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Article
Effect of Promoters on the Catalytic Activity of the Iosmerization Catalyst

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Abstract

The crystalline zeolite, namely faujasite type Y with SiO2/Al2O3 mole ratio of 5 was used as raw material for preparation of isomerization catalysts. A 0.5 wt % Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst was prepared by impregnation of the decationized HY-zeolite with chloroplatinic acid. The dectionized HY-zeolite was treated with HCl, HNO3 and HI promoters using different normalities and with different concentrations of Sn, Ni and Ti promoters by impregnation method to obtain acidic and metallic promoters' catalysts, respectively. A 0.5 wt% of Pt was added to above catalysts using impregnation method. Isomerization of n-hexane was carried out at different prepared catalysts. The isomerization temperature varied from 250–325° C over weight hourly space velocity (WHSV) 1.6 h-1. The pressure and hydrogen to feed mole ratio were kept constant at 1bar and 2 mol/mol, respectively.The comparison between the above prepared catalysts shows that the total isomer yield during the process with Sn-Pt /HY- zeolite catalyst was higher than the other catalysts and, reached to 63.95% vol. A 0.5 wt% of W and Zr was added to Sn-Pt/HY-zeolite catalyst by impregnation method to obtain W and Zr co-metal promoters catalysts. Isomerization of n-hexane was investigated using W and Zr co-metal promoters catalyst at the same operating conditions and the yield of isomers reached to 81.14% vol.and 79.07%vol.,respectively.


Article
Hydroisomerization of n-Alkane over Zeoilte Supported Catalyst

Authors: Mohamed Kamel --- Abdul-Halim A.K. Mohamed
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2009 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 3919-3940
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The conversion of nC5-nC7 over 0.32wt%Pt/HY-Zeolite catalyst was studied with temperature range 240-270ºC, liquid hourly space velocity range 1-3h-1, hydrogen to n-alkane mole ratio 8-24 and atmospheric total pressure. The effect of the PH2, PnC5, PnC6, and PnC7 orders on the overall reaction rate was studied. For nC7, the reaction order with respect to hydrogen varied between -0.998 and -0.948 while with respect to nC7 varied between 0.154 and 0.156. For nC6, the reaction order varied between -0.811 and -0.808 while with respect to nC6 varied between 0.332 and 0.337. For nC5, the reaction order with respect to hydrogen varied between -0.652 and -0.620 while the reaction order with respect to nC5 was varied between 0.336 and 0.339. The values of apparent activation energy were obtained and found to be varied between 110 and 111 kJ/mol for nC7, 120 to 122 kJ/mol for nC6, and 145 to 148 kJ/mol for nC5.

تم دراســــة تحول البنتان الأعتيادي ,الهكسان الأعتيادي والهبتان الأعتيـــــادي على العامـــــل المساعد من نــــــوع زيولايت والحاوي على نسبــــة 0.32% وزنا من البلاتين والمحضر بطريقة الترطيب . تم إجراء التجارب بضغط جوي في منظومة مختبريه تحتوي على مفاعل ذو حشوة ثابتة وبدرجـــات حرارة بين 240 -270˚م وباستخدام سرع فراغية بين 1- 3 ســا-1 وبنســـب مولية للهيدروجين إلى البنتان والهكسان والهبتان بين 8 - 24. درس تأثير مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين والبنتان والهكسان والهبتان الأعتيادي بالنسبة لتفاعل الهبتان الأعتيادي لوحظ ان مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين تتراوح بين -0.998 و -0.948, بينما كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهبتان الاعتيادي تتراوح بين 0.154 و 0.156 . بالنسبة لتفاعل تحول الهكسان الأعتيادي كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين تتراوح بين -0.811 و -0.808, بينما كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهكسان الاعتيادي تتراوح بين 0.332 و 0.337. بالنسبة لتفاعل تحول البنتان الأعتيادي كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للهيدروجين تتراوح بين -0.652 و -0.620, بينما كانت مرتبة التفاعل بالنسبة للبنتان الاعتيادي تتراوح بين 0.336 و 0.339. تم دراسة قيم طاقات التنشيط و وجدت بانها تتراوح بين 110- 111 كيلوجول/مول بالنسبة للهبتان الاعتيادي , 120-122 كيلو جول/مول بالنسبة للهكسان الاعتيادي , و 145 - 148 كيلو جول/مول بالنسبة للبنتان الاعتيادي ,

