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Article
Cytotoxicity and Antibacterial Effect of 2-(2-hydroxy naphthylazo) phenyl mercuric chloride and 4-(2-hydroxy naphthylazo) phenyl mercuric chloride against some bacterial isolates in vitro
السمية الخلوية والتأثيرضد الجرثومي لمركبي 2- (2- نفثايل آزو) فينايل كلوريد الزئبق و 4- (2- هايدروكسي نفثايل آزو) فينايل كلوريد الزئبق ضد بعض العزلات الجرثومية خارج الجسم الحي.

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Abstract

The 2-(2-hydroxynaphthylazo) phenyl mercuric chloride and 4-(2-hydroxynaphthylazo) phenyl mercuric chloride were evaluated for their biological activity against standard strains of Staphylococcus aureus ATCC25923 and Ecsherichia coli ATCC 25922. The results showed that there is a potent antibacterial activity for these compounds. Minimal inhibitory concentration was determined for two compounds, it was 20µg/ml, 40µg/ml for Staph. aureus, and 50µg/ml, 60µg/m for E. coli respectively. Cytotoxicity assay was carried out against human red blood corpuscles, the two compounds exhibited a toxic effect in all used concentrations.

قدرت الفعالية البايولوجية لمركبي 2- (2- نفثايل آزو) فينايل كلوريد الزئبق و4- (2- هايدروكسي نفثايل آزو) فينايل كلوريد الزئبق ضد السلالات المرجعية لجرثومتي المكورات العنقودية الذهبية والأشريكية القولونية وأظهرت النتائج الفعالية ضد الجرثومية العالية للمركبين. حدد التركيز المثبط الأدنى للمركبين وكان 20مايكروغرام/مل ،40مايكروغرام/مل لجرثومة المكورات العنقودية الذهبية و50مايكروغرام/مل ،60مايكروغرام/مل لجرثومة الأشريكية القولونية على التوالي ولكلا المركبين. أختبرت السمية الخلوية للمركبين المحضرين ضد كريات الدم الحمراء للأنسان، وأظهر المركبان تأثيرآ سامآ في كافة التراكيز المستخدمة.


Article
The Effect of Lead on Lung Histology of Albino Mice Mus musculus
تأثير الرصاص على انسجة الرئة في الفئران البيض Mus musculus

Author: Aticka A. El-Nouri عاتكة النوري
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2009 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 E Pages: 29-36
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the study was to investigate the histological changes caused by lead in the lung of albino mice . Twenty five mice were divided into 5 equal groups, . The first group was given distilled water and used as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered (2 and 4 mg/kg of body weight) lead acetate respectively for two weeks. The fourth and fifth groups were orally administered ( 2 and 4 mg/kg of body weight ) lead acetate for four weeks. Animals were anesthetized and the lungs were extracted for histological studies. The histological changes were observed in the lungs are emphysema, infiltration of mononuclear cells in the interalveolar septa, sloughing of epithelial cells of bronchiole, congestion of blood vessels and blood cells in some bronchi and bronchioles. The lesions were more severe in animals exposed to the high dose. In conclusion the severity of the lesions of lead toxicity depends on the dose of lead and period of exposure.

تضمنت الدراسة تقييم تأثير الرصاص على البنيان النسيجي للرصاص في رئة الفئران البيض. قسمت الفئران إلى خمسة مجاميع 5 فأرة/مجموعة جرعت المجموعة الأولى ماء مقطر واعتبرت مجموعة سيطرة في حين جرعت المجموعتان الثانية والثالثة 2 ملغم و 4 ملغم اسيتات الرصاص/كغم على التعاقب لمدة أسبوعين. كما جرعت المجموعتان الرابعة والخامسة2 ملغم و 4 ملغم اسيتات الرصاص/كغم على التعاقب لمدة أربعة أسابيع. تم تجريع الحيوانات يوميا عن طريق الانبوب المعدي ثم تم تخدير الحيوانات وأخذت مقاطع من الرئة لدراسة التغييرات النسيجية. أوضحت التغيرات النسيجية حصول نفاخ وارتشاح التهابي للخلايا وحيدة النواة في الحواجز بين الاسناخ وانسلاخ للخلايا الظهارية للقصيبات الهوائية واحتقان للأوعية الدموية. كانت الافات اكثر شدة في الحيوانات المعرضة للجرعات العالية. تبين ان شدة الافات تعتمد على الجرعات فترة التعرض.


