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Article
Activity of cynophyta algal extracts (Anabaena azolla) against some species of fungi in local habitats

Authors: Jasim M. Salman --- Mays M. Weber
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2016 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This study was done to indicate the activity of secondary metabolites of cyanophyta algal extracts for Anabaena azolla which isolate from one of running water system in Hilla city nearby Babylon university campus and development in BG11 medium to study the effective of secondary metabolites in An.azolla extracts (cold water, hot water, acetone and ethanol extracts) to inhibition two species of fungi (Fusarium oxysporum and Penecillium expansum) also used of HPLC and FT-IR analysis to detected some of active secondary metabolites was done only for acetone and ethanol extracts also to preliminary statements that used of four extracts of blue green alga Anabaena azolla. The role of An.azolla extracts to inhibition growth of these fungi was detected through measured diameter and percentage of inhibition zone which was increased with concentrations and the results showed these extracts had high correlation ratio and fungi shows high sensitivity to these extract. The mode of mechanism action to inhibition was on fungi cell wall by inhibition active enzymes, excelled treatment for cold water extract . The most important active compounds had been detected in HPLC and FT-IR were phenolic compounds which consists of (Tannic acid, Gallic acid and Coummarin) and flavonoids compounds consists of (Kaempherol and Quercetin) these all compounds detected specially in acetone extract of An.azolla , also to introductory statements which were detected six of active groups in extracts like (Terpens, glycosides, saponins, alkaloids, phenols and flavonoids) .


Article
Community Structure of Benthic Algae in a Lotic Ecosystem, Karbala Province-Iraq
التركيب المجتمعي الطحالب القاعية في نظام المياه الجارية - محافظة كربلاء – العراق

Authors: Al-Nasrawi, S. سرى فاضل حسن النصراوي --- Salman, J. M. جاسم محمد سلمان --- Hassan, F. M. فكرت مجيد حسن
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 4 Pages: 692-706
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study focused on benthic algae (epipelic and attached algae on concrete lining stream) in Bani-Hassan stream in Holly Karbala, Iraq. The qualitative and quantitative studies of benthic algae were done by collecting 240 samples from five sites in the study area for the period from December 2012 to November 2013. Also, the environmental variables of the stream were examined in term of temporary and spatial. The results showed that the stream was alkaline, hard, oligohaline and a well aerated. The total nitrogen to the total phosphorus (TN: TP) ratio indicates nitrogen limitation. 129 species of benthic algae belonging to 57 genera were identified. Bacillariophyceae (diatoms) was the predominant taxon (95 species) followed by Chlorophyceae (16 species), Cyanophyceae (14 species), Euglenophyceae (3 species) and Pyrophyceae (one species). Some genera were found throughout the study period: Nitzschia, Navicula, Cymbella, Gomphonema, Surirella, Cocconeis, Aulacoseira, Oscillatoria, Lyngbya, Spirulina, and ‏ Scenedesmus. Site 3 recorded the highest total number of algae in spring 2013, and the lowest total number was at site 5 in Autumn 2013. The chlorophyll-a concentration did not match the total number of algae.

تركز الدراسة على الطحالب القاعية ( الطحالب الملتصقة على الطين وعلى الخرسانة الكونكريتية) في نهر بني حسن في محافظة كربلاء المقدسة- العراق. حيث تم اجراء دراسات نوعية وكمية للطحالب القاعية عن طريق جمع 240 عينة من خمس مواقع في منطقة الدراسة للفترة من كانون الاول 2012 الى تشرين الثاني 2013. وتم فحص المتغيرات البيئية للنهر الزماني والمكاني. واظهرت النتائج ان النهر كان قاعديا وعسرا وقليلة الملوحة وذات تهوية جيدة. وبينت نتائج نسبة النتروجين الكلي الى الفسفور الكلي بان النتروجين محددا لنمو الطحالب. تم تشخيص 129 نوعا من الطحالب والتي تعود الى 57 جنسا. وكانت الدايتومات هو السائد (95 نوعا) وتلتها الطحالب الخضر (16 نوعا) ثم الطحالب الخضر المزرقة (14 نوعا) واليوغلينية (3 انواع) والبرواتية (نوعا واحدا). وقد سادت بعض الاجناس طيلة فترة الدراسة وهي: Nitzschia و Navicula و Cymbellaو Gomphonemaو Surirellaو Cocconeis و Aulacoseira و Oscillatoriaو Lyngbyaو Spirulina و Scenedesmus . وسجل في موقع 3اكبر عدد للطحالب في ربيع 2013 وكان ادنى عدد في الموقع الخامس في خريف 2013. ان تركيز الكلوروفيل –أ لايتطابق مع العدد الكلي للطحالب

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