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Article
Asymmetric Dimethylarginine (ADMA) level in Serum of Preeclamptic patients

Author: Faisal Gh. Al-Rubaye* MBChB, MSc, PhD د. فيصل غازي الربيعي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 446-448
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary:Background: Preeclampsia, the de novo occurrence of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation, continues to exert an inordinate toll on mothers and children alike.The idea that asymmetric dimethylarginine (ADMA) accumulation may be a cardiovascular risk factor in patients with preeclampsia was advanced in 2003. Furthermore, High ADMA levels have been associated with alterations in the regulation of cerebral blood flow and neural function, with insulin resistance, thyroid dysfunction, and alterations in bone homeostasis, fertility, and erectile function. Subject and methods: the present study is a cross-sectional case-control study includes measurement of s.ADMA in 60 patients with preeclampsia. The results were compared with 60 apparently healthy pregnant women (as controls). Results: showed a significant increase in serum ADMA in the preeclamptics as compared with the controls this was accompanied by a significant reduction of this parameter with advancing gestational age in normal pregnancy. Conclusion: preeclamptics (in different gestational age groups) experienced vasospasm induced by inhibition of nitric oxide (which consider the natural vasodilator) when compared with healthy pregnant women matched with their age and gestational age; this was supported by the significant high level of s. ADMA, the endogenous inhibitor of NO .Key words: preeclampsia, asymmetricdimethylarginine.


Article
Prevention of preeclampsia using low dose Aspirin: A randomised controlled trial
الوقاية من تسمم الحمل باستخدام جرعة صغيرة من الأسبرين: باختبار عينة عشوائية

Author: Aseel Mosa Jabber اسيل موسى جابر
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2016 Volume: 6 Issue: 1 Pages: 39-44
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Objectives: To test the effectiveness of aspirin in low doses to prevention PE in high risk . Study design: Prospective randomized controlled double blind trial. Setting: Department of Obstetrics & Gynaecology, Al-Habobi teaching hospital, Thi-qar province/Iraq. Patients and methods: 100 participants at high risk of developing preeclampsia were randomly divided into 2 groups. Group I involved 50 pregnant women who received acetyl salicylic acid 75 mg/ day. Group II included 50 pregnant women who received placebo. Primary outcomes included gestational hypertension and pre-eclampsia. Secondary outcomes included development of eclampsia, HELLP syndrome, placental abruption, IUGR, NICU admission, neonatal complications and congenital anomalies. Results: The incidence of preeclampsia was 22% in the Aspirin group and 44% in the control group (P <0.001). A highly significant difference was found when comparing the two groups regarding gestational age at delivery (37.8±1.9 vs. 33.2±3.2 ), development of PE (22% vs. 44%) particularly early onset (14% vs. 34%) and severe form (8 vs. 22%) and occurrence of HELLP syndrome (4 vs. 16%) respectively (P <0.001) . There was a significant difference between cases and controls regarding the development of gestational hypertension (14% VS. 22%) (P 0.05) .There was a significant improvement of neonates delivered to mothers who received aspirin proved by the presence of significant higher birth weight (2989±815 vs. 2062±976), lower occurrence of IUGR (10% vs. 24%), neonatal ICU admission (34% vs. 78%) and respiratory distress syndrome (20% vs. 60%). Conclusion: the use of low-dose aspirin is of significant importance in reducing the risk of gestational hypertension, pre-eclampsia and IUGR in high risk women.

