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Article
Hypomagnesemia in Iraqi Diabetic Patients and Healthy Controls: An Exploratory study

Author: Lewai S. Abdulaziz لؤي عبد العزيز
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2010 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-78
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

BACKGROUND: Diabetes mellitus has been suggested to be the most common metabolic disorder associated with magnesium deficiency, and because available data suggest that adverse outcomes are associated with hypomagnesemia, it is prudent that routine surveillance for hypomagnesemia be done and the condition be treated whenever possible.AIM OF THE STUDY:To explore the serum Mg concentrations of diabetic patients and healthy controls in our locality.MEHTODS: One hundred and forty four diabetic patients (22 with type I and 122 with type II diabetes mellitus) recruited from the outpatient diabetes clinic at the Specialized Center For Endocrine Diseases-Baghdad (62 patients), National Diabetes Center-Al Mustansiria University (20 patients), and from private endocrinologic practice clinics in Baghdad (62 patients), during the period from 1st October 2005 to 30th April 2006. Ninety non-diabetic healthy controls matched for age and sex were participated in this study. Exclusion criteria for both groups included diarrhea and loop diuretics. None were taking Mg supplements. Level of Mg and Albumin were determined spectrophotometerically in the same serum samples.RESULTS:Mean serum Mg concentrations of the diabetics was significantly lower than in controls (p<0.001). Serum albumin was not a significant predictor of serum Mg neither among diabetic patients (r = 0.005) nor control subjects (r = 0.139). In 88.9% of the diabetic patients and 11.1% of the control subjects serum Mg concentrations were below the normal reference range of 0.70 mmol/L. The prevalence is increased when hypomagnesemia is defined by a reference limit of 0.75 mmol/L (98.6% and 28.9 % for diabetics and controls, respectively), a further higher prevalence among controls (91.1 %) was noted when 0.80 mmol/L is adopted as the lower normal limit. All diabetics (100%) and controls (100%) were identified as hypomagnesemic with a lower reference limit of 0.90 mmol/L.CONCLUSION:The tremendous hot climate of ours, can be suggested as an influential cause for increased Mg losses, and may provide a coherent explanation for the exceedingly high prevalence of hypomagnesemia observed in diabetic and control subjects participated in this study. Which therefore may suggest an inevitable requirement for magnesium supplementation to avert hypomagnesemia, not only among diabetics, but as well for controls, particularly through the hot summer episode

Keywords

Hypomagnesemia --- Albumin --- Diabetes --- Iraqi.


Article
Chronic Kidney Diseases in Iraqi Children

Author: Jinan Soaod Orabi Hassan
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2007 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 240-251
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Chronic renal insufficiency (CRI) causes substantial morbidity in virtually every major organ system of the body. Moreover; CRI is inevitably progresses to end stage renal disease.OBJECTIVE:To find out the frequency of chronic renal failure in pediatric age group and their risk factors.METHODS:One hundred ten infants, children and adolescents with chronic renal failure age between 1 mo.-17 yr. visiting Al-Karama Teaching Hospital in nephrology, urology, dialysis and transplant units for the period from1st May 2004 until 30th April 2006 were included in this study. Patient's notes were reviewed for: Age, sex, age at first presentation, age at referral to pediatric nephrologists , medical and social history including mode of their RRT, then the cause of their renal failure. Every patient was clinically examined and blood pressure. Measurement was taken, followed by taking anthropometric measurements which includes body weight (Kg) and height (cm) in addition to assessment of sexual maturity rate stages lastly we record laboratory investigation which include blood urea, S. creatinine, Hb. level , S. Ca+2, S.Ph., and GFR in addition to any investigations regarding original renal disease.RESULTS:In this study we found that males are more affected than females in a ratio of 3.2/1. The mean age at their 1st presentation were 3.5 ± 3.7 yrs. while their mean age when they referred to pediatric nephrologists were 5.2 ± 4.4 yrs. Below 5 yrs. constituting 44.5% and age group between 6-10 yrs constituting 29.1% while in age group above 10 yrs were 26.4%. Mean value of GFR in this study was 14.2 ± 7.5 ml/min/ 1.73m2, 36.4% patients were in ESRD. Obstructive uropathy as a cause of CRF were in 34.5% of total patients, followed by glomerular diseases that involves 21.8% and congenital anomalies of urinary system in 20.9% of our patients in this study. About 80% of our patients were found to be anemic with Hb concentration ≤ 10 g/dl and 48.1% of patient having hypocalcemia with S. Ca+2 level <9.5 mg/dl and hyperphosphatemia with S.Ph. >5.5 mg/dl found in 32.7% of patients.This study shows a significant relationship between hypocalemia and hyperphosphatemia and anemia with progression of renal insufficiency to ESRD. About 45.5% and 53.6% were below 3rd centile for Wt. and Ht. respectively and more than 50% had delayed puberty on SMR staging of Tanner and those patient's with growth retardation are significantly increased in number as the disease progressed to ESRD.Hypertension considered in patient with BP > 95th percentile according to task force table for age and sex and wt. and Ht. percentile and accordingly our study show that about 45.5% of patients were HTN. Mode of RRT is mainly conservative and intermittent peritoneal dialysis in 41.8% and 40% of our patients respectively. While only one patient was on APD and 11 patients were on HD and 8 patients received lived related & unrelated renal transplant.CONCLUSION:The obstructive uropathy is the commonest cause for CRF especially in children <5 yrs. Most of our patients were of delayed referral to pediatric nephrology and they are poorly managed, severely affected and growth retarded. We have limited diagnostic resources & options regarding pediatric dialysis programs & renal transplant.


