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Article
Longitudinal study of dental caries experience and pattern among a group of children in Baghdad

Author: Dr. Wesal A. Al-Obaidi B.D.S., M.Sc. * د. وصال العبيدي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2006 Volume: 3 Issue: 3 Pages: 302-307
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

The most dramatic increase in dental decay is thought to have occurred during thelast part of the 19th and the beginning of the 20th centuries. The aim of this study wasto investigate the caries experience and pattern in primary and permanent teeth in alongitudinal study. Dental caries of 166 kindergarten children of 4-5 years old wasrecorded. Only 122 of the children were re-examined when their ages became 10-11.The third examination of 118 children was done when their ages became 13-14.Dental caries registration was done following the criteria of WHO (1987). Dentalprevalence was increased by age reaching 94.9 percent at 13-14 years old. No sexdifferences were observed among the three examinations except in DMFT. TheDMFT incidence after 6 years was 4.3 and after 3 years was 1.8, while DMFSincidence was 6.4 and 2.2 respectively. The D/d component was the highest meanvalue. Although dental caries was significantly higher in posterior than in anteriorteeth, there were no jaw differences. Occlusal and proximal surfaces were thepredominate surfaces affected among permanent and primary teeth respectively.Coinciding with the incline in caries experience observed among children, changes inthe distribution and progression rate of the disease have been found.


Article
Caries experience in relation to salivary physicochemical and immunological changes among asthmatic patients in Mosul city / Iraq

Authors: Mohammed S. Younus --- Ahlam T. Mohammed
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 4 Pages: 86-90
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Asthma is a pulmonary disorder characterized by reversible stenosis of the peripheral bronchi. Thisdisease could affect the oral health; as a result asthmatic patients may have a higher risk of developing dentaldiseases. This study was conducted to evaluate the caries experience and salivary elements among asthmaticpatients using Ventoline inhaler.Materials and methods: The study group consisted of 30 male asthmatic patients with an age range 20-24years(under Ventoline inhaler). The control group includes 30 subjects matching with study group in age and gender.Plaque and DMFS index were used for recording caries experience. Stimulated salivary samples were collected andthen salivary flow rate, S-IgA and salivary elements concentrations (Ca, Na, K and PO4) were determined.Results: The mean value of dental caries (DMFS) and plaque index (Pl I) were found to be higher among study groupcompared to control group with statistically significant difference for Pl I (P<0.05), while not significant difference wasobserved for DMFS (P>0.05). The mean value of salivary flow rate, Ca, PO4 , Na and K ions concentrations were foundto be lower among study group compared to the control group with no statistically significant difference (P>0.05),except for Ca and K ions the differences were statistically significant (P<0.05). S-IgA in the study group was higherthan the control group and the difference was not significant (P>0.05).Conclusions: Individuals with asthma have a higher caries prevalence, worse oral cleanliness and lower salivaryelements compared to the control group, so a special preventive programs need to be designed for those patients


Article
Nurses’ experiences and perceptions of medication administration errors
تجارب وتصورات الممرضات عن أخطاء اعطاء الدواء

Authors: Halmat Authman Rasheed --- Goran Aboobaker Osman --- Newroz Ghazi Aziz
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2018 Volume: 22 Issue: 2 Pages: 217-226
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Medication administration errors are the most common medical errors that happen in hospital settings. This study aimed to find out the most common types of medication administration errors done by the hospital nurses and identifying factors that lead to medication administration errors.Methods: This cross-sectional survey was conducted across Erbil teaching hospitals over a period of three months from June 2016 to September 2016. A convenience sample of 250 nurses who were working in acute, subacute, and general wards and had direct contact with the medication administration were included in this study. Data were collected using a self-reported questionnaire.Results: According to this study the most common types of medication errors were, noticing allergy after drugs administration and administering drugs at a wrong time. The highest leading factors of medication administration errors were illegible medication orders of the physicians, lack of adequate staffing and workload. High statistical differences were found between the frequency of medication administration errors with nurses’ educational level, overall working experience, and nurses understanding language.Conclusion: This study concluded that medication administration errors have multiple causes and types of errors are various.


