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Article
Bidding Strategy and Cash Flow Forecasting in Private Construction Companies in Iraq

Author: T.A. Khaleel
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2017 Volume: 35 Issue: 3 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 254-260
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The sector of Private Construction Companies is one of the most important sectors in construction market in IRAQ. This sector played an important role in the last ten years in the Iraqi construction field. The idea of this research came from the hardly competitive bidding among these many private companies, and because of the lack of knowledge by many of these companies about the bidding strategy theories. This research is a trial to create a balanced condition of the bidding price for the contractor. The average bidding strategy method depends on historical data for the bidders and it is a relationship between the added percentage of profit and the winning probability. An important factor is inserted in this research, which is the maximum fiscal deficit that is facing the contractor during construction period of any project; this deficit is the difference between the received discounted payments and the cost of finished works for any period during construction. The contractor apply the bidding strategy method to lower his profit margin to the lowest certain extent to rise the opportunity to win the contract. Nevertheless, he forget that the lowest profit margin leads to highest cash deficit during construction. A survey was done for a contract construction company in the private sector in Iraq, where the competition is more clearly than the governmental sector, by collecting data for (5) competitive companies in (16) projects. By using the average bid method, to determine the added (12%) of profit the winning probability was (9%), and from the analysis of the cash flow forecasting curve the maximum fiscal deficit will be IQD (8,972,000) at the second month of the project execution duration. By applying the resultant equation and to lower the deficit through rising profit by (0.1%) the winning opportunity will be decrease by (0.6%). In this research, a relationship is drawn between the profit margin and the maximum deficit for project, and finally a relationship is drawn between the deficit and the winning opportunity of the contract. Both of these two relationships are linear, and the important results are that any contract should apply both average bid method and cash deficit method at the same time, according to the economic condition to its firm.


Article
Developing Backtracking Algorithm to Find the Optimal Solution Path
تطویر خوارزمیة الرجوع لإیجاد المسار الامثل للحل

Authors: Suhad M. Kadhum --- Isra’a A. Abdul-Jabbar
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 24 Pages: 6995-7003
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

There are numerous search methods in A.I used to find the solution path to a subjected problem, but many of them return one solution path with no consider it is the optimal or not. The aim of this work is to find a direct path from the start state to the goal state such that it is the shortest path with minimum cost (the optimal solution path). We develop the backtracking algorithm in order to find the optimal solutionpath, such that all possible paths of the problem that expected to contain the optimal solution path can be checked, also we use a heuristic function depends on the actual cost of transition from one state to another. And in order to reduce the search time we discard any path that it is not useful in finding the optimal solution path.The proposed algorithm was implemented using visual prolog 5.1 and tested on tree diagram and the result was good in finding the optimal solution path (with efficient search time equivalent to O(bd/2) and space complexity O(bd) in worst cases).

هناك العديد من طرق البحث في الذكاء الاصطناعي المستخدمة لإيجاد مسار حل للمشكلة المطروحة، لكن العديد منها ترجع مسار حل واحد دون الاخذ بنظر الاعتبار هل ان هذا المسار يمثل الحل الامثل ام لا. الهدف من هذا البحث هو ايجاد مسار مباشر من الحالة الابتدائية الى الحالة الهدف باقل كلفةوباقصر طريق(المسار الامثل للحل). تم تطوير خوارزمية الرجوع للخلف لإيجاد المسار الأمثل للحل، بحيث ان كل المسارات الممكنة التي من المتوقع ان تحتوي على المسار الامثل للحل سوف يتم تدقيقها، وقد استخدمنا دالة موجهة تعتمد على الكلفة الحقيقية للانتقال من حالة الى اخرى. ولتقليل وقت البحث سنهمل أيمسار غير مفيد في ايجاد المسار الامثل للحل.تم تنفيذ الخوارزمية المقترحة باستخدام لغة برولوك المرئية 5.1 وتم اختبارها على مخطط شجري، وكانت النتائج جيدة في ايجاد المسار الامثل للحل في اسوء الحالات). O(bd) وتعقيد O(bd/ (مع كفاءة في وقت البحث تقارب (