ألهدف: لاختبار فعالية الأسبرين بجرعات منخفضة لمنع PE تحت عوامل خطورة عالية. طرائق ألعمل: اجريت الدراسة في قسم التوليد وألامراض النسائية في مستشفى الحبوبي التعليمي في محافظة ذي قار/ العراق. شملت الدراسة 100 مشاركة في خطر كبير من تسمم الحمل تم تقسيمهن عشوائيا إلى مجموعتين. المجموعة الأولى من 50 امرأة حامل حصلوا على أسيتيل الساليسيليك بجرعة 75 ملغ / يوم. تضمنت المجموعة الثانية 50 امرأة من النساء الحوامل الذين تلقوا العلاج الوهمي. وشملت النتائج الأولية ارتفاع ضغط الدم الحملي وتسمم الحمل. وشملت النتائج الثانوية تطور تسمم ألحمل متلازمة هيلب، انفصال المشيمة ألباكر تأخر النمو داخل ألرحم وقبول نيكو , مضاعفات حديثي الولادة والتشوهات الخلقية. ألنتائج: كان معدل حدوث تسمم الحمل 22٪ في مجموعة الأسبرين و 44٪ في المجموعة الضابطة تحت مستوى احتمالية (P <0.001). تم الحصول على فرق معنوي كبير للغاية عند المقارنة بين المجموعتين فيما يتعلق بعمر الحمل عند الولادة (37.8 ± 1.9 مقابل 33.2 ± 3.2)، وتطور PE (22٪ مقابل 44٪) ولادة مبكرة وخاصة (14٪ مقابل 34٪) و شكل حاد (8 مقابل 22٪) وحدوث متلازمة هيلب (4 مقابل 16٪) على التوالي (P <0.001). كان هناك فرق معنوي بين الحالات السريرية ومجموعة السيطرة فيما يتعلق بتطور وارتفاع ضغط الدم الحملي (14٪ مقابل 22٪) (P 0.05) كما حدث تحسنا كبيرا لحديثي الولادة الذين ولدوا للأمهات اللاتي حصلن على الأسبرين من خلال زيادة اوزان المواليد عند الولادة مقارنة بالمجموعة الاخرى (2989 ± 815 مقابل 2062 ± 976) مع قلة حدوث حالات تأخر النمو داخل الرحم (10٪ مقابل 24٪)، و دخول حديثي الولادة الى وحدة العناية المركزة (34٪ مقابل 78٪) ومتلازمة الضائقة التنفسية (20٪ مقابل 60٪) . ألاستنتاج: استخدام جرعة منخفضة من الاسبرين له أهمية كبيرة في الحد من مخاطر ارتفاع ضغط الدم الحملي، تسمم الحمل وتأخر النمو داخل الرحم عند النساء اللاتي يتعرضن الى مخاطر عالية لتطور هذه الحالات.

Keywords

Preeclampsia --- Aspirin


Article
Electron Microscopic Study of the Effects of Preeclampsia on the Placental Endothelial Cells Ultra Structures during Pregnancy

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Background: Preeclampsia occurs in 3-5% of pregnancies and is a major cause (12-20 %) of maternal mortality in developed countries. It is the leading cause of preterm birth and intra-uterine growth restrictions (IUGR). Objective: The study was designed to determine and demonstrate the ultra structural changes of endothelial cells in placenta of women suffering from hypertensive disease. Patients & Methods: Placental samples were obtained from two groups of pregnant women groups (preeclamptic and normal pregnant women). The specimens were fixed in 2.5% gluteraldehyde and preceded for electron microscopic examination. Results: Placenta of women with preeclampsia has shown marked degenerative changes in both endothelial and trophoblastic cells. These changes were represented by precipitation of fibrin with the accumulation of platelets in capillary lumen. Abundance of collagen fibers precipitate in the apical region of both endothelial cells and trophoblasts, with thickening of endothelial basement membrane.Conclusion: All histological changes or lesions obstruct the continuous conduction from maternal surface of the trophoblasts through fetal capillary endothelium causing endothelial dysfunction.


Article
Evaluation the levels of Plasma Interleukins (IL-8, IFN-م, IL-10) in Preeclamptic Pregnancies
تقييم مستوى الحركيات الخلوية في بلازما النساء ذوات مقدمة الارتعاج

Authors: Abbass M.Rahmah عباس مهدي رحمة --- Amna N.Jassim آمنة نصيف جاسم --- Suaad A. Brakhas سعاد الماس براخاس
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 918-925
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

This study is to evaluate plasma levels of several cytokines in preeclamptic pregnancies compared to those of healthy pregnancies.Ninety pregnant women with preeclampsia (37 mild & 53 severe) and thirty healthy pregnant women were enrolled in the study. Blood samples were taken and plasma levels of IL-8, IL-10, and IFN-γ were measured by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA).Preeclamptic women and their severe cases but not mild cases had significantly (P<0.05) increased levels of plasma IL-8, and IFN-γ as compared with healthy pregnancies. By contrast, plasma levels of IL-10 was significantly (P<0.05) increased in healthy pregnant women as compared to all groups of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is associated with an imbalance between pro-inflammatory cytokines (IL-8, IFN-γ) and anti-inflammatory cytokines (IL-10), and these support our suggestion of altered immune response in preeclampsia.

