doing much larger studies that enroll larger number of Arabs population and for longer period .furthermore, this study had indicated that colchicines is effective in reducing the number of attacks of familial Mediterranean fever per year of follow-up in addition to its efficacy in relieving the acute attack.

Keywords

Familial --- Mediterranean --- Arab --- Colchicines


Article
HLA ANTIGENS OF ARAB CHRISTIANS IN IRAQ

Author: Batool M. Mahdi* د. بتول مطر مهدي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2005 Volume: 47 Issue: 2 Pages: 145-155
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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SummaryBACKGROUND: Iraq had more than twenty-four millions inhabitants of populations. This nation is one of the most populated countries in the world. It is difficult to define Iraqi populations genetically (HLA polymorphism) because they are structured of a mixture of many groups. HLA phenotype frequencies that encoded by many closely linked genes that are responsible for a variety of cell surface alloantigen proteins that are responsible for differences in different ethnic groups. Arab Christians in Iraq, accounting for more than three millions inhabitant mostly the northwest and other parts of Iraq. This raised the need for a preliminary study of the HLA trend in this population. Aim of study:1-Estimating the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) and class II (DR and DQ) alleles in Iraqi Arab Christians.2-Assessing the genetic relationship between Iraqi Arab Christians and other Arabian, Asian and European populations.Materials and Methods: A total of unrelated 568 Iraqi Arab Christians (AC) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al- Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine) were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004.Results and conclusions: The phenotypes of all loci of (AC) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. In case of HLA-A locus, three variants dominate this locus Al(0.123), A2 (0.149) and A3(0.134) which showed some similarities with Arabian , Asian and European people in the world. A3 had been found to be associated with Hereditary Hemochromatosis (HH) but the risk increased when there is a linkage disequilibrium between A3/B14. Fortunately, BI4 allele had a low frequency in this group and common allele was B35(0.154) and 851(0.128) which had an association with Behqet 's syndrom. So one can predict high incidence of this disease in this group of population. Last locus was studied in class I was Cw4 that had a higher rate (0.173) in HLA -Cw loci.In case of class II, it was done on small number of persons and the common allele was DR2(53.84%) which is protective from insulin dependent diabetes mellitus disease while DQ1 is common allele in HLA-DQ loci.HLA typing of (AC) had some similarity with Arabian people because of their same ancestry and also had some similarity with Caucasoid Europeans because of outbreading and intermixing with those populations due to migration.Key wards: HLA, Christian, Arab, Iraq.

Keywords

HLA --- Christian --- Arab --- Iraq.


Article
Bulid-up a flow injection analysis unit for ammonium determination in the Shatt Al-Arab water.
بناء وحدة تحليل حقن جرياني لتقدير أيون الأمونيوم في مياه شط العرب.

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Abstract

Abstract - A Semi- automated flow injection analysis (FIA) unit was build-up for determination of ammonium ion in water samples from the Shatt Al-Arab River during the period from October 2009 to September 2010. The ammonium concentrations in water have been measured, at each of the eight stations (Qurnah (Tigres), Qurnah (Euphrates), Saad Bridge, Garmat Ali, Ashar, Abu Al-Khaseeb, Al-Seeba and Fao), monthly. The results indicated that (NH4+) concentrations increasing during May, June and July, 2010 especially in stations 5 and 6 were 0.95, 1.35 µg/ml , 1.30, 1.25 µg/ml and 1.45, 1.40 µg/ml, respectively. The FIA unit was applied successfully for the determination of ammonium in Shatt Al-Arab water sample and provide simple, fast, and reproducible methods for ammonium determination in water.

المستخلص - تم بناء وحدة تحليل حقن جرياني شبه ذاتية لتقدير أيون الأمونيوم في عينات مياه شط العرب شهرياً للفترة من تشرين الأول 2009 لغاية أيلول2010 في ثمان محطات ]القرنة (دجلة)، القرنة (الفرات)، جسر سعد، گرمة علي، العشار، أبو الخصيب، السيبة والفاو[ تشير النتائج الى زيادة في تراكيز أيون الأمونيوم خلال أشهر مايس، حزيران وتموز 2010 وخصوصاً في المحطات 5 و 6 وكالأتي (1.35, 0.95)، (1.25, 1.30) و(1.40, 1.45) مايكروغرام/مل وعلى التوالي. أن وحدة تحليل الحقن الجرياني لتقدير أيون الأمونيوم طبقت بنجاح ووفرت هذه الطريقة بسيطة وسريعة وأستعادية.


