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Article
Salivary magnesium during pregnancy and laborand its relation to gingivitis

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2006 Volume: 48 Issue: 4 Pages: 387-390
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Changes in the level of salivary magnesium could be of great clinical interest not only because of its relation with oral health but also with the physiological alteration occurring during pregnancy. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of pregnancy on the salivary magnesium level and their relations to gingivitis.Materials and methods: Salivary samples were taken from 24 pregnant women, 17 non pregnant and 14 lactating women. Flow rate was calculated. The supernatant salivary samples were assayed using atomic absorption spectrophotometer. Gingival Index was applied for the assessment of gingival inflammation.
Results: Salivary magnesium concentration was significantly the lowest mean value during pregnancy, with decrease in concentration in the third trimester followed by a marked increase after labor reaching the normal level. Pregnant women had a significantly highest Gingival Index mean than other control groups. Very weak correlations were found between flow rate and (pregnancy and salivary magnesium). A positive correlation was recorded between gingivitis and pregnancy and a negative correlation between gingivitis and salivary magnesium. However, statistically all correlations were not significant.
Conclusion: The salivary magnesium is influenced by female sex hormone during pregnancy. Analysis of saliva may be applicable as an investigation means of the physiological alterations that occur during and after pregnancy.


Article
A clinical study evaluating the effect of 0.4% stannous fluoride gel in controlling plaque and gingivitis
دراسة سريرية لتقييم تأثير جل 0,4 % فلوريد القصدير في السيطرة على الصفائح الجرثومية والتهاب اللثة.

Author: Suzan Ali Salman سوزان علي سلمان
Journal: Al-Rafidain University College For Sciences مجلة كلية الرافدين الجامعة للعلوم ISSN: 16816870 Year: 2011 Issue: 28 Pages: 17-30
Publisher: Rafidain University College كلية الرافدين الجامعة

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Abstract

Background: Stannous fluoride is a broad-spectrum antimicrobial agent. It has been incorporated into dentifrice formulations and shown to be effective in the prevention and reduction of gingivitis (17, 18, 20), the aim of the study was to determine whether conventional tooth brushing and twice daily use of a brush on 0.4% stannous fluoride (SnF2) gel would be more effective for controlling plaque accumulation and gingivitis than conventional tooth brushing alone.Materials and Methods: A randomized, six month, single examiner blind. Gingivitis study conducted according to the guide lines for evaluating chemotherapeutic products for the control of gingivitis. 0.4% stannous fluoride gel was tested against a commercially available negative control dentifrice (Crest Complete, KSA). The sample of the study included two groups, the first; control group (N=30) used tooth brushing with standard fluoride tooth paste( Crest Complete ,KSA),while the second; study group (N=30) used tooth brushing with the same tooth paste, supplemented with a 0.4% stannous fluoride gel used twice daily for the entire six month-study period. Clinical assessment involved plaque index(1) gingival index(2) and bleeding on probing index(3) were performed at base line, three and six months post-treatment. Result: The stannous fluoride gel (SnF2) group had highly significant lower scores for plaque index (PL.I, p< 0.01), gingival index (GI, p< 0.01) and bleeding tendency at all examinations than did the control group. For the study group, mean baseline PL.I score was 1.83, at three months it was reduced to 0.84and after six months it was 0.54.For the GI. Mean baseline GI. was 1.60, at three months it was 0.82 and after six months it was reduced to 0.57. Conclusion: It is concluded that the use of 0.4% SnF2 gel is an effective adjunct to mechanical tooth cleaning in decreasing plaque and gingivitis.Key words: Stannous fluoride, plaque, gingivitis.