تضمنت هذه الدراسة تقييم مستويات كل من الحركيات الخلوية γ IL-8, IL-10, IFN- في بلازما النساء العراقيات المصابات بمقدمة الارتعاج, شملت هذه الدراسة 120 امراة حامل قسمت الى اربعة مجاميع:المجموعة الاولى : مجموعة النساء ذوات مقدمة الارتعاج المعتدل (37) المجموعة الثانية : مجموعة النساء ذوات مقدمة الارتعاج الشديد (53) المجموعة الثالثة : مجموعة النساء ذوات مقدمة الارتعاج الكلي (90)المجموعة الرابعة : مجموعة النساءالسليمات كسيطرة (30) اظهرت نتائج الدراسة الحالية ارتفاع معنوي (P<0.05) في مستوى الحركيات الخلوية IL-8,IFN-γ في البلازما في المجموعة الثانية والثالثة مقارنة بالمجموعة الاولى و الرابعة وكذلك ارتفعت معنويا (P<0.05) مستوى IL-10 في بلازما النساء الحوامل السليمات (مجموعة السيطرة) مقارنة بمجاميع المرضى الثلاث .نستنتج من خلال الدراسة الحالية اختلاف في مستوى الحركيات الخلوية في بلازما النساء المصابات بمقدمة الارتعاج الشديد مما يؤكد الاختلاف في الاستجابة المناعية لهؤلاء النساء.


Article
Serum Concentration of Vitamin D in Preeclampsia

Author: Faisal Gh. Al-Rubaye
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2011 Volume: 10 Issue: 2 Pages: 220-223
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Preeclampsia, the de novo occurrence of hypertension and proteinuria after the 20th week of gestation, continues to exert an inordinate toll on mothers and children alike. Vitamin D, on the other hand, has direct influence on molecular pathways proposed to be important in the pathogenesis of preeclampsia, yet the vitamin D-preeclampsia relation has not been studied.OBJECTIVE:To assess the vitamin D status of preeclamptic women in different gestational period with respect to normal pregnancy.PATIENT AND METHODS: the present study is a cross-sectional case-control study (2008-2009) At Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital. Includes measurement of serum vitamin D3 in 60 patients with preeclampsia who were classified into two groups according to the gestational age:o Preeclamptics in the second trimester G1: (n=30).o Preeclamptics in the third trimester G2: (n=30,).The results were compared with 60 apparently healthy pregnant women (as controls). They were classified according to the gestational age into two groups:o Pregnants in the second trimester G3: (n=30).o Pregnants in the third trimester G4: (n=30).RESULTS:Showed a significant decrease in serum vitamin D3 in the preeclamptics as compared with the controls (p < 0.001)this was accompanied by a significant reduction of this parameter with advancing gestational age in both preeclamptic and healthy pregnents.CONCLUSION:Preeclamptics (in different gestational age groups) experienced hypovitaminosis D when compared with healthy pregnant women matched with their age and gestational age; this can be explained partly by the reduction of insulin–like growth factor which has a stimulatory effects on vitamin D3 and partly explained on genetic defects affecting fetoplacental unit.The above results were supported by the significant low level of s. vitamin D3; which call for the need for vitamin D supplementation in pregnancy.

Keywords

preeclampsia --- vitamin D.


