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Article
Correlation of interleukin 6 (IL-6) with estrogen and progesterone receptor expression in breast cancer patients

Author: Amal K. Chaloob امل جلوب
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2010 Volume: 52 Issue: 4 Pages: 438-440
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Multifunctional cytokines play important and only partially defined roles in mammary tumor development and progression. Normal human mammary epithelial cells constitutively produce interleukin 6(IL-6) and a non-secreted form of tumor necrosis factor. Transformation of mammary epithelial cells by different oncogenesis is frequently associated with alterations of cytokine/ growth factor production and responsiveness. Methods: We measured levels of 1L-6 in 84 females with breast cancer and examined their correlation with clinicopathological variables including stages of the disease and estrogen and progesterone receptor expression on tumor cell.Results: Our results revealed significantly higher serum IL-6 in breast cancer patients (12.98 pg/ml) compared to a healthy group (2.05pg/ml) (P<0.05) and a direct association with different clinical stages. And we found that expression of this cytokine was inversely associated with estrogen and progesterone receptor cells.Conclusion: Serum levels of IL-6 are highly elevated in breast cancer patients and correlate with tumor progression. Assay for serum levels IL-6 can be used as predictive non-invasive tests for tumor progression in breast cancer patients; also our data suggest that cytokine could be involved in the aggressiveness of ER-PR negative breast tumors. Expression of interleukin 6(IL-6) correlates with estrogen and progesterone receptor in breast cancer patients. Keyword: Interleukin 6, breast cancer, estrogen-progesterone receptor


Article
Ki-67(MIB-1) and Progesterone Receptor in Meningioma An Immunohistochemical Study

Author: Wahda Mohammed Taib Al- Nuaimy
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 157-167
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND: In meningioma the tumor grade, subtype, and extent of surgical resection are strong prognostic factors, the growth of this tumor is still unpredictable, and additional prognostic markers are needed. Many studies have shown that the detection of the proliferative potential of meningioma by Ki-67 (MIB-1) and the detection of the progesterone receptor might predict the natural history of tumor and patient survival. OBJECTIVE: To evaluate the proliferative fraction Ki-67 (MIB-1) and progesterone receptor in meningioma, To correlate the expression of these two markers with various clinico- pathological parameters, To compare these results with other studies . PATIENTS AND METHODS: This is a prospective study, in which 50 cases of meningioma were collected in Nineveh province. These cases were examined immunohistochemically. The results of these two markers were correlated with various clinico- pathological parameters. RESULTS: The mean age of all cases was 46 years. There were 16 male and 34 female patients. According to the W.H.O 2000 classification, there were 84% grade I, 10% were grade II and 6 %were grade III. Only 14% of the patients had a history of recurrence. Progesterone receptor was positive in 72% of all cases. Significant relation was observed between the progesterone receptor and the patients age .It was significantly higher in female than male. A significant relationship was found between progesterone receptor with grade and histological types. Thirty three out of 43 cases without recurrence had positive progesterone receptor. The mean±Standard deviation (SD) of Ki-67 Labeling Index (Ki-67 LI) was 2.7±4.2%. No significant relation was found between the Ki-67 LI and patients age. The male patients had a higher Ki-67 LI than that of the female. Significant relation was found between Ki-67 LI and the grade of meningioma . The mean of Ki-67 LI in the recurrent cases was higher than in non recurrent cases. An inverse relationship was found between Ki-67 LI and progesterone receptor . CONCLUSION: Progesterone receptor showed a significant relation with the age and histological types. Ki-67 LI had a direct significant association with the grade and the recurrent cases., while inverse relation was observed between the progesterone receptor with the grade and the recurrent cases. An inverse relationship was observed between the progesterone receptor and Ki-67 LI.


Article
The Effect of the Aqueous Extract of Peganum harmala Seeds on the Mammary Glands of Virgin, Pregnant, and Lactating Rats

