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Article
PROTON BEAM RADIATION TARGETED NUCLEOTIDES WITH NEGLIGIBLE EFFECT ON INTERFERON

Author: Zainab W Abdul Lateef زينب وهبي عبد اللطيف
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 125-130
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background : There is increasing evidence that localized irradiation of the tumor may also modify the tumor microenvironment and generate inflammatory cytokines.Objective: This study is aimed to clarify the effect of proton beam radiation on the interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ) and nucleotide.Methods: The Microsoft "The Stopping and Range of Ions in Matter (TRIM-SRIM)" version 1998, and 2003 was used. A model of targeting certain interferon (IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ) as well as the nucleotide pair was created. Each target was subjected to proton radiation of hydrogen [H], helium [He], or carbon [C] at different range of energy seeking for the Bragg's peak.Result: The results showed that the cross sections IFN-α, IFN-β, IFN-γ and nucleotide targeted by proton therapy were 0.9776, 0.8317, 0.8297 and 0.7305 [keV/(µg/cm2)] for hydrogen ion, and 2.3354, 2.3414, 2.3377, 2.0842[keV/(µg/cm2)] for helium ion, and 8.3032, 8.3198, 8.3109, 7.5394 [keV/(µg/cm2)] for carbon ion respectively.Conclusions: It concludes that targeting of well precise located tumor with proton beam radiation therapy resulted in nucleotide damage of cancer cell without affecting the immune system in term of interferon surveillance.Key words: Proton, Nucleotide, Interferon

Keywords

Proton --- Nucleotide --- Interferon


Article
Genetic Polymorphisms of Interleukin -1 beta Gene in Association with Multiple Sclerosis in Iraqi Patients
تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة لجين إنترلوكين-1بيتا وعلاقته بالتصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد لدى المرضى العراقيين

Author: Ehab D. Salman إيهاب داود سلمان
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2016 Volume: 57 Issue: 1C Pages: 594-598
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Interleukin-1 β (IL-1 β) is considered to be one of the most important mediators in the pathogenesis of inflammatory diseases, particularly in neurodegenerative diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS). MS is a chronic inflammatory disease characterized with demyelination in central nervous system (CNS). There was believe that single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in IL-1β gene can alter the structure and function of the IL-1β and consequently may have play role in MS disease. In this this study the IL-1β gene polymorphism (rs16944, rs1143634) and their association with MS in Iraqi patients were investigated. Two SNPs including IL-1β-511 (rs16944) in promoter and IL-1B+3962 (rs1143634) in encoding region, were studied using Polymerase Chain Reaction- Sequence Specific Primer (PCR-SSP) technique. The results revealed that IL-1β-511 SNP has three genotypes (CC,CT, TT) with non- significant difference in the SNP genotype and allele frequencies of MS patients compare with control group, it was also noticed that the risk allele was (C) with relative risk (RR=1.55) and higher frequency (60.77%) than T (39.23%) allele in RRMS patients. On other hand the three genotypes (CC,CT, TT) of IL-1B+3962 SNP it seem to have the same picture, that mean there was no significant difference in their frequencies between RRMS patients and control group , and the highest genotype frequency was for (CC) genotype (68.92%) and the lowest frequency was for( TT) genotype (2.88%) in patients, it was also noticed that the risk allele was (C) with odd ratio (2.44) and that the (T) frequencies were (16.98%vs. 33.33%) while (C) frequencies were (83.02 vs. 66.67%) in patients and control group respectively. Concerning with these findings, one can suggest that interleukin-1β gene polymorphisms may not be relevant to susceptibility to MS in Iraqi patients, this is probably due to many reasons such as ethnic diversity, the relevant of haplotype for this gene with other haplotype of cytokine encoding genes and finally the limitation of sample size which play critical role in SNPs studies.