Article
Renal Involvement in 25 Patients with Systemic Sclerosis

Authors: Nizar Abdulateef Jassim --- Ziad Shafeek Al-Rawi --- Ali Abdumajeed Diab --- Ali Nazar Mohammed
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-6
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Renal involvement is considered a poor prognostic factor and not frequently a cause of death in patients with scleroderma. Renal involvement can be divided into scleroderma renal crisis and non-renal crisis abnormalities.OBJECTIVE:To evaluate the frequency of renal involvement in 25 Iraqi patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc).METHODS:Twenty five patients with SSc (21 female and 4 male) were included in a case-controlled study. All patients fulfilled the American College of Rheumatology criteria for SSc. All patients were of diffuse type. Other types of SSc were excluded. All patients underwent measurement of blood pressure and investigations had been done for them which included: hemoglobin (Hb), white blood cell (WBC) count, platelet count, erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR), blood urea (BU), serum creatinine (SCr), general urine examination (GUE), and rheumatoid factor (RF). Same investigations were done for 25 healthy person (considered as control group).RESULT:All patients (100%) had Raynaud’s phenomenon, 23 patients (29%) had dysphagia, 21 patients (84%) had arthralgia, 10 patients (40%) had telangiectasia and 2 patients (8%) had subcutaneous calcification. Three patients (12%) had moderate hypertension. Fourteen patients (56%) had anemia, 2 patients (8%) had leukocytosis, 6 patients (24%) had elevated ESR, 1 patient (4%) had elevated BU, 1 patient (4%) had albuminuria and 4 patients (16%) had positive RF. Platelet count and SCr were normal in all patients. Only 1 patient (4%) had renal involvement in form of combination of azotemia, albuminuria and hypertension.CONCLUSION:Renal involvement in systemic sclerosis among Iraqi patients is rare.

Keywords

renal --- iraqi --- systemic sclerosis.


Article
Frequency of Genodermatoses Among Iraqi Patients

Authors: Haider R. Al-Hamami --- Adil A. Noaimi --- Makram M.Al-Waiz --- Abdulkaleq S. Al-Kabraty
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 1 Pages: 62-67
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Genodermatoses are hereditary skin disorders or anomalies which can be grouped into three categories: chromosomal, single gene and multifactorial. Most genodermatoses show single gene or Mendelian inheritance (autosomal dominant, autosomal recessive or X-linked recessive genes).OBJECTIVE:To asses the frequency of genodermatoses among Iraqi patients in outpatients Dermatology and Venereology comparison with other countries.PATIENTS AND METHODS:This case series descriptive epidemiological study included eighty three patients (57males and 26 females) with genodermatoses. They consulted the out patient clinic/ Department of Dermatology and Venereology Baghdad Teaching Hospital fromApril 2005 through April 2006. Their ages ranged from 2months-60 years (Median 10 years),With various genetic diseases.Full history, dermatological and clinical examinations were done to establish the clinical diagnosis of genodermatoses regarding all demographic points related to these disorders.RESULTS:The frequency of genodermatoses among outpatient attendant in Dermatology and Venereology Department was 83/ 20000 (0.42%).This study had shown that the most common genodermatoses were; ichthyosis: 21 (25.3 %) patients and epidermolysis bullosa which contain 16 (19.3 %) patients when taken together they constituted 37 (44.6%) patients of the total, neurofibromatosis 8 (9.6 %), hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma 6 (7.2%), darier's disease 5 (6 %) and xeroderma pigmentosa 4 (4.8 %).Positive family history of the same disease was obtained in; 8 (38.1 %) patients with ichthyosis, 4 (66.6 %) in hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma, 2 (12.5 %) in epidermolysis bullosa and all patients with Hailey-Hailey disease had positive family history of the same condition.Consanguinity was positive in; 13 (61.9 %) patients of ichthyosis, 12 (75 %) epidermolysis bullosa, 2 (33.3 %) hereditary palmoplantar keratoderma and (100 %) patients with xeroderma pigmentosaCONCLUSION:Genodermatoses are frequently encountered among Iraqi dermatological outpatients and more common in families with positive consanguinity and were comparable to other countries