Article
The anti-oxidant effect of processed garlic
الفعالية المضادة للتأكسد لحبوب الثوم

Author: Layla Othman Khalid
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2012 Volume: 15 Issue: 1 Pages: 326-331
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Background: Oxidative stress is accepted as a critical pathophysiolog mechanism in different human disorder like cardiovascular diseases, cancer , diabetes mellitus and neurodegenerative diseases, because of accumulation of radical oxygen species (ROS) & radical nitrogen species(RNS).Garlic(Allium Sativum) has been used as a spice & as a medicine in treatment of these diseases because it contains antioxidants & regarded as an effective hydroxyl radical scavenger. In the present work the antioxidant effect of processed garlic was studied by measuring its effect on the level of reduced glutathione (GSH) & malondialdyhyde(MDA).Design of study: Experimental follow up study.Methods & materials: The level of erythrocyte GSH & plasma MDA were measured in 12 apparently healthy volunteers before & every 10 days for 1month during taking garlic tablets.Results: The level of GSH was significantly increased by 31.30%(P<0.01)&MDA level was significantly decreased by 26.42% (P<.0.01) after 30 days of ingestion of garlic tablets..Conclusion: The results suggest that processed garlic has lowering effect on MDA & increasing effect on erythrocytes GSH.

أن الجهد التأكسدي يعتبر سبب لكثير من الأمراض البشريه مثل أمراض جهاز الدوران , السرطان ,داء السكري وأمراض الجهاز العصبي بسبب تجمع جذور حره للأوكسجين وجذور حره للنتروجين.أن الثوم استخدم كبهارات وكدواء لمعالجة هذه الأمراض لأ حتوائه على مضادات التأكسد وللتخلص من الجذور الحره الهيدروكسيليه.الهدف:دراسة الفعاليه المضاده للتأكسد لحبوب الثوم بواسطة قياس تأثيره على مستوى الكلوتاثايون المختزل(GSH) والميلانالديهايد ((MDAطريقة العمل:تم قياس مستوى (MDA)(GSH)ل 12عينة دم لأشخاص أصحاء قبل أستخدام الدواء ثم كل 10 ايام بعد أستخدامه ولمدة30 يوماالنتائج:أوضحت النتائج بوجود علاقه معتده ااحصائيا لمادة MDAوالتي قلت بنسبة 26,42%(P0.01)بعد شهر من استخدام الدواء.وهناك أيضا علاقه معتده أحصائيا لمادة GSH حيث أرتفعت قيمته بنسبة 31,3%(P0.01)بعد شهر من استخدام الدواء.الأستنتاج:ان لحبوب الثوم فعاليه مضاده للتأكسد وذلك عن طريق تأثيره بزيادة الماده المضاده للتأكسد (الكلوتاثايون) وتقليله لمادة الميلانالديهايد الناتجه من تأكسد الدهون.


Article
CYTOTOXICITY AND INHIBITORY EFFECT OF PARA-AMINO PHENYL MERCURY(II) ACETATE AGAINST GROWTH OF SOME BACTERIA (IN VITRO)
ألسميه الخلويه والتأثير المثبط للمركب بارا- أمينو فنيل خلات الزئبق ضد نمو بعض انواع البكتيريا (مختبريا).