فلوريد القصدير هومضاد جرثومي واسع الطيف . تم مزجه مع مواد اخرى لتصنيع معاجين اسنان ولوحظ انه فعال في الوقاية والتقليل من التهابات اللثة.( 20,17,18). الهدف من الدراسة لتحديد فيما اذا كان تفريش الاسنان بطريقـة تقليدية او الاستعمال اليومي لهلام او جل فلوريد القصدير سيكون اكثر تأثيرا في السيطرة على تراكم الصفائح الجرثوميةوالتهابات اللثـــــة من الطريقـــــة التقليدية في التفريشالمواد المستعملة وطريقة العمل: الدراسة شملت عينة عشوائية من المرضى المصابين بالتهابات اللثة واستمرت لستة اشهر وتم توزيع لتقييم تأثيرمادة كيميائية علاجية في السيطرةعلى التهابات اللثة .0,4% من جل فلوريد القصدير تمت مقارنته مع معجون اسنان اعتيادي يحتوي على الفلورايد (( Crest Complete ,KSA . الدراسة تضمنت مجموعتين هي المجموعة الضابطة وتكونت من ثلاثين شخصا , وهم اشخاص يستعملون معجون اسنان قياسي يحوي على الفلورايد ( ( Crest Complete ,KSA المجموعة الثانية : وهي المجموعة التجريبية وتكونت من ثلاثين شخصا يستعملون نفس معجون الاسنان القياسي اضافة الى التفريش بجل 0,4% فلوريد القصدير استعمال لمرتين في اليوم ولمدة ستة اشهر الفحص السريري شمل مؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية(1) ومؤشرالتهابات اللثة (2) ومؤشر النزف عند التسمير(3) تم قياسه في الزيارة الاولى وبعد ثلاثة اشهر وبعد ستة اشهر.النتائج: بالنسبة للاشخاص الذين استعملوا فلوريد القصدير النتائج اظهرت فرقا معنويا كبيرا لمؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية ولمؤشر التهابات اللثة ولمؤشر النزف عند التسمير عند المقارنة مع المجموعة الضابطة. وكان متوسط الصفيحة الجرثومية في الزيارة الاولى (1,83 )وبعد ثلاثة اشهر اصبحت (0,84) وبعد ستة اشهر كانت (0,54) اما لمتوسط مؤشر التهابات اللثة فكان( 1,60) في الزيارة الاولى وبعد ثلاثة اشهر قل المتوسط ليصبح (0,82) وبعد ستة اشهر اصبحت (0,57) الاستنتاج: ان استعمال 0,4% من جل فلوريد القصدير هو فعال وعامل مساعد للتفريش التقليدي الميكانيكي في تقليل تراكم الصفيحات الجرثومية والتهابات اللثة. الكلمات الدليلة: فلوريد القصدير , الصفائح الجرثومية , التهابات اللثة.


Article
Evaluation of the effect of low energy laser on gingivitis

Authors: Alaa Omran --- Ali H. Abbas
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2008 Volume: 20 Issue: 1 Pages: 69-70
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Surgical lasers have been used in medicine for over a decade in the surgical specialties of the laryngelogy, dermatology, plastic surgery, urology, gynecology and cardio-vascular surgery. All the clinical applications of laser discussed previously require the use of relatively high power laser devices. In dentistry laser research and development is in its embryogenic stage and its use on hard dental structures has been scarcely reported. The treatments of gingivitis by laser radiation has not investigated; so the aim of the present study was to shed light on the effect of low-energy laser on gingivitis, and the main indication for the therapeutic affect of laser because of its anti-edematous and anti-inflammatory actions.Materials and Methods: Twenty patients complaining from mild edematous gingivitis affecting the upper six anterior teeth were divided into two groups 1: 10 laser treated patients' group and 2- 10 patients (control group). The analysis of the results was according to the criteria of condition worsening, no change or improved and analysis of variance bleeding (G I) was performed.Results: Five out of 10 patients exhibited no change while 4 out of 10 were better than from the beginning, while 1 out of 10 was worse than the beginning.