Article
Effect of the strategy (P.O.S.S.E) in the direction of students fourth grade scientific English language is a foreign language
أثر استراتيجية ( P.O.S.S.E ) في اتجاه طالبات الصف الرابع العلمي مادة اللغة الانكليزية لغة أجنبية

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Abstract

The study aims to apply the (P.O.S.S.E) strategy to the fourth preparatory grade students' attitudes toward EFL reading comprehension. To achieve this aim, the researchers conducted an action research. The total number of the samples is 73 students' from Ajindin preparatory school for girl at Al-KharaKh General Directorate of Education / Baghdad. Pre-post questionnaire was used to collect the quantitative data of the study. The results showed that there were positive statistical significant differences between the control and experimental group's attitude in the post -questionnaire in favor of the experimental group.

تهدف هذه الدراسة الى الكشف عن اثر استراتيجية تنال القمرP.O.S.S.E)) في اتجاه طالبات الصف الرابع العلمي اللغة الانكليزية كلغة اجنبية. ولتحقيق هذا الهدف اجرى الباحثتين بحثا عمليا . كان العدد الكلي للعينات هو 73 طالبة . تم استخدام الاستبيان القبلي والبعدي لجمع البيانات الكمية والنوعية للدراسة . اظهرت النتائج وجود فروق ذات دلالة احصائية بين المجموعة التجريبية والمجموعة الضابطة لصالح المجموعة التجريبية.


Article
PRESERVATION OF THE HERITAGE VALUES OF IRAQI TRADITIONAL HOUSES
الحفاظ على القيم التراثية في تأهيل البيوت البغدادية التقليدية

Authors: Ali Abdulhussein Al-Ghalib --- Laith Sadiq Al-Assadi1
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 5 Pages: 130-146
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The traditional Iraqi (Baghdadi) houses were being formed over centuries of effort and contribution, and reached their final shape in the end of the nineteenth century. These masterworks have nowadays arrived at a critical stage. The fundamental problem with these houses is that they were all built with non-durable materials, such as clay brick, timber and mud with straws. Therefore, the majority has ruined; very few survived or should be saved for the future. The survivors should be conserved in vigorous way to maintain their heritage values. Unfortunately, in Iraq to date, the process of dealing with historical buildings is rather artless and immature for various reasons. As a first conservation rule, it is always said that there are no rules; however, there is a group of standard ethics and principles must be thoroughly taken into consideration in conservation. The conservation ethics and principles are given in the context of this paper. Every technical decision made should be assessed alongside the principles and ethics. Given that the number of this type of historical structure is not rare, the paper aims at setting standards and rules to facilitate the mission of conservation. Despite the sheer volume of such houses in old dense zones of Baghdad, their structure is quite simple and original materials are advantageously identified. Some common structural defects along with their repair procedure are reviewed in this paper.


Article
Synthesis and characterisation of novel mutual ester prodrug models of acyclovir

Authors: Dana Ameen --- Sazan Jameel
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2019 Volume: 23 Issue: 2 Pages: 226-232
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and Objective: Ocular herpes is a recurrent viral infection caused by the herpes simplex virus-1. Herpes simplex virus type one HSV-1 is one of the most common ocular viruses causing subsequent inflammatory responses and corneal blindness worldwide. This study aimed to synthesize a series of novel mutual ester prodrug models to treat viral infection and subsequent inflammation at corneal tissue.Various formulation strategies have been utilized to improve bioavailability by increasing ocular contact time and improving drug permeation. Chemical approaches, such as prodrug, directed to enhance the ocular bioavailability by improving physicochemical properties of the drug molecule, with the goal of improving drug permeation across cornea. Methods: Steglich esterification method was to design and synthesis a library of novel mutual prodrugs to increase the bioavailability of acyclovir, owing to enhance the lipophilicity compared with acyclovir. In this study a number of non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) have been conjugated to acyclovir to improve corneal permeation through enhancing lipophilicity and reduce subsequent inflammation. Results: The synthesized compounds were characterized through FTIR, 1H-,13C –NMR and Mass spectral data. The partition coefficient (logP) of prodrugs were calculated and showed an increment in lipophilicity and permeability in comparison with acyclovir.Conclusion: The strategy applied to design the novel compound hypothesized to be a novel mutual prodrug, and it may provide a higher absorption than hydrophilic parent (acyclovir) drug with concurrent anti-inflammatory activity.