Article
HLA Antigens Among Iraqi Muslims Arabs And Kurds

Authors: Batool M. Mahdi --- Khalida M. Al-Moussawy --- Abdul Wahab A.R. Al-Shaikhly --- Ali H. Ad’hiah
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 94-97
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: The HLA system is a relevant tool in population genetics analysis. From the genetic point of view, the HLA system is of general interest because of the extreme polymorphism of all known HLA loci. The allele and haplotype frequencies have a wide diversity among human population and differ in geographically and racially among populations. Iraq had a high percentage of Muslims people that distributed in two groups (Arab and Kurd). These groups are ancient populations and affected by many settlement in many centuries ago. These ancient settlements had left marks on the genetic structure of the modern Iraqi populations. The later immigrations to other countries were high in later years. The aim of study is to estimate the gene frequency of HLA class I (A, B, Cw) alleles in Iraqi Arab Muslims and Kurd Muslims and determine the genetic differences between them. METHODS: A total of unrelated 1400 Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and 705 Kurd Muslims (KM) healthy volunteers and individuals referred to Immunology and Tissue Typing Center in Al-Karamah Teaching Hospital for organ transplantation and Forensic medicine, were examined for HLA polymorphism using complement dependent cytotoxicity test from June-2003 to April-2004. RESULTS: The phenotypes of HLA typing of Iraqi Arab Muslims (AM) and Kurd Muslims (KM) were in agreement with Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium. Regarding HLA class I (A and Cw loci), there was a significant differences between these groups. Lasly, there was no significant difference between them in HLA-B. CONCLUSIONS: This may be due to their inhabitants different area in Iraq, and also due to their different origin as Arab and Kurd races with mild differences due to outbreeding and migration. The effects of invaders and settlements from out side the country and intermixing with them may play an important role in these differences


Article
Arbitrariness As Seen By Arab and English Linguists

Author: Jassim Mohammed Rayhan
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2014 Volume: 1 Issue: 22 Pages: 303-310
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

language is both individual and social process .It is individual in the sense that it expresses one’s thoughts and feelings .It is also social since its use demands , in most cases, a speaker and a listener. A pre-requisite for communication is existence of common ground on which the users of the language should agree.At present, Linguists realize that what is true of one language is not necessarily true of another .Thus each language is studied according to its logic. In other words, languages follow no universal logic. Each language provides an intricate system of symbols that dissects nature in its own way. It is found that every nation has satisfied in using its language as far as it achieves the individuals needs. Though languages have been found to be basically arbitrary. They are not based on logic as in the case of mathematical concept. It is hard to explain why this object or concept is given a certain name. Also if there are certain justifiable natural forms in every language , they cannot be regarded more than exceptions. Therefore, arbitrariness is the dominant Property of language and these exceptions support and reinforce that domination.

Keywords

Linguists --- arbitrriness --- arab --- lnguage --- logic --- written language


Article
Fungi Colonies Effect on Fatigue Behavior of 7075Al Alloy

Authors: Hussain J. Al-Alkawi --- Amer Hameed Majeed --- Fatima Ali Hussain
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2016 Volume: 34 Issue: 8 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 1483-1490
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The effect of fungi colonies on fatigue of 7075 aluminum alloys was studied for specimens corroded at different media. 57 specimensof aluminum alloys were submerged in Shat-Arab water (Sh.A.W) for four months at different conditions (at light media (9 fungi colonies), dark media (80 fungi colonies))and then applying constant fatigue tests after removing the specimens from the corrosion media . The results show that the fungi colonies can corroded Al alloy the reduction of pre-corroded specimens at light media (9 fungi colonies) was 13% and for specimens at dark media (80 fungi colonies) was 22% , and a nonlinear damage model was proposed to predict the cumulative corrosion fatigue life


Article
Future of the Arab Nationalist Security Under Regional Challenges
مستقبل الأمن القومي العربي في ظل التحديات الإقليمية

Authors: Abdulkhaliq Shamil Mohammed عبد الخالق شامل محمد --- Salah Ibrahim Hamadi صلاح ابراهيم حمادي
Journal: Tikrit Journal for Political Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم السياسية ISSN: ISSN: 23126639 EISSN: 26699203 Year: 2018 Issue: 15 Pages: 175-193
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Given its geostrategic importance and geopolitical status, the Arab region has become, throughout its formative stages, an arena for competition and conflict between regional and international non - Arab forces and actors as each of these powers carried a perspective and a grand strategic vision towards the Arab region aiming through which to achieve their hegemony project in the region. This coincided with the absence of or lack of a unified Arab strategy or vision to prevent this from happening.