Article
Gingival response to relief and non relief removable orthodontic appliances

Authors: Nada M Al–Sayagh --- Ghada Dh Al–Sayagh --- Alaa D Al–Dawoody
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 10 Pages: 103-107
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The gingival state of thirty seven young patients (meanage 11.6 years) wearing simple removable orthodontic applianceswas assessed and followed at monthly intervals for 3months. For 17 of the patients, intentional relief of the appliancewas carried out in the upper right area. Statistically, theplaque index levels were similar in both “relief” and “non relief”groups and reached a similar score at 2 and 3 months.The gingival index was significantly higher in the “relief” group.


Article
The effect of dental educational level in adults (18–25 years old) with crowded teeth on the plaque and gingival conditions

Authors: Ne’am R Al–Saleem --- Saher S Gasgoos --- Saad S Gasgoos
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2005 Volume: 5 Issue: 10 Pages: 127-131
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the present study was to evaluate the relationbetween crowding, plaque and gingival conditions accordingto the level of dental education of the Iraqi adults.The sample was divided primarily into two groups: Thefirst group was collected from dental students whom dentallywell educated, while the second group was collected fromother population whom dentally non educated (industrialist).Each group was subdivided into two groups according to thepresence or absence of crowding, so that four groups wereobtained (educated participants with non crowded teeth, educatedpersons with crowded teeth, non educated participantswith non crowded teeth and non educated participants withcrowded teeth).The results of this study indicated that the dental educationallevel is positively affecting on the gingival health in bothcrowded and normal occlusion. However, regardless of thelevel of education, plaque accumulation and gingivitis are significantlyhigher in the crowded teeth sample.

Keywords

Crowding --- gingivitis --- plaque --- socioeconomics


Article
Study of IgA Concentration in Gingivitis Patients

Author: Baha Hamdi Hakim Al-Amiedi
Journal: Medical Journal of Babylon مجلة بابل الطبية ISSN: 1812156X 23126760 Year: 2016 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 575 -579
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

Fifty gingivitis patients were diagnosed by dentist and ten normal subjects were elected as controls. Gingivitis patients and controls were investigated for serum and salivary IgA determinations. In which, blood and salivary samples were collected from both of patients and controls. Sera, saliva and salivary proteins in five microliter amounts per each of which were applied into low and high level anti IgA partigens. The patients sera have shown elevated IgA concentration means which approximate one fold increase than that of controls. Male and female patients were of comparable serum IgA concentration levels. Individual variation plot were found of multipeak type. The age group 30– 34 and 35 – 39 years were showing optimum concentration means . Saliva and salivary concentration means were showing nullified IgA concentrations in both patients and controls. IgA may interacts with are oral available antigens (microbial ) and fix complement thus forming complex giving nullified IgA concentrations.

Keywords

gingivitis --- serum --- saliva.


Article
The Prevalence of Oral Protozoa Trichomona Stenax in some Patients with Gingivitis

Author: Fadia Abd Al-Muhsin Al-Khayat فادية عبد المحسن الخياط
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2016 Volume: 28 Issue: 1 Pages: 179-182
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:As arelationshipbetween gingivitis disease and the presence of the oral protozoa Trichomonastenax hasbeen represented byconsiderable differences among various study population.The purpose of present study isdetermining the prevalence of T.tenax in patients with gingivitis and healthy subjects.Subjects,Materials and Methods:The presence of the parasite has been diagnosed with 58 patients withgingivitisand58 healthy persons during the period of the study(April and May 2015) by taken two swabs for each one,microscopicexamination was done using saline wet mount method and stained method. Age, sex and brushing teeth habitwere in a count. Statistical analysis was done by SPSS program.Results:Gingivitis disease was observed in 58patients among the total 163 examined subjects(35.58%)with a highlysignificant differences P<0.01 recorded between males and females(40.22%,30.26% respectively).The prevalence ofT.tenax in gingivitis patients was higher than healthy(56.89%,6.89%)respectively. According to gender and age thehighly prevalence rate was demonstrated in males (62.85%)and in the age category 51-60 years old (92.8%). Dataanalysis showed that a highly significant differences P<0.01was demonstrated in the prevalence rate betweenbrushing teeth users 29.1% and non-brushing teeth users 11.9%.Conclusion:The study confirmed the existence of a relationship between parasite infection and gingivitis diseasewhere the higher prevalence of T.tenaxwas found in gingivitis patients compared with healthy controls. Peopleshould receive dental care togain high hygiene oral cavity and have low infection to T.tenax