Article
A New Differential Configuration of Hybrid Electric Vehicle with Torque Regulationloop
بناء نموذج تفاضلي جديد من المركبات الكهربائية الهجينة مبني على أساس تنظيم العزوم الدوارة

Authors: Abdul baki Khalaf Ali --- Abdul baki Khalaf Ali --- Karrar Abbas Johi --- Imad abdul-kadhem kheioon
Journal: University of Thi-Qar Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة جامعة ذي قار للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 26645564/26645572 Year: 2012 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 28-42
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

The most significant weakness of hybrid electric vehicles (HEV) is the high construction cost and the complicated control strategies due to multiple power sources[1],[2] .In this paper a new developed configuration of hybrid vehicle is presented. The new configuration issimple, cost-effective and easy to implement .The differential unit, which acts as mechanical torque-overflow keeps engine torque within a predefined value . This is achieved by the aid of torque loop attached to one terminal of the differential.The new configuration proved to actcontinuously varying transmission (CVT) and also can perform efficient control strategies .Minimum emissions can be assured by running the IC-engine within best engine performance zone which is characterized by engine torque and engine speed.

أن من ابرز نقاط الضعف في المركبات الكهربائية الهجينة هي كلفة الإنشاء العالية والتعقيد في استراتيجيات السيطرة بسبب تعدد مصادر القدرة. تم في هذا البحث بناء نموذج جديد من المركبات الهجينة. يمتاز هذا النموذج بالبساطة وقلة الكلفة وسهولة التنفيذ. أن الوحدة الأساسية وهي الوحدة التفاضلية والتي تعتبر بمثابة الطوافة للسيطرة على العزوم الزائدة للمحرك ولإبقاء عزم المحرك ضمن القيم المرغوبة والمعرفة سلفا للنموذج. يتم كل ذلك بمساعدة مسار التحكم بالعزم والمسيطر على احد أطراف الوحدة التفاضلية. لقد اثبت النموذج الجديد بأنه يوفر (مغير سرعة مستمر) ومسيطر جيد على المركبات الهجينة. ان النموذج الجديد يضمن كذلك تقليل الانبعاثات الملوثة عن طريق تشغيل محرك الاحتراق ضمن منطقة الأداء الأفضل ضمن مخطط السرعة والعزم للمحركات .


Article
PSO-Based Optimum Design Of PID Controller for Switching Reluctance Motor
التصمیم المثالي المستند الى حشد الجزیئات للمسیطر التناسبي – التكاملي – التفاضلي (PID) لمحرك المعاوقة التبادلي

Authors: Ekhlas M. Thejeel --- Mazin M. Mahdi --- Zainab N. Abbass
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2013 Volume: 31 Issue: 14 Part (A) Engineering Pages: 2665-2679
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

This paper presents simulation results for three phase, 6/4 poles switched reluctancemotor (SRM) by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) method for formative theoptimal proportional-integral-derivative (PID) controller tuning parameters.Theproposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stableconvergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency.The main focus of this paper is to investigate the dynamic performance of switchedreluctance (SR) motors. This investigation is achieved through simulation usingMATLAB/SIMULINK. Digital simulation results show that the designed (PSO) havea good dynamic behaviour of the motor, a perfect speed tracking with no overshootand a good rejection of impact loads disturbance. The results of applying the (PSO)mode controller to a SRM give best performances and high robustness than thoseobtained by the application of others controller. The obtained results of the closed loopPSO-PID response shows excellent performance with respect to the PID controller.


Article
PSO-BASED TUNNING OF PID CONTROLLER FOR SPEED CONTROL OF DC MOTOR
تنغيم لمسيطر نوع PID مستند الى خوارزمية PSOللسيطرة على سرعة محرك DC

Author: Ibrahem S. Fatah ابراهيم سعدون فتاح
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2014 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: 65-79
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

In this paper, a Proportional-Integral-Derivative (PID) controller of DC motor is designed by using particle swarm optimization (PSO) strategy for formative optimal PID controller tuning parameters. The proposed approach has superior feature, including easy implementation, stable convergence characteristics and very good computational performances efficiency. The DC Motor Scheduling PID-PSO controller is modeled in MATLAB environment. Comparing with conventional PID controller using Genetic Algorithm, the planned method is more proficient in improving the speed loop response stability, the steady state error is reduced, the rising time is perfected and the change of the required input do not affect the performances of driving motor with no overtaking.