يعتبر إنترلوكين – 1 بيتا (IL-1β) واحدا من أكثر المركبات الوسيطة ذات الأهمية والمسببة للأمراض الألتهابية خاصة الأمراض التي تصيب الجهاز العصبي مثل مرض التصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعددMultiple sclerosis والذي يعتبر من الأمراض العصبية الألتهابية المزمنة ويتميز بأزالة مادة المايلين demyelination)) من الغشاء العازل للعصبونات الجهاز العصبي المركزي . لقد لوحظ أن تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة لجين إنترلوكين – 1 بيتا قد يؤدي الى إحداث تغيرات تركيبية ووظيفية للأنترلوكين-1بيتا مما ينتج عنه تأثيرا في أحداث مرض التصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد , لذلك أجريت هذه الدراسة بهدف معــــرفة العـــــــلاقة بين تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المــــفردة لجـــــــــــــين إنترلــــــــــوكين – 1 بيتــــــــا ومـــــــرض التصـــــــلب العصـــــبي اللويـــــحي المتـــــعدد لـــــــدى المرضى العراقيين. أختير نوعين من تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة Single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) للجين , النوع الأول IL-1β-511 (rs16944) واقع ضمن الحفاز بينما يقع النوع الثاني IL-1β +3962 (rs1143634) ضمن المنطقة المشفرة للجين , أستعملت تقنية التفاعــــل البلمـــرة المتسلسل ذات البادئ متخصص التتابــــــــع (PCR-SSP) لتحديد هذين النوعين من تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة للجين. أشارت النتائج للنوع الأول الى أن اليلات هذا النوع قد توزعت على ثلاث أنماط وراثية هي (CC,CT, TT) و أن التحليل الأحصائي لهذه الأنماط والنسبة المئوية لتكرار أليلاتها لم يشير الى فروقات معنوية بين مرضى التصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد ومجموعة السيطرة , ولوحظ أن الأليل(C) يمثل العامل النسبي المؤثر حيث بلغت قمته (RR=1.55) وكان الأكثر تكرارا (60.77 %) مقارن بأليل (T) والذي بلغت قيمته (39.23%) لدى مرضى التصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد, من الناحية الأخرى لوحظ أن الأنماط الوراثية للنوع الثاني قد أظهرت نفس الصورة أعلاه حيث شملت هذه الأنماط على الأنواع الثلاث (CC,CT, TT) ولم يلاحظ فرق معنوي لتكرار هذه الأنماط لمرضى التصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة , كذلك لوحظ أن أعلى تكرار كان للنمط (CC) وبلغت قيمته (68.92%) بينما كان النمط الوراثي (TT) أقـــل تكرارا (2.88 %) لدى مجموعة المرضى , كذلك وجد أن العامل النسبي المؤثر يرجع للأليل(C) وبنسبة أرجحية odd ratio =2.44)) وبلغت النسبة المئوية الكلية لتكراره (83.02% , 66.67%), بينما بلغت هذه النسبة للأليل (T) (33.33% , 16.98%) لكل من مجموعة المرضى والسيطرة على التوالي . على ضوء هذه النتائج يمكن القول أنه لا يوجد الى ما يشبر لعلاقة تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة لجين إنترلوكين -1 بيتا بالتصلب العصبي اللويحي المتعدد لدى المرضى العراقيين , و تفسير ذلك ربما يعود للعديد من الأسباب منها التنوع العرقي , طبيعة نمط جين إنترلوكين -1 بيتا haplotype)) وعلاقته بالأنماط الجينية المشفرة للأنواع الأخرى من الأنترلوكينات وأخيرا صغر حجم العينة التي تم دراستها والذي يعتبر من العوامل المهمة والمؤثرة في دراسات تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة للجين .


Article
The Significance of TP53 Gene Polymorphisms as A Risk Factor For Non-Hodgkin’s Lymphoma in Iraqi Patients

Authors: Maysoon Abdul-Ameer --- Ahmed Al-Salman
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 4 Pages: 778 -785
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Genetic factors including single nucleotide polymorphisms have been implicated as predisposing factors for large numbers of malignancies. When genetic disorders occur in a tumor suppressor gene, like TP53 gene, the results are expected to have devastating effects. The current study aimed to assess the effect of certain polymorphisms in TP53 genein the individual’s susceptibility to non- Hodgkin’s lymphomas among Iraqi patients. A total of 62 patients with these malignancies and 34 apparently healthy individuals were enrolled for this study. DNA was extracted from blood samples and fragment in TP53 corresponding for TP53 p.Arg72Pro, TP53 p.Pro47Ser and r.13494 G>A polymorphisms were amplified using specific primers. Genotyping was performed with restriction fragment length polymorphisms. The results revealed significant association of TP53 p.Arg72Pro polymorphism in both heterozygous and mutant homozygous genotypes with incidence of NHLs, while both TP53 p.Pro47Ser and r.13494 G>A polymorphisms had no such association. These results strongly indicate the importance of proline allele of TP53 p.Arg72Pro as a predisposing factor for NHLs.