Keywords

Isomerization --- HY-Zeolite --- Heptane --- Hexane --- Pentane


Article
A Deactivation Correlation for Platinum Y-Zeolite in n-Hexane Isomerization

Author: Haiyam Mohammed A. Al-Raheem
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 8 Pages: 1451-1462
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The objective of the present work is to realize the kinetic modeling regardingdeactivation of Pt-HY zeolite and monitor the isomerization reaction of n-hexane. Thecatalyst has been prepared with o.4% Pt and evaluated during the isomerization reactionof n-hexane. Based on the results of catalytic investigation, a kinetic model was proposedto deactivate the catalyst by coke formation. The present method provides information onapparent overall kinetics as well as deactivation parameters and would seem to provide arapid method for screening of reaction/deactivation behavior. Accordingly thedeactivation order was found to be 3.72. The obtained correlation of deactivation predictsthe activity pattern under the applied reaction conditions, closely mimics those observedexperimentally, and spans those obtained from empirical correlations.


Article
The Influence of pH and Temperature on Tautomerism of Imines Derived from 2-hydroxy -1- napthaldehyde .

Authors: A.G.Taki --- A.A. Rahman --- A.S.P.Azzouz عادل سعيد عزوز
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2005 Issue: 20 Pages: 568-585
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

AbstractThe tautomerism reactions of one oxime molecule and seven Schiff bases derived from 2- hydroxy-1- napthaldehyde with an appropriate aliphatic and aromatic amines were studied . The study is mainly concerned with the tautomerism reactions of the above mentioned imines . This requires the measurements of UV absorption spectra of imines 2-9 under the influence of different pH values in the range 4-10 and different temperatures. This is accomplished by the evaluation of equilibrium constants K1 and K2 for the tautomerism and isomerization reactions respectively and for imines 3-7 The remaining imines 2,8 and 9 undergo a tautomerism reaction only . The result shows that the extent of keto and enol forms in these imines are altered by the variation of both , pH and temperature . The processes of tautomerism and isomerization reactions are proved by the evaluation of thermodynamic parameters which were measured in ethanol and 1,2- dichloroethane . The ΔH values calculated for both reactions indicate an exothermic reactions type.Also these reactions being either spontaneous or nonspontaneous as confirmed from the sign and value of ΔG estimated .Finally the calculated negative entropies values ΔS , support these reactions stated above and are accompanied by loss of keto entropy .Finally , a suitable explaination for the last behavior is given and discussed .

الخلاصةالدراسة تشمل توتومرية واحد من الاوكزيمات وسبعة قواعد شيف المشتقة من2-hydroxyl-1-napthylaldehyde ومن الأمينات المناسبة .تركزت الدراسة على تفاعلات التوتومرية للأيمينات الواردة اعلاه . ذلك يتطلب قياسات اطياف الاشعة فوق البفسجية للأيمينات بالارقام 2-9 وتحت تأثير دوال حامضية( pH) مختلفة محصوربين 4-10 وبدرجات حرارية مختلفة . يصاحب ذلك استخراج ثوابت التوازن K1 و K2لتفاعلي التوتومرية والايزومرية على الترتيب وللأيمينات بالارقام 3-7 .أما اللأيمينات بالارقام 2,8,9 فأن تفاعلاتها تشمل التوتومرية فقط. كما بينت النتائج ان نسب توافر شكلي الكيتو والاينول في الأيمينات هي متغيرة واعتماداً عاى الدالة الحامضية ودرجة الحرارة اثناء القياس . إن عمليتي التوتومرية والايزومرية الواردتين اعلاه , قد تم اثباتهما بعد استخراج المتغيرات الثرموديناميكية والمقاسة في مذيبي الكحول و 1,2-DCE . أما قيم ∆H المحسوبة للتفاعلين فقد أكدتا أنها باعثة للحرارة وبطبيعة تلقائية او غير تلقائية واعتماداً على اشارة ∆G وأخيراً فأن القيم السالبة للمتغير ∆S قد اكدتا التفاعلين اعلاه . كما عالج البحث الحالة الاخيرة وقدم التفسير والمناقشة اللازمين لها .