في هذا البحث تم تصميم مسيطر نوع (تناسب-تكامل-مشتق) (PID) لمحرك تيار مستمر (DC) باستخدام خوارزمية اسراب الجسيمات لتنغيم قيم المسيطر بافضل قيم. ان الطريقة المقترحة هي صورة متفوقة سهلة التنفيذ وخواص اقتراب مستقرة وكفاءة للحسابات جيدة جدا. قيم المسيطر (PID-PSO) مجدولة باستخدام بيئة MATLAB.تمت المقارنة مع المسيطر الاعتيادي باستخدام الخوارزمية الجينية الطريقة المقترحةكانت اكثر براعة في تحسين استقرار استجابة حلقة السرعة، تقليل خطاء الحالة النهائية، وقت الصعود اكمل بالاضافة الى ان تغيير الدخل المطلوب لا يؤثر على سلوك سواقة المحرك.


Article
COMPARISON OF PRE-OPERATIVE PERITONEAL WASH AND DRAINAGE VERSUS URGENT LAPAROTOMY STRATEGY IN PATIENTS WITH LATE STAGE PERFORATION PERITONITIS. A RANDOMIZED CONTROLLED TRIAL

Author: Salah Kadhim Muslim
Journal: Basrah Journal of Surgery مجلة البصرة الجراحية ISSN: 16833589 / ONLINE 2409501X Year: 2018 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 67-76
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Peritonitis is inflammation of peritoneum which is most commonly due to generalized or localized infection. Secondary peritonitis is the commonest form and a large percent of them is due to perforation or impending gastrointestinal perforation. The prognosis depends on multiple factors by which Mannheim Peritonitis Index (MPI) appears to be more practical. This study aimed to assess the value of pre-operative aspiration of peritoneal fluid followed by peritoneal wash and drainage before proceeding to definitive surgery in patients with MPI score>20. This prospective study was conducted in Al-Hussein Teaching Hospital in Al Nasserya city and Basrah Teaching Hospital in Basrah city from October 2003 to July 2014. Each patient admitted to the emergency department in these hospitals with the provisional diagnosis of perforation peritonitis was evaluated with MPI score. If the score was less than 20; the patient managed with resuscitation and broad spectrum antibiotics for 2-3 hours then by definitive surgery while those with MPI more than 20 were randomly divided into two groups; the first were managed with 2-3 hours resuscitation with intra-venous fluid resuscitation and antibiotics followed by urgent surgical exploration (USE). The second group were managed with percutaneous peritoneal drainage (PPD) with aspiration of the fluid and then irrigation of the peritoneal cavity with isotonic saline and followed by a drainage with aid of the gravity through another catheter located in the right ileac fossa. Sixty two patients included in this study who fulfilled the criteria of perforation peritonitis and MPI score more than 20. Around half of them the score was between 26-30. Perforated peptic ulcer is the commonest etiology. The most common cause of their high MPI score is the late presentation and the evidence of organ failure. Renal failure is the most prevalent organ failed in both groups. The overall mortality is decreased in (PPD) group. Those with urgent surgical exploration(USE) showed no improvements in the pre-operative vital signs, prolonged operation time and a higher mortality and more severe post-operative complication than PPD group.In conclusion, the pre-operative percutaneous peritoneal aspiration of the fluid followed by peritoneal irrigation and drainage in patients with advanced stage perforation peritonitis is associated with a significant improvement in the pre-operative pulse rate and blood pressure, decrease in the operation time, a decrease in the overall mortality and deep seated wound infection and dehiscence but it is associated with a higher mortality in the first post-operative day.