Article
Association between MethylenetetrahydrofolateReductase (MTHFR) GenePolymorphisms and breast cancer in sample of Iraqi women
العلاقه بين تعدد الاشكال للجين مثيل تتراهايدرو فوليت المختزل(C677T) وسرطان الثدي في عينة من النساء العراقيات

Authors: Ehab D. Salman أيهاب داوود سلمان --- Ezeddin A. Al Bayyar عزالدين عطيه البيار --- Reem K. Ibrahim ريم خالد ابراهيم
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 1C Pages: 447-453
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Folate metabolism is fundamental and essential for DNA structure synthesis and repair. Change in genes that participate in folate metabolism can be linked with different types of malignant tumor, Therefore, this study was conducted to find out the association between methylenetetrahydrofolatereductaseMTHFR gene polymorphisms and risk of breast cancer in a sample of Iraqi patients. One Single Nucleotide Polymorphism ( SNP) including MTHFR C677T was calculated using a tetra primer ARMS PCR experiment assay. The results explained that (MTHFR C677T) consists of three genotype (CC, CT, TT), The CC genotype was the most frequent in patients and control group ( 40.00%) and(60.00%) ,respectively, while the lowest frequency was for TT genotype(26.25%) in patients group .This study also revealed that the higher frequency 56.88 % for allele C and 43.12 % for T allele in patients group . On the other hand the Odd Ratio ( O.R.) for CC, CT , TT genotypes were 1.073, 0.862 and 1.148 respectively, and the genotypes TT show a highest O.R.

ايض الفوليك ضروري لبناء الحمض النووي واصلاحه . أن التغايرات في الجينات التي تشارك في التمثيل الغذائي لحامض الفوليك يمكن أن تترافق مع عدة أنواع من الأورام الخبيثة، لذلك أجريت هذه الدراسة لمعرفة العلاقه بين تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المــــفردة لجـــــــــــــين مثيل تتراهايدرو فوليت المختزلMethylenetetrahydrofolateReductase (MTHFR) وخطر الإصابة بسرطان الثدي في عينة من المرضى العراقيين .أختير نوع واحد من تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة Single Nucleotide Polymorphisms (SNPs) وهو (C677T) للجين (MTHFR) ، واستعملت طريقة tetra primer ARMS PCR assay لتحديد هذا النوع من تعدد أشكال النوكليوتيدات المفردة للجين.اشارت النتائج الى ان (MTHFR) يتكون من ثلاثة انماط جينيه (CC,CT, TT), وان النمط الجينيCCكان اعلى تكرار لدى المرضى ومجموعة السيطرة بنسبة (40.00%) و (60.00%) على التوالي . بينما كان النمط الجيني TT اقل تكرارا في مجموعة المرضى حيث بلغت نسبته(26.25%)، ايضا اشارت هذه الدراسة الى أن اعلى تكرار كان للأليلC وبلغت نسبته56.88 % مقارنة 43.12 % للأليلT في مجموعة المرضى وقد بلغت نسبة الأرجحية للأنماط الجينية(CC,CT ,TT) 1.148 , 0.862 و 1.073 على التوالي , وأظهر النمط الجينيTT أعلى نسبة أرجحية .


Article
6.CHOLELITHIASIS FOLLOWING BARIATRIC SURGERY: A NEW APPROACH TO DEAL WITH

Authors: Sajid H.A. Al-Helfy ساجد حميد الحلفي --- Qasim S. Almayah قاسم شرهان المياحي --- Risala H. Allami
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2017 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 143-150
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Obesity and rapid weight loss induced by weight-reducing surgery are well recognized as a risk factor for the development of gallbladder stones. There is no standard policy whether to perform prophylactic cholecystectomy at the time of the bariatric operation or to give postoperative treatment to decrease the risk.Objective: To evaluate the incidence and risk factors of gallstone formation post-bariatric surgery. The results may help to decide how to deal with and follow up patients with post-bariatric surgery.Methods: A total of 120 patients who underwent weight-reducing operations were recruited for this study. Several factors expected to influence gallstone formation were recorded such as body mass index and excessive weight loss. Study population was followed up for 12 months postoperatively. Ultrasonography examination was performed for those who developed symptoms suggesting gallstone formation.Results: Twenty-six (21.7%) patients were found to develop gallstones. Of the studied risk factors, the percentage of excess weight loss, family history and carrying allele A of the variant rs670 were significant for predicting development of gallstone post-bariatric procedures. Conclusion: Based on the results of this study, it is reasonable to put an index for the risk of developing gallstone following bariatric surgery, and according to this index, the surgeon could decide whether to perform concomitant cholecystectomy along with the bariatric procedure or do not.Keywords: Bariatric surgery, cholelithiasis, single nucleotide polymorphismCitation: Sajid H.A. Al-Helfy, Qasim S. Almayah, Risala H. Allami. Cholelithiasis following bariatric surgery: a new approach to deal with. Iraqi JMS. 2017; Vol. 15(2): 143-150. doi: 10.22578/IJMS.15.2.6