نظرًا لأهميتها الجيواستراتيجية ووضعها الجغرافي السياسي ، فقد أصبحت المنطقة العربية ،طوال مراحل تشكيلها ، ساحة للمنافسة والصراع بين القوى الإقليمية والعربية غير الفاعلة والجهاتالفاعلة لأن كل من هذه القوى تحمل منظوراً ورؤية استراتيجية كبرى نحو المنطقة العربية تهدف منخلالها إلى تحقيق مشروع هيمنتها في المنطقة . تزامن ذلك مع غياب أو عدم وجود استراتيجية أو رؤيةعربية موحدة لمنع حدوث ذلك


Article
RELATIONSHIP BETWEEN WEIGHT AND MORTALITY RATIO OF COMMON CARP CYPRINUSCARPIOCULTIVATED IN FLOATING CAGES DURING ACUTE INCREASING OF TEMPERATURE
علاقة الوزن مع نسب بقاء اسماك الكارب الشائعCyprinuscarpioالمستزرعة في الاقفاص العائمة عند الارتفاع الحاد لدرجات الحرارة

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Current study was conducted in 13 floating cages located in Shatt Al-Arab Riverbank at Al-Hartha District. Common carp Cyprinuscarpio of different weights (290-1700gm) and numbers (400-1047) fish/cage was cultivated in these cages. Observation wasalso taken from earthen pond at the same location cultivated with common carp, silvercarp Hypophthalmichthys molitrix and grass carp Ctenopharyngodonidella. Resultsshowed that water temperature range between 30-35 0C during May-June, 2015 and arange of 36- 38 0C during July-August, 2015 in floating cages, while in earthen pondthere were 1 0C more. Salinity don’t differ too much during experiment and rangebetween 1.5-3 ppt. Results of earthen pond revealed no fish mortality during experimentfor three species cultivated in this pond. Results appeared that fish mortality during MayJune don’t largely differed and its ranged between 0.709%-1.861% and there weren’t anyrelationship between fish mortality and fish weight. Different fish mortality during JulyAugust which ranged between 3.88% for average fish weight of 400 g and total fish massof 412 kg and 14.75% for average fish weight of 1700 g and total fish mass of 680 kg.Significant correlation (r=0.86) was found between average fish weight and fishmortality.Significant correlation (r=0.72) was also found between total fish weight andfish mortality. From previous results we concluded that there were positive relationshipbetween fish mortality and fish weight during July-August.

أجریت الدراسة الحالیة في ١٣قفص عائم منصوبة في ضفة شط العرب عند ناحیة الھارثة، إذ استزرعفیھا اسماك الكارب الشائع Cyprinuscarpioبمعدلات اوزان مختلفة ) (1700-290غم واعداد مختلفة )-1047 .(400اخذت الملاحظات ایضا من حوض ترابي في نفس المنطقة مستزرع فیھثلاثة انواع من الاسماك وھي الكاربالشائع والكاربالفضي ) (Hypophthalmichthys molitrixوالكارب العشبي).(Ctenopharyngodonidellaأظھرت النتائج ان درجات الحرارة في الاقفاص تراوحت بین ٣٥-٣٠درجةمئویة اثناء أیار- حزیران ،٢٠١٥وتراوحت بین ٣٨-٣٦درجة مئویة اثناء تموز- آب ،٢٠١٥بینما كانت درجةالحرارة في الحوض الترابي تزید ١درجة مئویة عن حرارة شط العرب. لم تختلف ملوحة المیاه كثیرا خلال فترةالتجربة وتراوحت بین ٣.٠-١.٥جزء بالألف جزء. بینت النتائج عدم وجود اي ھلاكات في انواع الاسماك الثلاثةالمربات في الحوض الترابي. لم تختلف ھلاكات الاسماك كثیرا في الاقفاص العائمة للفترة أیار- حزیران وتراوحتبین %١.٨٦١-٠.٧٠٩ولم توجد اي علاقة بینھا وبین وزن الاسماك، في حین اختلفت نسبة الھلاكات بشكل كبیرللفترة تموز- آب وتراوحت بین %٣.٨٨للأسماك التي معدل وزنھا ٤٠٠غم ووزنھا الكلي ٤١٢كغم وبین %١٤.٧٥للأسماك التي معدل وزنھا ١٧٠٠غم ووزنھا الكلي ٦٨٠كغم. وجد ارتباط معنوي ) (r= 0.86بین معدلوزن الاسماك ونسبة الھلاكات وكذلك ارتباط معنوي ) (r= 0.72بین الوزن الكلي للأسماك ونسبة الھلاكات. مننتائج التجربة الحالیة یمكن الاستنتاج بوجود علاقة طردیة بین وزن الاسماك ونسبة الھلاكات للفترة تموز- آب


Article
Modified method for the determination of cobalt (II) and copper (II) ions by adopting schiff base complexes in water of Shatt Al-Arab river.
طريقة معدلة لتقدير أيوني الكوبلت الثنائي والنحاس الثنائي اعتماداً على تكوين معقدات مع قواعد شف في مياه شط العرب.