Article
Waterpipe Smoking Effect on Clinical Periodontal Parameters, Salivary Flow Rate and Salivary pH in Chronic ‎Periodontitis Patient

Authors: Saif Mohammed T. Al-Mufti --- Saif S. Saliem سيف سهام سليم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2018 Volume: 30 Issue: 1 Pages: 63-68
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Waterpipe tobacco smoking has become common especially among young people, Waterpipe smoking misconcepted as a safer mean of smoking, so in this study we will highlight the effect of Waterpipe smoking ‎on periodontal and oral health.‎Materials and method. The selected ‎‎‎100 male subjects of 30-40 years, ‎categorized into 4 groups (each group ‎‎25 subject): Waterpipe smoker ‎with ‎healthy periodontium, ‎Waterpipe smoker ‎‎with chronic periodontitis, Non-‎‎smoker ‎with healthy periodontium and Non-smoker ‎with chronic periodontitis. Whole ‎unstimulated ‎saliva was collected. Clinical measurements: plaque ‎index, ‎gingival index, ‎bleeding on probing, salivary flow ‎rate ‎and ‎salivary pH were recorded‎.‎ ‎Results. In the healthy groups: plaque index and salivary pH were ‎higher in smokers than non-smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). While gingival index and salivary flow rate were ‎higher in smoker than non-smokers and with significant ‎difference (p<0.05). In the chronic periodontitis groups: plaque index, gingival index and salivary flow rate ‎were higher in the non-smokers than smokers and with ‎significant difference (p<0.05). While salivary pH was ‎higher in the non-smokers than smokers but with no ‎significant difference (P>0.05). Correlation between ‎weekly smoking hours with pH and salivary flow rate, in the ‎smoker healthy groups, showed ‎significant negative correlation, while plaque index showed ‎significant positive correlation at (p<0.05). But in the smokers with chronic periodontitis, only gingival index ‎significantly correlated with weekly smoking hours. Conclusion. Waterpipe smoking has a detrimental effect on the periodontium and overall oral health

Keywords

Waterpipe --- smoker --- gingivitis --- saliva


Article
Gingival health status among 3-5 years old children in Al-Edwania village, Baghdad

Author: Wesal A. Al-Obaidi وصال العبيدي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2005 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 84-86
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontal disease is one of the most widespread diseases in Iraq therefore this study was conducted to assess the periodontal condition.Materials and methods: A sample of 91 children living in AL-Edwania village was examined using plaque and gingival indices.Results: It showed a high prevalence of gingival inflammation, gingival inflammation increased with age, and females had a significantly higher gingival index mean than males. The mild type of gingivitis was found to be the highest score. Higher gingival and plaque index means in posterior segment were demonstrated than that in anterior segment.Conclusion: The most common type of gingivitis was the mild. The GI and PlI were increased with age and higher among females.


Article
Salivary Viscosity in Relation to Oral Health Status among a Group of 20-22 Years Old Dental Students
علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع صحة الفم لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة

Authors: Nada Jafer MH. Radhi ندى جعفر محمد حسن راضي --- Baydaa Ahmed Yas بيداء احمد ياس
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 219-224
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