Article
Association of Adiponectin Gene Promoter Polymprphism (rs266729) With Ischemic Heart Diseases

Authors: Maha Radhi Abass --- Majid Kadhum Hussain --- Zuhair Mohammed Ali Jeddoa
Journal: Karbala Journal of Medicine مجلة كربلاء الطبية ISSN: 19905483 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 3889-3893
Publisher: Kerbala University جامعة كربلاء

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Abstract

background: Ischemic Heart Disease is a group of diseases of the blood vessels supplying the heart muscle. Adiponectin is a protein secreted by adipocyte with insulin-sensitizing, Anti-inflammatory and anti-atherogenic properties. Several studies have shown that polymorphisms within the adiponectin gene can be associated with Ischemic heart disease. Aim: The aim of the present study was to evaluate the impact of (rs266729) SNP in the promoter region of the ADIPOQ gene on the occurrence of Ischemic heart disease (IHD).Methods: The study included 150 patients with IHD randomly selected based on World Health Organization (WHO) guideline and 150 as controls group. DNA was extracted from blood and genotyped by PCR-RFLP by using (Hha1) enzyme. Result: The frequency of G allele of rs266729 (C/G) polymorphism was significantly (p=0.0001) in IHD (19.6%) compared with control (13.3%). The homozygous genotype (GG) significantly (0R=1.71, CI 95%=0.65-4.96, P= 0.0001) increased the risk of Ischemic Heart Disease compared with wild type (CC) after adjustment age, sex, and BMI, furthermore the heterozygous (CG) genotype significantly (0R=1.61, CI 95%=0.96-2.87, P= 0.0001) raised the risk of Ischemic Heart Disease.Conclusion: Adiponectin gene polymorphism rs266729 is involved in the pathogenesis Ischemic heart disease.


Article
Single Nucleotide Polymorphism of IL1B Gene (rs16944) in a Sample of Rheumatoid Arthritis Iraqi Patients

Authors: Aseel S. Mahmood --- Abdul-Kareem A. Al-Kazaz --- Ali H. Ad'hiah
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 2C Pages: 1041-1045
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Cytokines play a prominent role in etiology and pathogenesis of rheumatoid arthritis (RA), and one of these cytokines is interleukin-1β (IL-1β). The association between IL1B gene single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP: rs16944) and rheumatoid arthritis (RA) in a sample of Iraqi patients was investigated. Fifty-one RA patients (21 males and 30 females) were enrolled and their age range was 20 - 63 years (44.9 ± 1.5 years). In addition to patients, 45 apparently healthy control subjects were also enrolled in the study. They matched patients for ethnicity (Iraqis), gender (14 males and 31 females) and age (41.3 ± 1.3 years). Analysis of Hardy-Weinberg equilibrium (HWE) in RA patients and controls revealed that the IL1B genotypes were consistent with the equilibrium, and no significant differences (p > 0.05) were observed between the observed and expected genotype frequencies. Inspecting IL1B genotype and allele frequencies in RA patients and controls revealed that there were no significant variations between these frequencies, although a decreased frequency of T allele (67.7 vs. 73.3%) and an increased frequency of C allele (32.3vs. 26.7%) were observed in patients compared to controls. In conclusion, the results are in favor of no association between IL1B gene SNP (rs16944) and RA in Iraqi population


Article
Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphisms and Bladder Cancer

Authors: Qasim S. Al-Mayah --- Mohammed A. Al-Dabagh --- Ahmed Adil Ali
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2014 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 409-416
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Background: Bladder cancer (BCa) is one of the most common cancer diagnosed worldwide with multiple risk factors.Aims: this study aimed to investigate the association between two single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) gene (Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile) and the incidence of BCa.Subjects and Methods: A total of 48 BCa patients and 36 healthy controls were enrolled in this study. DNA was extracted from the blood samples taken from these participants. Tlr4 gene was amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Genotyping of the SNPs of interest was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results: Overall, there were no significant association of BCa with neither SNPs, however, the mutant allele (G) of the SNP Asp299Gly had higher frequency among patients compared with control (P=0.05).Conclusion: allele G of the SNP Asp299Gly may be considered as a risk factor for BCa.