Article
SERUM LEPTIN LEVEL IN SEVERE PREECLAMPSIA

Authors: Maad M Shalal معد مهدي شلال --- Anwar N Al Bassam انوار نوري البصام --- Isra T Hassan اسراء طالب حسن
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 144-147
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Background:Preeclampsia is a major cause of maternal morbidity and mortality with unknown aetiology. Placental hypoperfusion and diffuse endothelial cell injury are considered the central pathological process. Many adipocyte hormones like leptin play an important role in the inflammatory and atherosclerotic process and may be used as a marker for preeclampsia.Objective:To find the role of serum leptin measurement in pregnant women as a marker of preeclampsia.Methods:Seventy six primigravida women in their 3rd trimester of pregnancy were studied; 44 of them with severe preeclampsia, while the other 32 women with normal blood pressure without any history of previous diseases. Blood samples were taken for serum leptin, uric acid and creatinine levels, urine samples were collected for albumin. Serum leptin level was measured by ELISA kits.Result:Serum leptin and uric acid levels but not the creatinine was different in eclamptic group than control group. Mean age, height and weight were not different between the two groups. The systolic and diastolic blood pressures were also different between the two groups. 26 cases (59.1%) had proteinuria of 3+ albumin and 18 cases (40.9%) with 4+.Conclusion:Elevated serum leptin level can be used as a marker in the assessment of preeclampsia.Key words:Primigravida, preeclampsia, serum lipten.


Article
Serum Erythropoietin Concentration In Normal And Preeclamptic Pregnancies

Authors: Athba A. kadhim عذبه عبد كاظم --- Lilyan W. Sersam لليان وديع سرسم
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2017 Volume: 16 Issue: 2 Pages: 43-49
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Background: Preeclampsia is a multisystem disease and a threat to the well-being of both the mother and her newborn; it contributes significantly to the causes of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. An increase in maternal plasma of erythropoietin in women with preeclampsia may be of placental origion and a reflection of an underlying placental hypoxic condition. Aims: To compare serum erythropoietin concentrations among patients with and without preeclampsia and to investigate the association between serum erythropoietin levels and preeclampsia.Methods: This case-control study involved one hundred pregnant women in their third trimester of singleton pregnancy with gestational age (28-40wk). Fifty patients were with preeclampsia (study group) and fifty patients were with normal healthy pregnancies (control group). For both groups maternal blood samples were collected for Erythropoietin concentration measured by ELISA method. Statistical analysis was performed to compare maternal serum erythropoietin levels in preeclamptic women and normal heathy pregnant women, and to evaluate the association between serum erythropoietin and preeclampsia. Results: Mean erythropoietin level for the preeclamptic group was (41.66±26.76) ranging from 10.716-159.121(mIU/ml) with a median of 36.101 mIU/ml, while for the control group, the mean value was (28.71±14.38) ranging from 6.482-65.228 (mIU/ml) with a median of 26.741 mIU/ml. Erythropoietin levels were significantly (P=0.003) higher among preeclamptic patients compared with controls.Conclusion: Women with preeclampsia have significantly higher levels of serum erythropoietin compared to normal healthy pregnancy.


Article
Homocysteine Changes in Preeclampsia
التغيرات في تركيز مادة الهوموسستائين في الدم في حالة مقدمة الارتعاج

Authors: Maha Al-Bayati مها البياتي --- Ali Taki Al-baldawi علي تقي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 3 Pages: 426-431
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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AbstractObjective: To determine whether homocysteine, a relatively new risk factor for possible endothelial cell dysfunction and premature vascular disease, is elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia.Methods: A case-control study design conducted at Al-kadimiya teaching hospital for the period from September 2000 through April 2001. The study sample consisted of 100 pregnant women in labour subdivided into three groups (40 pregnant women with severe preeclampsia, 30 pregnant women with mild preeclampsia and 30 normotensive pregnant women as a control). Plasma homocysteine concentration measurement and observation of the maternal and fetal outcome was done for all groups.Results: The incidence of hyperhomocysteinemia was significantly higher among patients with severe preeclampsia (80%) compared to those with mild preeclampsia (67%) and the normotensive group (7%) and the incidence of adverse maternal and neonatal outcome is significantly higher among patients with severe preeclampsia compared to the others.Conclusion: Plasma total homocysteine concentration is elevated in pregnant women with preeclampsia during labour being significantly higher in cases with severe preeclampsia so hyperhomocysteinemia is considered a risk factor for adverse maternal and neonatal outcome.