Article
Oral health status among patients treated with fixed orthodontic appliance at different time intervals.

Authors: Dr. Elaf AbdulKareem Alidan B.D.S د. ايلاف عبد الكريم --- Dr. Nadia A. AlRawi B.D.S, M.Sc, PhD د. نادية الراوي
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 1 Pages: 31-37
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: Fixed orthodontic appliance considered a risk factor that effect oralhealth status. Aims of this study were evaluation of oral hygiene, gingival healthand caries experience among patients with fixed orthodontic appliance atdifferent time intervals of treatment.Material & Methods:- 32 patients (24 female and 8 male) included in this study andthey underwent clinical examination plaque, calculus, gingival health and cariesexperience by using Loe, 1967, Green and vermillion, 1960 and WHO, 1987indices at four time intervals: 2-3 weeks after appliance insertion, 2 months, 4months, 6 months. The statistical analysis of data was by using statisticalPackage for social Sciences (SPSS version 18).Results:- The means of all variables examined increased during six months oforthodontic treatment with high significant difference during visits. 49.6% ofpatients developed new caries lesions after six months of treatment.Conclusion:- Patients underwent orthodontic treatment at high risk for developingoral health problems.


Article
Quality of Experience Metric of Streaming Video: A survey

Authors: Rana Fareed Ghani --- Amal Sufiuh Ajrash
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2018 Volume: 59 Issue: 3B Pages: 1531-1537
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Technological development in the last years leads to increase the access speed in the internet networks that allow a huge number of users watching videos online. Video streaming important type in the real-time video sessions and one of the most popular applications in networking systems. The Quality of Service (QoS) techniques give us indicate to the effect of multimedia traffic on the network performance, but this techniques do not reflect the user perception. Using QoS and Quality of Experience (QoE) together can give guarantee to the distribution of video content according to video content characteristics and the user experience . To measure the users’ perception of the quality we use Quality of Experience (QoE) metric . Here , in complete we display what the QoE and QoS mean and what the difference between them, list the techniques used to measured them ; then we display a study of the literature on different tools and measurement methodologies that have been proposed to measure or predict the QoE of video streaming services.


Article
CONGENITAL HEART DISEASE IN DOWN SYNDROME: EXPERIENCE OF KURDISTAN OF IRAQ
ارمراض القلب الخلقية فى متلازمة داون : كردستان العراق

Author: ASO F. SALIH أسو صلاح
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2011 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 24-33
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background and objectives Congenital cardiac disease is the commonest cause of death in patients with Down’s syndrome during the first two years of life, with 40-65% of the patients having congenital cardiac malformations. The lesions can be single or multiple. Our objective was to evaluate the frequency and type of such congenital cardiac malformations in patients born with Down’s in Kurdistan of Iraq.Methods We reviewed all patients with Down’s syndrome who underwent a cardiologic screening examination from January 2009 to June 2010, in the Pediatric Cardiology Department in Pediatric Teaching Hospital in Sulaimany.Results Of the total 445 Down syndrome cases, 236 (53%) patients with Down syndrome found to have congenital heart disease, 124(52.5%) patients were male and 112(47.5%) patient were female, and among the total number 173(73.3%) patients had isolated congenital heart disease and 63(26.7%) patients presented with associated congenital heart defect.Ventricular Septal Defect was the most common single malformation, found in almost 39.3% of all cases and Atrioventricular Septal Defect found in 21.3%, Patent Ductus Artriosus account for 18.4%, and also Atrial Septal defect and Patent Ductus Artriosus was the most common associated anomalies in 25% of associated anomalies cases.Conclusions The high frequency of ventricular septal defect, and the differential distribution of the cardiac malformations associated with Down syndrome among Kurdish children, differs from what has been reported in the United States of America, Europe, and surrounding countries in Asia, but similar results have been found in Malaysian, Chinese and Hong Kong studies. This difference warrants further research.