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Abstract

It was found that 0.1gm of para-aminophenyl mercuric acetate PAPMA dissolved in 10ml of distilled water added in to,Muller-Hinton agar, inhibited the growth of four standard strains bacteria [E.coli ATCC25922, S.aureus ATCC 25923, P.aeruginosa ATCC27853 and S.aureus NCTC6571] and four clinical strains bacteria positive and negative to gram stain [Klebsiella sp.,from blood isolate , E.coli, from stool isolate, Staphylococcus sp., from blood isolate, and Proteus sp.,from urine isolate]. Higher concentrations of PAPMA solution in to the medium inhibited growth of bacteria under study more strongly. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC) and cytotoxicity of PAPMA were studied against human blood and it was found that it has no hemolytic in RBCs for human in 1– 5µg/ml. The acute toxicity LD50 of PAPMA was studied and it was about 11.3mg/Kg.

وجد ان 1,. من المركب بارا-أمينوفنيل خلات الزئبق (PAPMA) المذاب في 10ملليلترمن الماء المقطر قد ثبط نمو أربعة سلالات مرجعية: S.aureus NCTC6571 E.coli ATCC25922P.aeruginosa ATCC27853S.aureus ATCC25923 بالاضافه الى أربعة عزلات سريرية: Staphylococcus sp.Klebsiella sp.Proteus sp.E.coliكما وجد ان التراكيز العالية من المركب المضاف الى الوسط الزرعي يؤدي الى تثبيط النمو بشكل اكثر.تمت دراسة التركيز المثبط الادنى وكذلك السمية الخلوية لكريات دم الانسان ووجد انه لايوجد تحلل لكريات الدم عند تراكيز تراوحت بين 1 مايكروغرام/ملليلتر 5 مايكروغرام/ملليلتر ويبدأ التحلل عند تراكيز اعلى ,كما تمت دراسة الجرعة القاتلة الوسطى من المركب فوجد انه 11.3 ملغم/كغم وتعتبر هذه الدراسة هي الخطوة الاولى لدراسة هذا المركب الجديد والذي ممكن الأستفاده منه في المستقبل كدواء....................


Article
Antibacterial effect of watery crude plants extract and antibiotics sensitivity

Authors: Zahrah Adnan Diakhil --- Abtasam Basher and Deana Baism
Journal: Misan Journal of Acodemic Studies مجلة ميسان للدراسات الاكاديمية ISSN: 1994697X Year: 2016 Volume: 15 Issue: 29 Pages: 90-98
Publisher: Misan University جامعة ميسان

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Abstract

AbstractThe objective of the present study was to investigate antimicrobial activity a number of Origanum spp, Slavia spp and Syzygium spp extract raw dried on normal flora and pathogenic bacteria. The study was done in the collage of sciences in missan city . The isolates was E. coli, Staphylococcus aureus and pathogenic bacteria was Klebsiella. Pathogenic bacteria Klebsiella were isolated from patients sever from ulcer skin and identified by biochemical test and two types of bacteria as normal flora E.coli from stool sample and Staphylococcus from nose then plants were extracted and tested by disc diffusion methods also antibiotics was done. The Staphylococcus is sensitive to ciprofloxacin (CIP) (27mm) than amikacin (AK) (22mm) in diameter and resistant to anther antibiotics. Klebsiella resistant all of antibiotics except Amikacin (23mm) in diameter. The Origanum spp, Saliva spp have no effect on all normal flora and pathogen bacteria but Syzygium spp is more effective.Key words: Antimicrobial agents, plant extracts, Origanum spp, Slavia spp , Syzygium spp, antimicrobial activity.