هدف الدراسة : بيان ومعرفة هل ان تركيز مادة الهوموسستائين في الدم والذي يعتبر نسبيا كعامل خطر جديد لاحتمال الاختلال الوظيفي في الخلايا البطانية والإصابة المبكرة بأمراض الأوعية الدموية يزداد لدى الحوامل في حالة مقدمة الارتعاج. أجريت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الكاظمية التعليمي/ قسم النسائية والتوليد على مائة سيدة في حالة ولادة وقد قسمت السيدات الى ثلاثة مجاميع :1- المجموعة ا: تتالف من 40 سيدة تعاني من مقدمة الارتعاج الشديدة .2- المجموعة ب: تتالف من 30 سيدة تعاني من مقدمة الارتعاج البسيطة. 3- المجموعة ج: تتالف من 30 سيدة حامل تتمتع بصحة جيدة (كمجموعة ضبط ).شملت الدراسة قياس تركيز مادة الهوموسستائين في الدم ومتابعة صحة الأم والطفل بعد الولادة لكل المجاميع.تمخض تحليل النتائج إحصائيا عن مايلي : 1- وجدت علاقة وثيقة بين تركيز مادة الهومو سستائين في الدم وشدة مقدمة الارتعاج حيث ان تركيزه أعلى لدى السيدات الحوامل في المجموعة ا (80%) عنه في المجموعة ب (67%) و المجموعة ج (7%). 2- الزيادة في تركيز مادة الهوموسستائين في الدم مصحوبة بارتفاع نسبة المضاعفات لدى الام والطفل .الاستنتاج:تركيز مادة الهوموسستائين في الدم أعلى لدى السيدات الحوامل المصابات بمقدمة الارتعاج الشديد أثناء الولادة عنه لدى المصابات بمقدمة الارتعاج البسيط ومجموعة الضبط وزيادة تركيز مادة الهوموسستائين في الدم قد تسبب ارتفاع في نسبة المضاعفات لدى الأم والطفل.


Article
Maternal serum Alpha-fetoprotein Level at 12, 22 and 32weeks’ gestation in screening for pre-eclampsia
مستوى (الفا فيتوبروتين) في مصل الام للأسابيع 12, 22 و 32 من الحمل للتحري عن مرض ما قبل الارجاج الحاد

Authors: Arwa M. Ahmed اروى مجيد احمد --- Israa' H. Abid Al-Kareem اسراء هاشم عبد الكريم
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2018 Volume: 23 Issue: 8 Pages: 1-9
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Pre-eclampsia is a major cause of maternal and perinatal morbidity and mortality. Alpha_fetoprotein is measured in pregnant women, as a screening test for pre-eclampsia.This study aimed to examine the maternal serum alpha-fetoprotein at 12, 22 and 32 weeks ’gestation in singleton pregnancies and its performance as a screening test for Pre eclampsia. The study designed as prospective (Cohort) study, it was conducted in Obstetrics department in Salah AL Din Teaching Hospital, from the period of the 15th of December 2016 to the 1st of July 2017. Ninety six pregnant women at first trimester participated in the study, followed up prospectively sixty three of them was attended a second test in second trimester and seventy five of them was attended a third test in a third trimester. The mean age of the studied group was 27.1 ± 5.8 (range: 17-30) years .It had been observed that the mean level of Alphafetoprotein was increased and the mean Multi of Median( MoM) was significantly reduced with advanced gestational age., there are highly significant differences at the different check-points in both mean and MoM, of the maternal alpha-fetoprotein. The mean alpha-fetoprotein level was higher in pre-eclampsia group compared to non-preeclampsia in all of the three testing points. The Comparison of mean alpha-fetoprotein levels of pre-eclampsia vs. non-preeclampsia women revealed that the mean, alpha-fetoprotein level was higher in pre-eclampsia group compared to non-preeclampsia in all of the three testing points, alpha-fetoprotein level at the second test was the better than the first and third test.