خلفية واهداف البحث: أمراض القلب الخلقية هي السبب الأكثر شيوعا للوفاة في المرضى الذين يعانون من متلازمة 65 ٪ من المرضى الذين يعانون من تشوهات القلب الخلقية. - داون المنغولية خلال فترة أول عامين من العمر، مع 40 يمكن أن تكون الآفات مفردة أو متعددة. كان هدفنا من أجل تقييم وتيرة ونوع تشوهات الخلقية تلك أمراض القلب في المرضى الذين يعانون يولدون مع داون في كردستان العراق.cardiologic طرق البحث: قمنا بمراجعة جميع المرضى الذين يعانون من متلازمة داون الذي خضع لفحص الكشف من يناير 2009 الى يونيو 2010 ، بقسم أمراض القلب للأطفال بالمستشفى الأطفال التعليمي في السليمانية.النتائج: من مجموع 445 حالات متلازمة داون، وجدت 236 مريضا المصابين بمتلازمة داون أن يكون أمراض 47.5 %) من المرضى من الإناث، وبين العدد ) 52.5 %) من المرضى من الذكور و 112 ) القلبالخلقية، 124 26.7 ٪ ) من المرضى قدم ) 73.3 ٪ ) من المرضى بأمراض القلب الخلقية معزولة و 63 ) الاجمالي ق د 173المرتبطة مع عيب خلقي في القلب. كانت العيب في الحاجز البطيني تشوه الأكثر شيوعا واحد، وجدت في ما يقرب من % 39.3 ٪ من جميع الحالات. عيب الحاجز الأذيني البطيني وجدت في 21.3 ٪، الواسلة الور هدين وجدت في 18.4 ، وعيب الحاجز الأذيني و الواسلة الور هدين كان التشوهات الاكثر شيوعا المقترنة في 25 ٪ من الحالات التشوهات المرتبطة بها.الاستنتاجات: وتيرة عالية من عيب الحاجز البطيني، وتوزيع الفرق في التشوهات القلبية المرتبطة متلازمة داونبين الأطفال الأكراد، يختلف عن ما تم الإبلاغ عنها في الولايات المتحدة الأمريكية، وأوروبا، والبلدان المحيطة بها في آسيا، ولكن النتائج نفسها وجدت في صينية وماليزية ودراسات هونغ كونغ . هذا الاختلاف يبرر إجراء مزيد من البحوث.


Article
Analysis and Development of Customer Billing Telephony System
تحليل وتطوير نظام فواتير الاتصال الهاتفي للعملاء

Authors: Raziera Bidin رزيرة بدين --- Azrina Kamaruddin ازرينا قمر الدين --- Noraini Che Pa
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2019 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Special Issue(ICOCI2019) Pages: 428-435
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract:The telecommunications industry has gone through series of development efforts to provide quality services to their consumers. Generally, telecommunication industry provides two main services such as telephony and internet which involved customer registration, billing and payment. However, the challenge confronting telecommunications industry is to meet the customer satisfaction in the billing system such as accuracy, easy to understand and unambiguous billing issue. In order to develop Customer Billing Telephony System,a user experience study is conducted to gather the user requirements. Hence, the CBTS was developed that takes into consideration user’s value experience that provides a support for managing and monitoring billing process. Then the CBTS was evaluated by the users using User Experience Questionnaire (UEQ) to prove the efficiency and correctness in billing process. The result shown that the users give the positive feedback of