Author: M.H. Mohammed مؤيد حسن محمد
Journal: Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science مجلة وادي الرافدين لعلوم البحار ISSN: 18152058 Year: 2011 Volume: 26 Issue: 2 Pages: 170-181
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract - A new method of complex formation between cobalt or copper ions and Schiff Base (derived from Schiff Base of salicyldehyde and amino acids) was adopted for the determination of cobalt and copper ions in water samples of Shatt Al-Arab River. For water sampling three stations along Shatt Al-Arab River were selected as follows: 1) discharging point in Shatt Al-Arab from Basrah paper and mill industries, 2) Karmatt Ali Bridge, and 3) Siba downstream to the southern region of Shatt Al-Arab river. After the formation of a complex with Schiff Base, Cobalt and Copper in the water of Shatt Al-Arab were determined spectrophotometricaly at wave length of 270 nm and 295 nm respectively. It is found that cobalt concentrations were (0.152, 0.174, 0.165) mg.l-1 and copper concentrations were (0.014, 0.021, 0.023) mg.l-1 in stations 1, 2 and 3, respectively. The method is reliable with sensitivity, accuracy, standard deviation and detection limit of (0.0235 gm.cm.l-1, 3.05×10-6, 0.00184, 0.52×10-7) for cobalt complex and (0.0135 gm.cm.l-1, 3.31×10-6, 0.00215, 0.6×10-8) for copper complex, respectively.

المستخلص - استخدمت طريقة جديدة بتكوين معقد بين ايوني الكوبلت أو النحاس مع قواعد شف (المشتقة من قاعدة شف للساليسالدهيد والاحماض الأمينية) لتقدير الكوبلت والنحاس في عينات مياه من ثلاث محطات على طول نهر شط العرب وعلى النحو التالي: 1) عند نقطة التصريف لمخلفات معمل الورق والعجينة في شط العرب, 2) قناة كرمة علي و 3) السيبة في الاتجاه الجنوبي لشط العرب. تم تقدير الكوبلت والنحاس بعد تكوين معقد مع قواعد شف والذي تمت دراسته طيفيا" عند الطول الموجي 270 و 295 نانومتر على التوالي.ووجد ان تركيز الكوبلت بحدود (0.152 , 0.174 , 0.165) ملغم/لتر وتركيز النحاس هو (0.014 , 0.021 , 0.023) ملغم/لتر في المحطات 1 , 2 و 3 على التوالي. يمكن الاعتماد على هذه الطريقة لكونها تتميز بحساسية ودقة وانحراف معياري وحدود قياس هي: (0.0135 غم.سم/لتر, 3.05×10-6 , 0.00184 , 0.52×10-7) لمعقد الكوبلت و (0.0135 غم.سم/لتر, 3.31×10-6 , 0.00215, 0.6×10-8) لمعقد النحاس على التوالي.


Article
First record of the Marine Calanoid Copepod Pseudodiaptomus c.f. ardjuna from Shatt Al-Arab River, Iraq.
تسجيل اول للكلانويدا البحري Pseudodiaptomus cf. ardjuna من شط العرب، العراق.

Author: H.H. Mohamed هناء حسين محمد
Journal: Mesopotamian Journal of Marine Science مجلة وادي الرافدين لعلوم البحار ISSN: 18152058 Year: 2011 Volume: 26 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-68
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Abstract - The marine calanoid copepod Pseudodiaptomus c.f. ardjuna (Brehm, 1953) was recorded from some freshwater habitats in some regions of the Shatt A-Arab River during March – July 2009. These regions include Al-Kurnish area, Al-Sindebad Island during April-August 2009 and at Al-Gurna city on March 2009 only. The species is briefly described in this work and its morphological characters are compared with earlier descriptions from Iraqi coastal water, like the total length of female and male, body shape, female genital segment, the shape of the male posterior prosomal segment and number of the setae of the furcal rami.

المستخلص - سجل الكلانويد البحري Pseudodiaptomus cf. ardjuna من بعض مناطق شط العرب هي، الكورنيش خلال الفترة من آذار - تموز 2009 وفي السندباد خلال الفترة نيسان – آب 2009 وفي القرنة كان تسجيله فقط خلال شهر آذار 2009. جرى خلال الدراسة وصف النوع بشئ من التفصيل حيث تم مقارنة صفاته مع صفات النوع الموصوف ومن بين تلك الصفات، الطول الكلي للانثى والذكر وشكل الجسم وشكل مؤخرة القطعة الجسمية الأخيرة للجزء الامامي في الذكر إضافة إلى عدد الاشواك الموجودة في مؤخرة الشعبة الذنبية.

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