Article
Study of Catalysts Deactivation in Isomerization Process to Produce High Octane Gasoline

Authors: Jabir Sh. Jumaly --- Amel Th. Juber --- Hayam M. Abdul-Raheem --- Khalid A. Sukkar
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 43-48
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In this study the isomerization of desulfuerized light iraqi petroleum naphtha (Al-Dura Refinery) with boiling point range of 37 to 124 °C , 80.5 API specific gravity and 68.2 octane number has been investigated. Two types of catalysts were prepared (Pt/HX and Pt/SrX) by impregnation of 0.8 wt% Pt on 13X-zeolite. The catalyst activity and selectivity toward isomerization, and catalyst deactivation were investigated.The isomerization unit consisted of a vertical tubular stainless steel reactor of 2 cm internal diameter, 3 cm external diameter and 6 height The operating pressure was atmospheric for all experimental runs. The l(quidflow of light naphtha was 0.4 Lih, and the catalyst weight was 50 gm, H2/H.C ratio used was 4 for all experimental runs. The isomerization process was studied at different temperatures of 250, 270, 275, 300, 325, and 350°C. It was found that, the optimum isomerization temperature is 270°C.The isomerization activities and selectivities as afunction of time showed high activity at the beginning of the reaction and were deactivated rapidly. This indicates that the deactivation of Pt/HX and Pt/SrX results from the blocking of pore mouth by the deposited carbon. The following deactivation decreasing order, Pt/HX> Pt/SrX was found. On the other hand, Pt/FIX catalyst shows higher activity and selectivity than that of Pt/SrX.it was concluded that, only an average of 90 wt% of the carbon atoms fled into the reactor (light naphtha) is detected in the product strewn due to formation of coke deposits which leads to catalyst deactivation. The results clearly showed that hydrogen is necessary for the hydrogenation of olefins in order to prevent oligomerization reaction that leads to coke formation and catalyst deactivation.


Article
Increasing production of gasoline and diesel fuel in medium and small refineries to meet the needs of Iraqi market

Authors: Aed Jaber Imran --- Adnan Abdul jabbar
Journal: Journal of Petroleum Research & Studies مجلة البحوث والدراسات النفطية ISSN: 22205381 Year: 2017 Issue: 14 Pages: 46-57
Publisher: Ministry of Oil وزارة النفط

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Abstract

Iraq is considered one of the countries exporters of oil in the world, but the output of motors fuels from the refined crude oil less than (45 wt %), which is associated with the lack of Iraqi refineries with secondary processes.Iraq consist of five big capacity crude oil refineries which include (atmospheric crude distillation, hydrotreating, catalytic reforming and isomerization) and produce high quality motors fuel, in addition five medium and five small in capacity crude oil refineries include only atmospheric crude distillation which produce low quality raw products (light and heavy naphtha, light gasoil and reduced crude).The total capacity of Iraqi oil in the last years changed from 28 to 35 million ton/year. Most of our refineries include old equipment, but in spite of the annual maintenance for these refineries the motor fuels products could not able to cover all the Iraqi requirements of motor fuels 27 million ton/year.In these refineries produce reduced crude (fuel oil) in large quantity and because of this, Iraq imports gasoline fuel (30 wt%) of its requirements and LPG (17 wt%) of its requirements.This situation impose on us to increase the output products quantity from the Iraqi crude oil by development the medium and small capacity refineries via installation thermal processes units instead of vacuum distillation units, by this actual research we will find that the deep of refinery will increase from 54 to 70 wt%, and production of motor fuel will change from 45 to 68 wt%.Purpose of the work: development of the flowchart which is applied in Iraqi small capacity refineries (1.3 – 1.4 million Ton/year) by installation thermal cracking units to produce maximum allowable yield and quality of motors fuels.This research depends on actual experiments which are done by me in Ufa state petroleum technological university on actual crude oil and reduced crude brought from Iraqi’s refineries from the oil fields Basrah (Zubair) and Kirkuk.

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