Article
Comparison of New Topical Treatment (Curcumine viscous solution 30% ) For Recurrent Herpes Labialis (RHL)

Author: Maha T Al–Saffar
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2009 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 225-231
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the therapeutic effect of viscaus solution of curcumine 30% , as a topical treatment of RHL in comparison with the traditional antiviral agent " acyclovir ". Materials and methods: Atotal of 120 patients (100 female, 20 male) with RHL divided into four groups: Group I: Fifty patients used viscous solution of curcumine 30% topically. Group II: Thirty patients used viramed "acyclovir"cream topically. Group III: Twenty five patients used glycerol topically "control positive group".Group IV: Fifteen patients without treatment "control negative group". Results: Female were moreaffected than male with RHL (83.3% female, 16.3% male) with high percentage of association between highly stressed events and RHL. The results also showed significant differences between size of lesion,duration of healing and pain in patients using viscous curcumine solution topically and patients received viramed cream and patient received no treatment. The patients group which received glycerol"control positive" showed a significant differences in duration of healing compared with group I and group II. While, patients group which received viramed topically showed no significant differencescompared with group III and IV in related to duration of pain and show significant difference with group I, III and IV in relation to duration of healing. Conclusions: Topical application of viscaus carcuminesolution 30% showed a good effective response on RHL compared with other antiviral agent with the lower percentage of adverse effect, and further study for its effect on other oral lesion may be recommended.


Article
Enhancement of biodiesel production from local isolates of microalgae

Authors: Fikrat M. Hassan --- Nadhem H. Hyder --- Samara Saad Faraj Hammadi
Journal: Mesopotamia Environmental Journal بيئة وادي الرافدين ISSN: 24102598 Year: 2015 Volume: 1 Issue: 3 Pages: 66-81
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Ten microalgae isolates were isolated from some ponds and Tigris River in Iraq, and screened for growth and lipid production. The results showed that the isolates Chrococcus dispersus, Anabaena augstumalis and Chlorella vulgaris exhibited higher growth rate and lipid production and reached (0.95, 1.9 and 1.17) g/l, respectively. The selected isolates stimulated by studying the effect of different levels of pH and salinity on growth and lipid production. The results showed higher lipid production by C. vulgaris reached maximum (3.45g/l) at lower pH 6, followed by A. augstumalis (2.75g/l at pH11) and C. disperses (2.68 g/l at pH9). The results also showed that lipid production by C. dispersus and A. augstumalis was stimulated by decreasing salinity concentration and reached maximum (2.94 and 2.5 g/l), respectively at 0.4 g/l of NaCl. While, maximum lipid production by C. vulgaris was (1.72 g/l) obtained at salt concentration of 1g/l. The combined effect of pH and salinity on lipid production studied. Maximum lipid production by C. dispersus (8.43 g/l) observed at (pH9 + salt 0. 4g/l). In case of C. vulgaris, total lipid production reached 4.43g/l which obtained at (pH6 + salt 0.75g/l). While, lipid production in microalgae of A. augstumalis was favored by alkaline condition, and maximum lipid production (4.42 g/l) observed at (pH11 + salt 0. 75g/l). Higher oil content was observed in C. vulgaris and reached 33.2% (0.332 g of oil / g of dry algal biomass) when the microalgae cultivated at (pH9 + salt 0.4 g/l). In comparison, to lower oil content (%) observed with A. augstumalis and C. dispersus reached to 16 % and 13.8% when the isolates stimulated at (pH11 + salt 0.4 g/l) and (pH 6 + salt 0.75 g/l), respectively. Analysis of lipid content by GC technique had shown that the lipid content of microalgae C. dispersus contained only stearic acid. While, oil content in C. vulgaris and A. augstumalis contained only stearic acid, but palmtic acid and oleic acid were detected in control and stimulus conditions.