الخلفية :يعد سرطان المثانة من اكثر السرطانات المشخصة في العالم حيث هناك العديد من العوامل التي تساعد على الاصابه بهذا المرض.الاهداف:هدفت الدراسة بيان دور نوعين من التغاير الوراثي في جينTlr4(Asp299Gly and Thr399Ile)كعامل مساعد للاصابه بمرض سرطان المثانة.الاشخاص وطرق العمل:شملت الدراسة 48 شخصا مصابا بسرطان المثانه من الذكور والاناث وكذلك 36 من الاشخاص الاصحاء.تم جمع عينات الدم من جميع المتطوعين لهذه الدراسه حيث تم استخلاص الحامض النووي من جميع عينات الدم ومن ثم استعملت تقنية ال PCR لمضاعفة جين Tlr4 باستخدام بوادئ خاصة.استعملت تقنية RFLP لمعرفة نوع التغاير الجيني لكل من المرضى والاصحاء.النتائج:هناك ارتباط وثيق بين سرطان المثانة مع الاليل الطافر(G) للتغاير الوراثي في جين Tlr4(Asp299Gly) عند مقارنة المرضى مع الاشخاص الاصحاء.الاستنتاج:الاليل G للتغاير الوراثي Asp299Gly من المحتمل ان يلعب دورا كعامل مساعد للاصابة بسرطان المثانة.


Article
Toll-Like Receptor 4 Gene Polymorphisms in patients withUrinary Tract Infection

Authors: Hammadi A. Al-Hilaly --- AliN. Salman --- Ahmed H. Dakheel
Journal: Univesity of Thi-Qar Journal مجلة جامعة ذي قار العلمية ISSN: 66291818 Year: 2015 Volume: 10 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-12
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Background: Urinary tract infection (UTIs) are considered to be the most common infections in humans.Aims:The present study aimed to investigate the association between single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the toll-like receptor 4 (Tlr4) gene (Thr399Ile) and the incidence of Urinary Tract Infection.Subjects and Methods:A total of 49 patients with Urinary Tract Infection and 25 apparently healthy control were enrolled in this study. Urine samples from patients with UTI was collected in AL-Imam AL-Hussain teaching hospital in Thi- Qar province, during the period from February 2014 to March 2015.. Urinary isolates were identified by conventional methods.DNA was extracted from the blood samples taken from these participants. TLR4 gene was amplified with polymerase chain reaction (PCR) using specific primers. Genotyping of the SNPs of interest was done by restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP).Results:The present study was showed 26 (53.06%)isolates Escherichia coli; 9 (18.37%) isolates had Pseudomonas aeruginusa;7 (14.29 %) isolates had Klebsiella pneumonia; 4 (8.16%) had Proteus and 3 (6.12%) isolates had Klebsiellaoxytoca, the results showed the presence of heterozygous in one sample from study group at site 399 (C / T) after using restriction enzyme Hinf1.Conclusion: Escherichia coli was most common causative agent in UTI, Thr399Ile may be considered as a risk factor that increases susceptibility to Urinary TractInfection


Article
Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (+49A/G) Gene Polymorphism as a Protective Factor against Toxoplasmosis

Author: Risala Hussain Allami
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2017 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 240 -246
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Cytotoxic T-Lymphocyte Associated Antigen-4 (CTLA-4) is a key factor in immune regulation. Polymorphisms in CTLA-4 gene may influence the status of this factor and eventually the immune response of host against the infectious agents. This response becomes of particular importance in cases when the pathogen is an opportunistic such as Toxoplasma gondii. This study aimed to explore the effect of CTLA-4+49A/G single nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) on the susceptibility to toxoplasmosis in women. Genomic DNA was isolated from 59 women with toxoplasmosis and aged matched 60 Toxoplasma-free women as controls. Tetra-Primer Amplification Refractory System-Polymerase Chain Reaction (ARMS-PCR) was used for amplification and genotyping of CTLA-4 gene using specific primers. The heterozygous genotype (AG) and G allele of the polymorphism CTLA-4+49A/G were less frequent among cases (17.12% and 16.95% respectively) than controls (40% and 35% respectively) with significant differences (OR=0.379, 95%CI=0.206-0.697, P=0.002). These data strongly suggested the protective role of CTLA-4+49G against toxoplasmosis among Iraqi women.

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