مرت صناعة الاتصالات السلكية واللاسلكية بمجموعة من مراحل التطوير لتوفير خدمات عالية الجودة للمستهلكين. وتوفر صناعة الاتصالات السلكية واللاسلكية بشكل عام خدمتين رئيسيتين هما الاتصالات الهاتفية والإنترنت والتي تنطوي على عمليات تسجيل العملاء والفواتير والدفع. ومع ذلك ، فإن التحدي الذي يواجه صناعة الاتصالات هو تلبية رضا العملاء في نظام الفواتير مثل الدقة وسهولة الفهم ومسألة الفواتير التي لا لبس فيها. من أجل تطوير نظام فواتير الاتصال الهاتفي العملاء ، اجريت دراسة لتجربة المستخدم لجمع متطلباته. وبالتالي ، تم تطوير(نظام فواتير الاتصال الهاتفي للعملاء) CBTS مع مراعاة تجربة المستخدم التي توفر الدعم لإدارة ومراقبة عملية الفوترة. ثم تم تقييم CBTS بواسطة المستخدمين الذين اجروا استبيان تجربة المستخدم (UEQ) لإثبات الكفاءة والصحة في عملية إعداد الفواتير. أظهرت النتائج أن المستخدمين يقدمون ردود فعل إيجابية من CBTS


Article
The Importance of Childhood Memories in Re-shaping the Poetic Experience in Seamus Heaney: A Study of Selected Poems
اهمية ذكريات الطفولة في اعادة تشكيل التجربة الشعرية في شعرسيموس هينري: دراسة في قصائد مختارة

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Seamus Heaney's poetry is characterized by it continuous reference to the past, namely to the childhood. This reference has a very important function in his poetry. As a poet, childhood acts as a catalyst, which creates the literary environment that inspires him. Therefore, the aim of this paper is to examine the role played by childhood memories in his poetry. Three poems are chosen to achieve this aim, they are: "Digging", "Sonnet Four of Glanmore Sonnets", and "A Drink of Water".

يمتاز شعر شَيمس هيني باشارته المستمرة للماضي وخصوصا لمرحلة الطفولة. حيث تلعب هذه الأشارة دورا مهما في شعره. فهي كالعامل المساعد الذي يسهم في خلق البيئة الأدبية التي تلهم الشاعر. لذا فأن الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو لمعاينة الدور الذي تلعبه ذكريات الطفولة في شعر هيني. حيث تم تسليط الضوء على ثلاثا من قصائده وهن "حفر" و "سونيت رقم اربعة من سونيتات كلان مور" و "رشفة ماء"


Article
Experience of Dental Caries of Adult Patients in Relation To The Characteristic of Dental Visit and Brushing Behavior In Tikrit City

Author: Dr.Huda Abbas Abduallah, B.D.S. M.Sc.* د. هدى عباس عبد الله
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2013 Volume: 10 Issue: 1 Pages: 17-27
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Aim: Dental decay is a process in which the hard mineral structure of teeth isdissolved. The process produces a cavity on the crown of the tooth or a softeningof the root surface. Without regular dental care people are often unaware of thecondition, whereas those who usually seek dental care for a check-up are morelikely to have dental decay treated in a timely manner The aim of the presentstudy was to determine the caries experience of public dental patients by age, sexwith the type of dental visit and brushing behavior in adults in Tikrit city, Iraq.Subjects and methods: A sample of 1284 individuals(580 males and 704females)with an age range of (18-60 years) attending the teaching dental hospitalof collage of dentistry of Tikrit university and the specialized dental center , wereexamined according to WHO guidelines using DMFT index. Questionnaires wereused to assess the level of dental health attitude among the individuals.Results: The distribution of patients was high at younger age for both sexes.Emergency visit had a higher percentage of patients (82.2%). 63.6% of thepatients brush their teeth two or more. The mean DMFT scores were 7.5 (8.3 forfemale and 6.7 for male). Mean DMFT for both sex increases with age. Thepercentage of decayed teeth (D/DMFT%) was the highest among younger agegroup (60.7% for female and 63.1% for male). There was statistically a highlysignificant difference between age, sex, dental visit type and brushing behaviorand DMFT. Emergency patient did show higher level of decayed and missingteeth while general patient did show higher level of filled teeth. Emergencydental visit had higher percentage of decayed teeth (57.3%) than general dentalvisit (42.5%). One or less brushing patient had higher level of decayed andmissing teeth, while two or more brushing patient show higher level of filledteeth. The percentage of decayed teeth for one or less brushing patients was(62.9%) higher than two or more brushing patients (50.1%).Conclusion: It was concluded that the present study findings for DMFT scores washigher than the global standers according to the world health organization(WHO). Therefore, there is a great need to combine restorative-oriented dentalservices with preventive- oriented dental services in order to improve the oralhealth status of this population.


