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Article
Assessment and Optimization for Urban Planning Projects

Authors: Walid Mustafa Khamas وليد مصطفى خماس --- Hafeth I. Naji حافظ ابراهيم ناجي --- Aya A. Hasan
Journal: DIYALA JOURNAL OF ENGINEERING SCIENCES مجلة ديالى للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19998716/26166909 Year: 2018 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 20-27
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

After increasing the wheel of progress obviously in recent years in all areas, especially in urban planning projects. This led to the increasing need for a scientific and developing method to organize data processing by choosing the optimized master plan for cities. So, the importance of the process of selecting the optimized master plan of economic, environmental and social because of the indirect contact with the people, so the need arises to seek for the best methods that assist in the evaluation and selection of urban planning projects and decision-making by selecting the optimized master plan. One of the methods is the Fuzzy AHP and Fuzzy TOPSIS. This research concentrates on Fuzzy TOPSIS technique which helps to make the best decisions through choosing the optimized master plan for cities. This research aims to evaluate the alternatives to master plan of cities and select the best ones. To achieve the objectives of the research, the data collected from the literature reviews that dealt with themes of urban planning and Fuzzy TOPSIS technique as well as the personal interviews with specialists. The results showed through the data analysis of the sample that the third alternative (Muqdadiyah urban and agricultural center) has received the largest relative importance compared to other alternatives. In the end, a set of conclusions and recommendations were drawn such as the absence of an administrative system capable of evaluating and selecting the optimized master plan with less time and cost. It was found through using the technical research that time and cost of the evaluation and selection obviously significantly were reduced among the alternatives.Corrosion inhibition of low carbon steel, stainless steel types 316 and 304 in hydrochloric acid by potassium iodide was investigated at different temperatures using weight loss and polarization electrochemical techniques


Article
The Translation of Interjections: A Case Study of Al-Baalebeki's Translation of Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities
ترجمة أسماء الأفعال وأسماء الأصوات: دراسة حالة لترجمة البعلبكي لرواية ديكنز حكاية مدينتين

Author: Zahraa Nasir Talib زهراء ناصر طالب
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2011 Issue: 56 Pages: 19-41
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

Interjections , like any other parts of speech, convey specific meanings. Their meanings are culture-specific and may cause serious problems of translators. This paper investigates the strategies used by the well-known translator Munir Al-Baalebeki in translating English interjections in Dickens' A Tale of Two Cities into Arabic. These strategies are omission , transliteration , paraphrasing and providing an equivalent Arabic interjection. The strategy of omission is sometimes appropriately used when the interjection omitted does not affect the meaning of the text as a whole. It is the last resort the translator should adhere to when it is difficult to find an appropriate equivalent. But, it appears that Al-Baalebeki uses this strategy in positions where he could provide an appropriate equivalent. The strategy of transliteration reveals Al- Baalebeki's inability to understand the meaning of interjections in the source text. His transliterations mostly distort the original meaning and effect. The strategy of paraphrasing is appropriately used by Al-Baalebeki for conveying the original meaning and , sometimes , the effect of the source-language text. But this strategy is not appropriate where an equivalent Arabic interjection can be found since the interjection can better convey the original effect. The last strategy Al-Baalebeki uses in his translation, viz. providing an equivalent interjection ,shows his success in transferring the original meaning and effect to the target-language text.

لأسماء الأفعال و أسماء الأصوات معاني تعبر عنها كباقي أصناف الكلام ولكن معانيها محكومة بالثقافة التي تنتمي إليها وهذا قد يسبب مشاكل خطرة للمترجم. فيتناول هذا البحث الاستراتيجيات التي يستخدمها البعلبكي في ترجمة أسماء الأصوات و أسماء الأفعال في رواية حكاية مدينتين لديكنز.و هذه الاستراتيجيات هي الحذف و النقحرة والتفسير وتقديم اسم صوت أو اسم فعل مكافئ في العربية.و يكون استخدام الحذف ملائماً حين لا يؤثر اسم الفعل أو اسم الصوت المحذوف على المعنى الكلي للنص فالحذف هو الملجأ الأخير للمترجم حين يكون من الصعب إيجاد مكافئ آخر. و لكن يبدو إن البعلبكي قد استخدم هذه الإستراتيجية في مواقع كان يمكن فيها تقديم مكافئ عربي ملائم.أما إستراتيجية نقل الأصوات بحروف عربية فتكشف عن فشل البعلبكي في نقل معاني أسماء الأصوات و أسماء الأفعال في النص الأصلي. فما قدمه يشوه المعنى و التأثير الأصليين. أما إستراتيجية التفسير فقد استخدمها البعلبكي بشكل ملائم في نقل المعنى الأصلي و في بعض الأحيان نقل التأثير الأصلي.لكن هذه الإستراتيجية قد لا تكون ملائمة حين يكون هناك اسم صوت أو اسم فعل مكافئ في اللغة العربية.أما الإستراتيجية الأخيرة فهي تقديم مكافئ في اللغة العربية وهذا يظهر نجاحه في نقل المعنى و التأثير الأصليين.

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