Article
Immunological Effect of Polysaccharide Extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa against Leishmania donovani in mice

Author: Hasna H. Jumah
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 3 Pages: 265-278
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Visceral leishmaniasis is a serious disease with high pathoogenicity. It was noticed that Polysaccharide extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa had the ability to induce both cellular & humoral immunity response against bacteria, fungi & parasites.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to know the immunological effects of polysaccharide extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa before & after the infection of BALB/c mice with Leishmania donovani in trial to provide a method for prevention of the disease in human.METHODS:174 male BALB/c mice were divided into control & experimental groups with each group consisting of six animals. The experimental groups injected intraperitoneally (i.p) with 0.2 ml phosphate buffer saline (PBS) containing 1×108 parasite. Cerdain groups were injected intraperitoneally by polysaccharide (PS) at doses of 100, 150, 250 μg on day 3, 6, and daily for 6 days before infection with Leishmania donovani. These animals were sacrified after 8 weeks. Other groups were injected intraperitoneally with polysaccharides on day 7 post infection at the doses of 100, 150, 250, μg, 6 animals were sacrified after 2, 4, 6, 8 weeks. Total & differential count of leukocytes, measurement of spleen & liver weight and index, measurement of cellular immune response, histopathological changes liver and spleen were carried out.RESULTS:This study showed an increase in the total count of leukocyte accompanied by an increase in lymphocyte with decrease in monocyte percent in mice treated with polysaccharide before and after infection with Leishmania donovani which were statistically significant. Reduction in liver & spleen weights & their index in all treated groups was noticed before & after infection. The cellular immune response represented by delayed hypersensitivity has been enhanced in the mice treated with polysaccharide before &after infection. In treated groups, histopathological studies of mice showed hepatocyte hypertrophy, infiltration of the inflammatory cells in liver before & after infection. In spleen showed an increase in lymphocytes & monocytes in red pulp, while the infected mice (non treated) showed a necrotic foci, loss of architecture of both liver & spleen & obvious granulomatous inflammation in liver.CONCLUSION:Polysaccharidde extracted from Pseudomonas aeruginosa induced immunological activity by activation of cell mediated responses, stimulated an increase in WBC count & lymphocytes with minor histoptholgical changes in liver and spleen.


Article
Heat Transfer in Pool Boiling with Surfactants
أنتقال الحرارة في الغليان الحوضي بوجود مثبطات الشد السطحي

Authors: Mahmoud Kamel Getan --- Balasim Ahmed Abid
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2010 Volume: 28 Issue: 17 Pages: 5421-5439
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Boiling with surfactant is important in many key industrial applications suchas the petrochemical processing, refining, refrigeration, hygiene and personal care,pharmaceutical, and food processing, among others.The aims of this study are experimental determination of the heattransfer coefficient with and without the addition of surfactants to purewater and quantify the effects of surfactant concentration, ionic nature, itsethoxylation, and molecular weight on the nucleate boiling performance ofwater on vertical cylindrical heater.Several different surfactants were employed: [SDS(Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate),SLES (Sodium Lauryl Ether Sulfate) (anionic) ]and [Triton X-100 (OctylphenolEthoxylate) (nonionic)], they have different molecular weights, ionic nature andnumber of ethylene oxide EO groups attached to its polar head.The boiling results show that with the addition of small amounts of surfactants,the saturated nucleate pool boiling heat transfer coefficient of water is found to bealtered due to reduction in the surface tension and this enhances the heattransfer.The enhancement in nucleate pool boiling depends upon wall heat flux (ortemperature difference), concentration of surfactant, ionic nature, molecular weightand number of (EO) group.The heat transfer coefficient is found to increase by asmuch as (81.9%) over that for pure water for SDS solutions while (53 %) for SLESand (45 %) for Triton X-100 at CMC (critical micelle concentration).The enhancement increases with concentration and the enhanced solutions arefound to be with C ≤ CMC. The optimum enhancement is at or near the CMC ofsurfactants. However, the maximum heat transfer enhancement is in the order ofSDS > SLES > Triton X-100, this is also, in the reverse order of their molecularweights and number of (EO) groups.