Article
The Frequency Of Chlamydial Urethritis Among ِA Group Of Iraqi Male Patients

Authors: Mahdei Y. mohammed --- Sabeeh Al-Mashhadani --- Makram M. Al-Waiz د.مكرم مكي الواعظ
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 Pages: 354-359
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground & Objective: The most important and potentially dangerous pathogen involved in non-gonococcal urethritis is Chlamydia trachomatis, so this study is conducted to evaluate the frequency of chlamydial urethritis among group of Iraqi male patients.Methods: The study design is a descriptive cross sectional study, including fifty two male patients complaining from urethral discharge, they were seen in the department of Dermatology and Venereology at Baghdad Teaching Hospital .Their ages ranged from 16-49 years (mean±SD 29.28Y±8.5).They were investigated using enzyme linked fluorescent assay to a direct urethral swabs for detection of chlamydial antigen.Results: Twenty one (40.38%) male patients were chlamydial antigen positive. Six of them (11.5%) had mixed infection (chlamydial and gonococcal urethritis).Chlamydial urethritis were most frequent at the third decade of life, those constitute of eight Patients (15.38%). Urethral discharge and dysuria were the most frequent symptoms which were noticed in all patients, frequency of micturation were seen in thirteen patients. Twenty patients were heterosexual and only one was homosexual; eight patients were practicing sex with single partner, the remainder practiced sex with multiple partners.Conclusion: Chlamydia is one of the common causes of urethritis among sexually active Iraqi male patients, enzyme linked fluorescent assay technique is simple reliable test in the diagnosis of this disease.Key words: Iraqi, chlamydial, urethritis

Keywords

Iraqi --- chlamydial --- urethritis


Article
New record of moth fly species; Psychodaalternata Say, 1824 (Diptera:Psychodidae: Psychodinae) fromIraq
تسجيل جديد لذبابة العث النوع PsychodaalternataSay, 1824 (رتبة تنائية الاجنحة: عائلة ذباب العث: عويلة ذباب العث) من العراق.

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Abstract

PsychodaalternataSay, 1824 (Diptera : Psychodidae : Psychodinae) is newly recoded for fauna of Iraq . Shortly description and the important diagnostic characters are figured.

اضيفت ذبابة العث النوع Psychodaalternata Say, 1824 (رتبة تنائية الاجنحة: عائلة ذباب العث: عويلة ذباب العث) كتسجيل جديد للفونا الحشرية العراقية. حيث شملت هذه الدراسة على وصف مختصر لاهم الصفات التشخيصية لهذه الذبابة مصحوبة بالصور


Article
The Influence of English Words on Iraqi Dialect

Author: Hasanein Hasan Shaheed
Journal: journal of Human Sciences مجلة العلوم الانسانية ISSN: 19922876/25239899 Year: 2013 Volume: 1 Issue: 16 Pages: 437-446
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

This research discusses problems faced by speakers of Iraqi dialect. They are using many words from foreign languages especially from English language, so these words became part which can not skip them from their language. This study focuses on new generations such as children, young and even adults. Therefore; speakers of these words (English words) in Iraq do not know that they are using English words and not Arabic words. The main problem here is that they don't know the Arabic meanings of these English words. Iraqi speaker when he/she talks one or two simple sentences uses English words instead of Arabic words and this is called (Code Shifting or Code Switching) this is a process to use foreign words instead of words in mother tongue (for bilingual speakers), but in Iraq this process is used for one or two words only, not for a full sentence, and sometime is added to English word rules from standard Arabic grammar which make the word as an Arabic word.


Article
Single Well Coning Problem and Applicable Solutions

Author: Raad Mohammed Jawad. Alkhalissi
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2015 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 53-56
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

One of the most important and common problems in petroleum engineering; reservoir, and production engineering is coning; either water or gas coning. Almost 75% of the drilled wells worldwide contains this problem, and in Iraq water coning problem is much wider than the gas coning problem thus in this paper we try to clarify most of the reasons causing water coning and some of applicable solutions to avoid it using the simulation program (CMG Builder) to build a single well model considering an Iraqi well in north of Iraq black oil field with a bottom water drive, Coning was decreased by 57% by dividing into sub-layers (8) layers rather than (4) layers, also it was decreased (Coning) by 45% when perforation numbers and positions was changed.