ABSTRACTBackground: Elevated salivary viscosity increases the risk for dental caries and periodontal diseases. The aim of this study was to disclose the relationship between salivary viscosity and dental caries as well as gingival disease severity among a group of 20-22 years old dental students. Materials and methods: Forty five dental students of both gender aged 20-22 years at College of Dentistry, University of Baghdad took part in this study. Stimulated salivary samples were collected then taken to the laboratory for measuring salivary viscosity at the Poisoning Consultation/Surgical Specialty Hospital. Dental caries was recorded by lesion severity according to Decayed, Missing and Filled (D1-4 MFS) Index (Mühlemman, 1976). Plaque index PlI (Silness and Löe, 1964) was used for measuring dental plaque thickness while gingival index GI (Löe and Silness, 1963) was used for diagnosis of the gingival disease. SPSS version 18 was used for statistical analysis.Results: Salivary viscosity showed weak non significant correlation with caries experience (P>0.05). However, according to dental caries severity students with severe dental caries recorded higher salivary viscosity than those with moderate caries severity with significant difference in case of DS fraction (m.d.= -0.01, P< 0.05). However, according to DMFS statistical difference was close to the confidence limit (P=0.07). No significant correlation could be found between salivary viscosity and gingival inflammation (P> 0.05). Also regarding severity of gingivitis no significant difference in salivary viscosity was recorded between those with mild and those with moderate gingivitis (P> 0.05). Conclusions: It is recommended that measuring salivary viscosity to be a part of routine dental diagnosis when treating patient with higher dental caries risk. However, further studies are needed to disclose the effect of increased salivary viscosity on gingival health with larger sample size. Keywords: Salivary viscosity, dental caries, gingivitis.

الخلاصــةالمقدمة: ان ارتفاع لزوجة اللعاب يزيد من خطر الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان وامراض اللثة. الهدف من هذه الدراسة هو الكشف عن علاقة لزوجة اللعاب مع شدة التسوس وشدة التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن لدى مجموعة من طلاب كلية طب الاسنان بعمر 20-22 سنة. المواد والطرق: شارك في هذه الدراسة خمسة واربعون طالب من كلا الجنسين بعمر 20-22 سنة في كلية طب الاسنان/جامعة بغداد. تم جمع عينات اللعاب المحفز حيث اخذت الى المختبر لقياس لزوجة اللعاب في مركز السموم التابع لمستشفى الجراحات التخصصية. تم حساب شدة التسوس باستخدم مؤشرنخر ، قلع ، حشوة (D1-4MFS)لاكتشاف شدة تسوس سطوح الاسنان اللبنية والدائمية تبعا لتصنيف (Mühleman, 1976). استخدم مؤشر دليل الصفيحة الجرثومية لقياس ثخن الصفيحة(Silness and Löe, 1964) واستخدم مؤشر اللثة ((Löe and Silness, 1963 لقياس التهاب اللثة الغير مزمن وتم فحص جميع الاسنان. النتائج: اظهرت النتائج ارتباطا ضعيفا وغير معنوي للزوجة اللعاب مع تسوس الاسنان. اخذت شدة التسوس بنظر الاعتبار ووجد ان الطلبة ذوي التسوس الشديد اظهروا لزوجة عالية للعاب مقارنة مع الطلبة ذوي التسوس المتوسط الشدة مع وجود فرق معنوي في حالة DS (m.d.=0.01, P< 0.05) اما في حالة مؤشر حالة التسوس DMFS)) كان الفرق الاحصائي قريبا الى حدود الثقة (P= 0.07). لم يتم ايجاد ارتباط معنوي بين لزوجة اللعاب والتهاب اللثة (P> 0.05) بالاضافة الى عدم وجود فرق معنوي بين الطلبة الذين لديهم التهاب لثة طفيف والتهاب لثة متوسط الشدة. الاستنتاجات: اوصت الدراسة ان يعتبر قياس لزوجة اللعاب جزءا من تشخيص امراض الفم الروتينية عند معالجة المرضى الذين لديهم خطورة الاصابة بتسوس الاسنان واوجدت ضرورة لاجراء دراسة اخرى للكشف عن مدى تأثير زيادة لزوجة اللعاب على صحة اللثة وهناك حاجة لاختبار عينات دراسة ذات حجم كبير.

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