Author: Wasan Al- Saidi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2006 Volume: 5 Issue: 2 Pages: 191-198
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Penganum harmala is a well known herb that is used by different societies. It is used as a medicalherb in treating various diseases and disorders .There was no earlier published work on the effects ofthe aqueous extract of Peganum harmala . Therefore, we designed this study to investigate the effectof the aqueous extract of Peganum harmala seeds on the mammary gland at the various physiologicalstates (virgin, pregnancy and lactation) making use of the available histological, histochemical, andimmunohistochemical means.METHODS:Aqueous extract of Peganum harmala was given for two weeks by an orogastric tube on single regulardaily dosage to Norway albino female rats. Animals were subdivided into subgroups according totheir physiological states. Mammary glands of these animals were routinely processed for histological,immunohistochemical and histochemical studies using formalin fixative ,paraffin embedded sectionsin the first two studies and formal calcium, frozen sections in the third study. Experimental specimenswere compared with that of control subgroups.RESULTS :Harmal induced mammogenesis in the mammary glands of virgin rats. It's aqueous extract was able toinitiate lactogenesis in a well-prepared mammary gland (i. e. during pregnancy) and finally thisaqueous extract promotes lactogenesis when administrated during lactation.CONCLUSION :Peganum harmala is a mmammogenic herb .KEYWORDS: Peganum harmala, mammary


Article
Determination of Some Biochemical Markers for Breast Cancer Women in Baghdad
تقدير بعض العلامات البايوكيميائية للنساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي في بغداد

Authors: Hiba Abid Al-Hussein Hassan هبا عبد الحسين حسن --- Amani Mahmood Tauma أماني محمود طعمة --- Shatha Hamed Ataimish شذى حامد جويد
Journal: Al-Ma'mon College Journal مجلة كلية المامون ISSN: 19924453 Year: 2016 Issue: 28 Pages: 317-327
Publisher: AlMamon University College كلية المامون الجامعة

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Abstract

The most important tumor that develops from breast tissue is breast cancer: signs may have , mass in the breast; variation in shape; skin dimpling; bloody discharge from the nipple. The present study was conducted to have a clearer integrative idea on the impact of expression of estrogen and progesterone receptor. In addition CA15-3, CA-125 in sera of women with breast cancer in baghdad is compared with a healthy normal population. The paper studies two groups including 100 breast cancer women by using immunohistochemical analysis for evaluation of the Estrogen receptor (ER) and progesterone receptor (PR). Moreover, the sera of samples have been quantitatively measured for CA15-3, CA-125 by using ELISA method.This study statistically showed increased level of CA-125 among the patients group (54.07± 7.19U/ml) in comparison with healthy control group (8.57±4.93U/ml) with a highly significant increase between them (p< 0.0001). While CA15-3 in sera of patients groups revealed that there was a significant increased between its level of patients (17.28± 8.38U/ml) in comparison with healthy control groups (11.45±8.36U/ml) (P=0.001). Analysis of data showed a trend toward increasing ER and PR expression with age. Especially in menopausal age between 47-57 years compared to other age groups. The conclusion of this study indicated that ER &PR is overexpressed in breast cancer women especially in age between (47-57) years and elevated level of CA125 and CA15-3 in breast cancer women.

وضحت الدراسة تأثير ابراز او عرض مستقبل الاستروجين ومستقبل البروجسترون لدى النساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي في بغداد مقارنة بالأصحاء.حددت مجموعتي الدراسة والتي تتضمن( 100) عينه لنساء مصابات بسرطان الثدي تم استخدام اختبار المناعي النسيجي الكيمياوي IHC في تقييم مستوى مستقبل الاستوجين والبروجسترون في الخلايا النسيجية المسرطنة. فضلا عن ذلك فقد اختبر مصول المرضى للتحري عن مستوى الضد الجيني السرطاني (125 ) بطريقة مقياس المر المناعي للانزيم المرتبط ELISA .كشف التحليل الاحصائي ارتفاع في مستوى الضد الجيني السرطاني( 125 ) في مصول النساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي(54.07± 7.19) مقارنة بمصول الاصحاء(8.57±4.93) وبفارق احصائي عالي المعنوية ((p<0.0001 بينما بين مستوى الضد الجيني السرطاني (15-3 ) ارتفاعاً طفيفاً في مصول المصابات بسرطان الثدي (17.12± 8.38) مقارنةً بالنساء غير المصابات(11.45±8.36) وبفرق احصائي معنوي (P=0.001) وكذلك بين التحليل احصائيا عن ارتباط مهم بين زيادة عرض او ابراز مستقبل الاستروجين وبروجسترون وعمر النساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي بدون فارق احصائي يذكر. خصوصا في عمر انقطاع الطمث (47-57) سنة مقارنةً بالأعمار الاخرى .بينت هذه الدراسة اهمية ابراز مستقبل البروجسترون ومستقبل الاستروجين لدى النساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي وخصوصا في الاعمار (47-57) وارتباطه المهم بارتفاع مستوى الضد الجيني السرطاني (125 ) والضد الجيني السرطاني( 15-3 ) لدى النساء المصابات بسرطان الثدي.