Keywords

Well coning --- Iraqi well


Article
The Murder Scene in Shakespeare 's Othello and Yousif Al- Saygh's Desdemona
مشهد القتل في عطيل لشكسبير ودزدمونة ليوسف الصائغ

Author: Fawziya Mousa Ghanim فوزية موسى غانم
Journal: Al-Ma'mon College Journal مجلة كلية المامون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2015 Issue: 25 Pages: 368-380
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

The theater is still a source of culture, art, and human experience. The Shakespearean theatre is an influential theatre in the world of literature . Most of the experimental playwrights and writers regenerate and recreate their new techniques, themes, and spaces by depending on the Shakespearean texts. Iraqi theatre like every theatre is also affected by Shakespeare's theatre and drama. It has been inspired by Shakespeare's poetic language and his universal themes . Many of Iraqi theatre directors and dramatists are interested in rewriting ,reacting and performing several of Shakespeare's plays. This paper is concerned with Shakespeare's Othello ( 1565 )and Yousif Al-Saygh's Desdemona ( 1994) . It focuses on the murder scene in both plays and, aims at analyzing the bed- marriage as a sanctuary and a brothel at the same time. It also explains how the playwrights dramatize it according to their different eras, cultures , personalities ,and their intellectual backgrounds. The paper consists of four sections and a conclusion . The first section deals with a brief introduction . The second section discusses the murder scene in Othello. The third section concentrates on Al-Saygh's life and works. The fourth section analyzes the murder scene in Desdemona . The conclusion sums up to the findings of the study.

مازال المسرح مصدراً للثقافة والفن والتجربة الإنسانية.ويعد المسرح الشكسبيري واحدا من المسارح المؤثرة في عالم الأدب. وحاول اغلب الكتاب و المسرحيين التجريبيين تجديد وخلق تقنيات جديدة وموضوعات اعتمدت على النصوص الشكسبيرية. ومثل أي مسرح بالعالم فقد تأثر المسرح العراقي بالمسرح والدراما الشكسبيرية واستلهم من لغة شكسبير الشعرية وموضوعاته العالمية . اهتم أكثر المخرجين وكتاب المسرح العراقيين في إعادة كتابة وتمثيل وعرض العديد من مسرحيات شكسبير.اهتم البحث بمسرحية عطيل(1565) لشكسبير و مسرحية ديزدمونة(1994). وركز على مشهد القتل في كلتا المسرحيتين, ويهدف إلى تحليل غرفة الزواج لكونها أشبه بمكان مقدس وداعر في نفس الوقت. وشرح كيف قام الكاتبان بمسرحتها وفقا لاختلاف أزمنتهم وثقافاتهم وشخصياتهم وخلفياتهم الفكرية.يتكون البحث من أربعة أجزاء وخاتمة, ويهتم الجزء الأول بمقدمة مختصرة, ويناقش الجزء الثاني مشهد القتل في مسرحية عطيل ., ركز الجزء الثالث على حياة وأعمال يوسف الصائغ , و حلل الجزء الرابع مشهد القتل في مسرحية دزدمونة.وختمت البحث بأهم النتائج.

Keywords

Desdmona --- Iraqi Theatre --- Othello


Article
Cooling Load Calculations For Typical Iraqi Roof And Wall Constructions Using Ashrae's RTS Method
حسابات حمل التبريد لتركيبات سقوف وجدران نموذجية عراقية باستخدام نظرية RTS لاشري

Authors: Khalid Ahmed Joudi خالد أحمد جودي --- Ali Naser Hussien علي ناصر حسين
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2015 Volume: 21 Issue: 5 Pages: 98-114
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The present work is an attempt to develop design data for an Iraqi roof and wall constructions using the latest ASHRAE Radiant Time Series (RTS) cooling load calculation method. The work involves calculation of cooling load theoretically by introducing the design data for Iraq, and verifies the results experimentally by field measurements. Technical specifications of Iraqi construction materials are used to derive the conduction time factors that needed in RTS method calculations. Special software published by Oklahoma state university is used to extract the conduction factors according to the technical specifications of Iraqi construction materials. Good agreement between the average theoretical and measured cooling load is obtained and the difference between them does not exceed 9.3%.

الدراسة الحالية هي محاولة لتقديم بيانات تصميمية لسقوف وجدران عراقية باستخدام أحدث الطرق المستخدمة من قبل جمعية اشري لحساب حمل التبريد وهي طريقة السلسلة الزمنية للإشعاع (RTS). يتضمن العمل حساب الحمل الحراري نظريا باستخدام ظروف العراق التصميمية, والتحقق منها بالقياسات العملية. تم استخدام المواصفات الفنية لمواد بناء عراقية لاشتقاق المعاملات الزمنية للتوصيل المطلوبة للعمليات الحسابية بطريقة (RTS). وقد استخدم برنامج خاص مصمم من قبل جامعة أوكلاهوما الأميركية لاستخراج المعاملات الزمنية للتوصيل وفقا للمواصفات الفنية لمواد البناء العراقية. وقد تم الحصول على توافق جيد بين معدل حمل التبريد المحسوب نظريا والمقاس عمليا ولم يتجاوز الفرق بينهما 9,3%.

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