Article
The Impact of Using Ishikawa Diagram Strategy to Enhance the Problem Solving Skill in Composition Writing of Iraqi EFL College Students
اثر استخدام ستراتيجية مخطط ايشيكاوا ( عظم السمك ) في كتابة الانشاء لتحسين مهارة حل المشكلات للطلبة العراقيين دارسي اللغة الانكليزية. لغة اجنبية

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This study aims at investigating the impact of using Ishikawa diagram strategy to enhance the problem solving skill in composition writing of Iraqi EFL College Students. To achieve the aim of the present study, the following hypothesis has been put: There is no statistically significant differences at (á≤0.05) between the mean scores of the experimental group who is taught problem solving skill in composition writing according to Ishikawa diagram and that of the control group who is taught according to the traditional way in the post-test .Thus, an experiment design was adopted. The sample of the study was Purposive sample consisted of (103) students from 3rd year class English department college of basic education University of Diyala (52) students as an experimental group and (51) students as a control during the academic year 2017 -2018. Meanwhile, the subjects of both groups are matched according to their age, level of parents’ education, and their scores in the pre-test. Pre-test and post-test have been designed .The validity of the tests have been obtained by exposing them to jury members in the fields of TEFL and linguistics. The data was collected, coded out and analyzed by using independent T-Test, two-way ANOVA and paired T-Test to answer the hypothesis of the study. The reliability of the tests has been secured by using Alfa Cronbach formula found to be (0.86) which indicates high reliability. Statistical analysis of data achieved through using the t-test indicates that there are statistically significant differences between the mean scores of the two groups in favour of the experimental group in the post test. The researcher concludes that using Ishikawa diagram strategy enhances students’ problem solving skill in composition writing and provides them with opportunities to actively develop skills, which enables them to locate, gather, analyze, critique and apply information in a wide range of contexts.

يهدف البحث التحقق من اثر استخدام ستراتيجية مخطط ايشيكاوا (عضم السمك) في كتابة الانشاء لتحسين مهارة حل المشكلات للطلبة العراقيين دارسي اللغة الانكليزية لغة اجنبية . وللتحقق من الهدف صيغت الفرضية الصفرية ( لا يوجد فروق ذو دلالة إحصائية عند مستوى دلالة ( 0,05 ) بين متوسط درجات الطلبة في المجموعة التجريبية الذين درسوا مهارة حل المشكلات في كتابة الانشاء وفق ستراتيجية مخطط ايشيكاوا ( عضم السمك) ومتوسط درجات الطلبة في المجموعة الضابطة الذين درسوا وفق الطريقة الاعتيادية في الاختبار البعدي. تبنت الباحثة التصميم التجريبي للضبط الجزئي للمجموعتين التجريبية والضابطة تضبط احدهما الاخرى ذات الاختبار البعدي. أجريت هذه التجربة على عينة قصدية تتألف من (103 طالباً من كلا الجنسين). وحددت الدراسة على طلبة المرحلة الثالثة قسم اللغة الانكليزية/ كلية التربية الاساسية / جامعة ديالى للعام الدارسي 2017-2018. وشملت العينة 52 طالباً في المجموعة التجريبية و51 طالباً في المجموعة الضابطة.بعد ذلك تم التاكد من مساواة المجموعتين من خلال العمليات الاحصائية التي تشمل مجموعة من المتغيرات مثل: العمروتحصيل الوالدين ودرجات الطلاب في السنة السابقة ودرجاتهم في الامتحان القبلي . حيث قامت الباحثة بتصميم كلا الاختبارين ( القبلي والبعدي ) وتم التأكد من صلاحية وصدق الاختبارات بعرضهما على الخبراء في مجالات طرائق تدريس اللغة الانكليزية وعلم اللغة , وتأكدت الباحثة من ثبات الاختبار من خلال الفا كرونباخ والتي كانت (0.86 ). وبعد الانتهاء من التجربة تم تحليل البيانات احصائيا" باستخدام الاختبار التائي وقد توصلت الباحثة إلى وجود فروق ذات دلالة إحصائية بين المجموعة التجريبية والمجموعة الضابطة في مهارة حل المشكلات في نتائج الاختبار البعدي ولصالح المجموعة التجريبية . استنتجت الباحثة ان استخدام ستراتيجية مخطط ايشيكاوا (عضم السمك) اثبتت بانها تكون اكثر فاعلية وانتاجا في تحسين مهارة حل المشكلات في كتابة الانشاء و يعزز أداء الطلبة ومهارتهم , وتمنحهم الفرصة لتنشيط وتطوير مهاراتهم التي تمكنهم من تحديد , تجميع , تحليل ونقد المعلومات على المدى الطويل وتنمية الفهم لديهم .

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