Article
Overview of breast cancerpatients and their prognostic factors treated in Baghdad teaching hospital/ oncology department in the year 2010
نظرة عامة على cancerpatients الثدي وعوامل النذير العلاج في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي / قسم علم الأورام في عام 2010

Author: Manwar A. Al Naqqash منور النقاش
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2011 Volume: 53 Issue: 3 Pages: 269-273
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background:The breast cancer is the most common non-skin malignancy in women and prognostic factors are important in predicting disease free survival and overall survival.Objective: To detect prognostic factors of breast cancer patients and study the correlation between these prognostic factors.Patients and methods: this is a retrospective study which included87 patients with breast cancer receiving chemotherapy in Baghdad teaching hospital/ oncology department in the year 2010. Prognostic factors were registered including: age, histopathological subtype, degree of differentiation, lymph node involvement, ER and PR, Her 2/neu and lymphovascular invasion. Results: Regarding breast cancer; 55(63.2%) of patients were early breast cancer as compared to32(36.8%)patients with locally advanced breast cancer.Regarding lymph node involvement 31(36.9%) of patients had N0,28(33.3%) had N1, 23(27.4%) had N2 and 2(2.4%) were with N3. Regarding degree of differentiation the most common type was moderately differentiated with 58(66.7%) followed by poorly differentiated with 23 (26.4%) and at last well differentiated tumors with 6(6.9%) patients. Infiltrative ductal carcinoma was the most common subtype other histopathological subtypes as infiltrative lobular carcinoma (13.8%) and medullary carcinoma (2.3%). Intraductal carcinoma were present in 23 cases (25.8%).ER was negative in 33% and PR was negative in 37.5% while the remaining cases shows positivity with different percentage scores.Cross tabulation between different prognostic factors ( tumor size, lymph node, degree of differentiation, lymphovascular invasion) were done and results were statistically not significant, regarding ER and PR showed strong significant correlation( p < 0.0005).between the two markers also significant correlation was found between lymphovascular invasion and lymph nodes involvement.Conclusion: breast cancer is the most common solid malignancy treated in Baghdad teaching hospital. Early stage breast cancer were more common than advanced breast cancer, ER and PR(good prognostic factors) were statistically correlated to each other so were lymphovascular invasion with lymph nodes involvement(bad prognostic factors).

الخلفية :- سرطان الثدي هو اكثر الاوراماصابةللنساء بعد سرطان الجلد وتعتبر العوامل التنبؤية مهمة في تحديد فترة خلو المريض من المرض و في تحديد الفترة التي يتوقع للمريض ان يعيشها الهدف من الدراسة: هو تسجيل العوامل التنبؤية لمرضى سرطان الثدي ودراسة العلاقة بين هذة العوامل المواد وطرائق العمل :- لقد شملت هذة الدراسة 87 مريضة مصابة بسرطان الثدي وهم تحت العلاج الكيميائيفي مدينة الطب مستشفى بغداد التعليمي العيادة الاستشارية للاورام للعام 2010 وقد تم توثيق العوامل التنبؤية للمرضى وتشمل: عمر المريضة، الفحص النسيجي ، درجة التمايز، اصابة الغدد اللمفاوية ، المعلمات الورمية (الاستروجين، البروجستيرون ,الخ) النتائج:- فيما يخص سرطان الثدي كانت 55(%63.2) حالة مصاب بسرطان الثديالمبكر بينما كانت 32(%36.8) حالة مصابةبسرطان الثدي المتقدم وفيما يخص الغدد اللمفاوية كانت 31(%36.9) حالة بدون اصابة في الغدد اللمفاوية وكانت 28(%33.3) حالة مصابة ب(ن1) و 23(%27.4) حالة مصابة ب(ن2) و حالتان (%2.4) مصابة ب(ن3) فيما يخص درجة التمايز كان النوع الاكثر شيوعا هو المتوسط التمايز وبنسبة %66.7 (57 حالة) ويتبعها غير واضح التمايز %26.4 (23 حالة) واخيرا جيد التمايز %6.9 ( 6 حالات) وكان سرطان القنوات المتغلغل هو النوع النسيجي الاكثر شيوعا يتبعه سرطان الفصوص المتغلغل (%13.8) واخيرا سرطان النسيج الوسطي المتغلغل (%2.3) بينما كان سرطان القنوات الغير متغلغل موجودا في 23 حالة (%25.8)بالنسبة للمستقبلات الاستروجينية كانت سالبة في %33 والمستقبلات البروجستيرونية كانت سالبة في %37.5 بينما كانتالحالات الاخرى موجبة وبدرجات مختلفة. بعد مقاطعة النتائج ومقارنتها احصائيا كانت النتائج غير معتد بها احصائيا, بينما كانت النتائج معتد بها احصائيا بعد مقاطعة مستلمات الاستروجين ومستلمات البروجيستيرون, وكذلك بالنسبة لمقاطعة تغلغل الاوعية والقنوات اللمفاوية مع اصابة الغدد اللمفاوية الاستنتاج:- سرطان الثدي هو الاكثر شيوعا بين الاورام الصلبة التي تعالج في مستشفى بغداد التعليمي , سرطان الثدي المبكر هو الاكثر شيوعا,المستلمات الاستروجنية و البروجيستيرونية (عوامل تنبؤية جيدة) كانت متوافقة و بنتائج معتد بها احصائيا, وكذلك كانت اصابة الغدد اللمفاوية مع اصابة الاوعية والقنوات اللمفية متوافقة وبنتائج معتد بها احصائيا (عوامل تنبؤية سيئة)