الغلیان بوجود مثبطات الشد السطحي مھم في العدید من التطبیقات الصناعیة مثل :الصناعات البتروكیمیاویة,المصافي,التثلیج،الصحة والعنایة الشخصیة ,الصیدلة والصناعات الغذائیة. كان الھدف من البحث ھو حساب معامل انتقال الحرارة تجریبیاً في حالة إضافة مثبطات الشد السطحي أو عدم أضافتھا للماء النقي وكذلك للتكھن بمدى تأثیر كلاً من تركی ز مثبط ات الشد السطحي , طبیعتھا الأیونیة, عدد مجامیع أوكسید الاثل ین المرتبطة برأس ھا و وزنھا الجزیئي على سلوك الغلیان المتنوي للماء. Triton X- الأیونیة) و 100 ) SLES و SDS تم أستخدام عدد من مثبطات الشد السطحي مثل (الغیر أیونیة) والتي تختلف في الوزن الجزیئي ,الطبیعة الأیونیة وعدد مجامیع أوكسید الاثل ین. لقد بینت نتائج الغلیان بأنھ عند إضافة كمیات صغیرة من مثبطات الشد السطحي فأن معاملات أنتقال الحرارة في الغلیان المتنوي المشبع للماء تتغیر نتیجة لتقلی لالشد السطحي وبذلك یُحسن أنتقال الحرارة.لوحظ أن التحسن في الغلیان الحوضي المتنوي یعتمد على الفیض الحراري (او الاختلاف بدرجات الحرارة),تركیز مثبطات الشد الس طحي,طبیعتھا الأیونیة,أوزانھا الجزیئیة,وعدد مجامیع أوكسید الاثلین.( بینما تكون (% 53 SDS وجد أن نسبة التحسن في معامل انتقال الحرارة ھو(% 81.9 ) لمحالی لمقارنة مع الماء النقي عند التركی ز الحرج Triton X- و(% 45 ) لمحالیل 100 SLES لمحالیل .(CMC)وأفضل تحسن ھ و عن د C ≤ CMC التحسن یزداد مع التركیز, حیث وجد أن تحسن المحلول عند أو حول التركیز الحرج لمثبطات الشد السطحي.من ناحیة أخرى ,أقصى تحسن ف ي أنتقال الحرارةوكذلك في ترتیب معكوس من ناحیة أوزانھا Triton X-100 < SLES < SDS ھو في الترتیب الجزیة وعدد مجامیع أوكسید الأثلین .


Article
HISTOLOGICAL CHANGES INDUCED BY LEAD NITRATES IN THE GILLS OF GRASS CARP, Ctenopharyngodon idelia (Val.) JUVENILES
التغيرات النسيجية في غلاصم صغار الكارب العشبي Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.)) المعرضة إلى نترات الرصاص

Author: Jabbar K. Abdul-Hassan and Entesar Sh. Hashim جبار خطار عبد الحسن ,انتصار شعبان هاشم
Journal: Basrah Journal of Veterinary Research. مجلة البصرة للابحاث البيطرية ISSN: Print:18138497 E; 24108456 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-10
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The present study showed that the lead had toxic effects on the gill structures of the grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) juveniles such as clubbing molting of epithelial cells, epithelial separation, necrosis, fusion of adjacent lamellar epithelium and hyperplasia of secondary lamellar epithelium, destruction of epithelial cells, curved of epithelial, loose in regular shape of epithelium, bite and bleeding tissues through exposure for 48 hrs. All these histological changes depended on lead concentration and exposure period.

أوضحت الدراسة الحالية بأن لعنصر الرصاص تأثيرات مرضية كبيرة على التركيب النسيجي لغلاصم صغار اسماك الكارب العشبي Ctenopharyngodon idella (Val.))، وقد تسبب انسلاخ الطبقة الطلائية واندماج بين الصفائح الثانوية مع تكسر وتنخر في معظم الخلايا وإفراط نسيجي، توسع ونزف في الأوعية الدموية الشعرية وكذلك ظهور أشكال بصلية. كما لوحظ بأن ظهور هذه التغيرات النسيجية اعتمدت على تركيز الرصاص وفترة التعرض

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