Article
Self-discovery in Paulo Coelho’s Aleph
اكتشاف الذات في رواية ألف للكاتب باولو كويلو

Author: Iman Abdulsattar Abdulatif ايمان عبد الستار عبد اللطيف
Journal: Journal of the College of Languages مجلة كلية اللغات ISSN: 20479279 25203517 Year: 2018 Issue: 37 Pages: 73-89
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

There is no doubt that complexities and ambiguities exist in the human minds. The need to unravel and solve those mysteries and the foggy actualities of life’s existence has been one of Paulo Coelho’s (1947-present) biggest concern. In almost all his novels, Coelho shows how people should dig deep into the mysteries of life in order to find a true understanding to their existence. In doing so, a true kind of enlightenment and purification is reached and the quest for self-discovery or self-realization is attained. The paper tackles one of Paulo Coelho’s novels Aleph (2011) which is considered as an autobiographical reading to signify the connection between himself and God. It was a phase that Coelho went through when he had actually achieved fame, wealth, and an understanding wife, yet the feeling of discomfort and that something was still missing kept haunting him. Thus, the train journey that he takes can be signified as his reconnection with his spiritual existence to achieve the desired self-discovery. The framework of this study is interpreted through the theories of spirituality and psychoanalytic to prove how the character experiences a higher level of spirituality in order to reach the desired realm of self- discovery.Coelho through the mouthpiece of his character spreads the message that in order to possess a comforting inner self, one should learn how to forgive and love others. Only then that a person’s true self-realization and satisfaction are attained.

توجد في العقول البشرية وبلا شك العديد من التعقيدات والالغاز. واصبحت الحاجة الى كشف هذه االالغاز, وحلها والحقائق الضبابية المشوشة حول وجود الحياة احدى اكبر اهتمامات الكاتب باولو كويلو (1947- الحاضر). وفي كافة رواياته تقريبا، بين كويلو كيف ان على الناس سبر اغوار الغاز الحياة من اجل ايجاد فهم حقيقي لوجودهم، وبهذا يتم الوصول الى نوع حقيقي من البصيرة والنقاء والتطهر ويتم عندها اكتشاف وادراك الذات.يعالج البحث احدى روايات باولو كويلو وهي ألف (2011) والتي تعد سيرة ذاتية توضح الارتباط ما بين الكاتب والاله. وهي تمثل طورا مر به كويلو نفسه، ففي الوقت الذي تحقق فعلا للكاتب الشهرة وامتلاك للثروة والزوجة المتفهمة الا ان شعور عدم الراحة والاحساس بوجود شيئا ما مفقودا في حياته قد سيطر عليه. لذا يمثل قطار الرحلة الذي استقله كويلو اعادة الاتصال والارتباط مع وجوده الروحي من اجل تحقيق اكتشاف الذات المرجو منه والمرغوب فيه. وقد وضح اطار هذه الدراسة من خلال نظريات الروحانية والتحليل النفسي من اجل اثبات كيف ان الشخصية تمر بأعلى مستوى من الروحانية من اجل الوصول الى المجال المرغوب في اكتشاف الذات. وقام الكاتب وعلى لسان شخصيته الروائية بنشر الرسالة التي فحواها هو الوصول الى امتلاك ذات داخلية مرتاحة ، فان على المرء ان يتعلم كيف يغفر للاخرين ويحبهم، عندها فقط يتحقق الادراك الذاتي الحقيقي والرضا.

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