Article
Immunohistochemical Expression of Androgen Receptor (AR) and its Relationship with Clinicpathological Parameters in Breast Cancer
تعبير المناعة النسيجية الكيميائية لمستقبلات الاندروجين وعلاقته بالمعلمات الاكلينيكية في سرطان الثدي

Author: Wafaa Fadhil Hamad وفاء فاضل حامد
Journal: Al-Nisour Journal for Medical Sciences مجلة النسور للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 26640562 26640554 Year: 2019 Volume: 1 Issue: 2 Pages: 250-262
Publisher: Al-Nisour University College كلية النسور الجامعة

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Abstract

Breast carcinoma is one of the most common malignant and the leading cause of cancer related death among women all around the world. Gene expression profiling characterized 4 major groups of BC, which classified patients into Luminal A, Luminal B, HER-2/neu enriched, and Triple Negative BC (TNBC). Among the members of the steroid receptor superfamily the role of estrogen and progesterone receptors (ER and PR) and HER2 are play a role in breast cancer as both predictive and prognostic markers and management of therapy. Androgen Receptor (AR) is a steroid nuclear receptor involved in complex signaling pathways that are thought to play a role in cell proliferation. Greater than70% of human breast cancers expresses the androgen receptor (AR) and varies significantly among molecular subtypes of breast cancer and its contribution to the progression of disease may differ depending on the stage. In this study, we aimed to examine the expression pattern of AR and its association with clinicopathological parameters and IHC markers.Methods: Immunohistochemistry (IHC) was performed on breast cancers using antibodies against androgen receptor (AR), esterogen receptor (ER), progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor type-2 (HER2). The levels of expression were scored semiquantitatively.Results: AR positivity was noted in Thirty-four of the cases, whereas the other thirteen cases were negative. AR was significantly related to tumors histological type (p= 0.002), tumor grade (p= 0.002) and positive PR/HER2 status (p= 0.04). No statistical difference was demonstrated in AR expression in relation to tumor size (p= 0.12), lymph node status (p= 0.68) and expression of ER (p= 0.23). Conclusion: breast carcinomas express AR positivity more than ER, PR and HER2 status. In addition, the expression of AR correlated to lower tumor grade which could serve as a good prognostic factor and potential therapeutic target. However, this finding will need to be confirmed by large cohort studies.

يعد سرطان الثدي السرطان الاكثر شيوعا الذي يصيب النساء في مختلف انحاء العالم .وقد أجريت الدراسة على47 عينة من نساء مصابات بسرطان الثدي وكانت عبارة عن أنسجة مثبتة بالفورمالين ومطمورة بالبرافين على هيئة قوالب . استخدم طريقة كيمياء النسيج المناعية لتقييم تعبير المستقبلات لكل من HER-2 و الاستروجين و البروجيستيرون وكذلك Androgen لإيجاد العلاقة بين نتائج كيمياء المناعة النسيجية ومؤشرات التقدم لسرطان الثدي المتمثلة بعمر المريض ، حجم الورم ،النوع النسيجي وكذلك درجتة. حيث اظهرت النتائج بان 43 حالة من 47 اعطت التعبير الهرموني الموجب للمستقبل Androgen . كم أظهرت النتائج وجود فروقات معنوية مرتبطة بين مستوى التعبير للمستقبل Androgen مع نوع ودرجة الورم وكذلك كلا من البروجستيرون و HER-2 وبالمقابل فان تعبير Androgen الموجب يعد بمثابة نذير جيد وكهدف علاجي محتمل.

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