يعد مرض ما قبل الارجاج الحاد هو سبب رئيسي لاعتلال ووفيات الأمهات يصيب 2-3% من جميع حالات الحمل. يتم تقدير تركيز هورمون الفا فيتو بروتين في النساء الحوامل من خلال دم الام او السائل الامنيوسي ويستخدم للتحري عن مرض ما قبل الارجاج الحاد والتشوهات الخلقية الولادية. جاءت هذه الدراسة لاختبار توزيع نسبة (الفا فيتو بروتين) في مصل الام للاسابيع 12, 22 و 32 من الحمل المفرد اللواتي تعانين من مرض ما قبل الارجاج الحاد واستخدام هذه العلامة البايلوجية للتحري عن مرض ما قبل الارجاج الحاد.تم اجراء الدراسة في قسم النسائية والتوليد في مستشفى صلاح الدين التعليمي للفترة من 15 كانون الاول 2016 ولغاية 1 تموز 2017. كان عدد النساء الحوامل 96 امراة في الثلث الاول من الحمل في الفحص الاول: وتمت متابعتها بشكل محتمل و63 في الفحص الثاني في الثلث الثاني و 75 الفحص الثالث في الثلث الاخير من الحمل اللواتي شاركن في الدراسة. بينت الدراسة ان متوسط اعمار المجموعة المدروسة في بداية الدراسة كان بحدود 27,1 ± 5,8 (المدى: 17-30 سنة), تم ملاحظه متوسط مستوى (AFP) وكان مرتفعاً بصورة كبيرة في مجموعة مرضى ما قبل الارجاج الحاد مقارنة بالنساء الخاليات من المرض على مدى الفحوصات الثلاثة. ومن خلال المقارنة بين مستوى (AFP) لمرضى ما قبل الارجاج الحاد والنساء الخاليات من المرض تبين ان مستوى (AFP) كان عاليا في مجموعة مرضى ما قبل الارجاج الحاد مقارنة بالنساء الخاليات من المرض على مدى الفحوصات الثلاثة, كان مستوى (AFP) في الثلث الثاني افضل من الثلثين الاول والثالث, والفحص الاول افضل من الثالث.


Article
SOME HISTOCHEMICAL CHANGES IN THE PLACENTAE OF PREECLAMPSIA
بعض التغيرات الكميائية النسيجية في مشايم مقدمة الأرتعاج

Authors: , RANA M. RAUF رنا رووف --- MUNA Z. ALHAMDANI منى الحمداني --- MAHA A. AL-SAMMAK مها السماك
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2007 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 32-41
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background The placenta has been implicated in the pathophysiology of preeclampsia. Preeclampsia is more common in multifetal gestations which have an increased placental mass compared to singleton pregnancies Objective Detecting the effects of preeclampsia on the availability of enzymes in the full term placenta. Methods Two groups of placentae were taken from full term pregnant women immediately after labour, each consisting of ten placentae. The first group are placentae obtained from women having an uneventful pregnancy with no history of disease or complication (as a control group) while the second group consists of placentae obtained from women with a history of preeclampsia.The materials were obtained from Al-Batool and Al-Khansaa Teaching Hospitals in Mosul, between February and July (2006). Results Significant histochemical changes were detected in the placentae of the second group when compared with those from the first group, such changes result from syncytial damage and destruction affecting the preeclamptic placentae, leading to the loss of alkaline phosphatase enzyme with an increase in the amount of the degenerating acid phosphatase enzyme.

الهدف: دراسة بتأثير مقدمة الأرتعاج على توفر الانزيمات المهمة داخل المشيمة.مواد و طرق البحث: اخذت مجموعتين من المشايم الكاملة المدة كل منها تحتوي على عشرة من الحوامل بعد الولادة.المجموعة الاولى تضم مشايم الحوامل اللواتي ليس لديهن اصابة بأي مرض قبل او بعد الحمل, اما المجموعة الثانية فتضم مشايم حوامل مصابات بمقدمة الأرتعاج. أخذت عينات المشايم من مستشفى البتول و الخنساء التعليميين في . الفترة من شباط الى تموز 2006النتائج: وجدت تغيرات مهمة في مشايم المحموعة الثانية وهذا يرجع الى تحطم خلايا الطبقة المخلوية في مشايمالمجموعة الثانية ولهذا وجد ان هناك فقدان في انزيم الفسفاتازالقلوي من هذه الطبقة بالاضافة الى زيادة كميةالفسفاتازالحامضي وهو انزيم يدل على وجود تحلل داخل المشيمة.

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