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Article
Cesarean Section Rates At Al-Batool Maternity Teaching Hospital

Author: Yosra Tahir Jarjees, D.O.G., F.I.B.M.S.(Obs.Gyn) يسرى جرجيس
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-3
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Objectives: To report the Cesarean section rate in Al-Batool Maternity Teaching Hospital and to identifyhow many of them were done for maternal and fetalcondition.Design: A statistical cross sectional study.Setting: The study was conducted at Al-BatoolMaternity Teaching Hospital (13000 deliveries peryear).Participants: The patients group consists of 4556patients admitted for delivery (vaginal and abdominal)during a period of four months commencing fromJanuary 2003.Main outcome measures: calculation of all livebirths, calculation of cesarean section rate, percentageof the primary cesarean sections and the repeatcesarean sections and listing the indications of theoperation according to maternal and fetal conditionwith their percentage.Results: Total births during the period of this studywere 4556 births, 3732 vaginal deliveries and 824cesarean sections. Cesarean section rate was found tobe 17.94% of total live births, the most frequentindication for cesarean section was malpresentation(24.3%). Primary cesarean sections contribute to 75%of cases.Conclusions: A primary cesarean section is one of themost important causes of high cesarean section rate.Decreasing the incidence of primary operations willhelp in reducing cesarean section rate.


Article
Metabolic syndrome in women with polycystic ovary syndrome

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Abstract

Objectives: To report the Cesarean section rate in Al-Batool Maternity Teaching Hospital and to identifyhow many of them were done for maternal and fetalcondition.Design: A statistical cross sectional study.Setting: The study was conducted at Al-BatoolMaternity Teaching Hospital (13000 deliveries peryear).Participants: The patients group consists of 4556patients admitted for delivery (vaginal and abdominal)during a period of four months commencing fromJanuary 2003.Main outcome measures: calculation of all livebirths, calculation of cesarean section rate, percentageof the primary cesarean sections and the repeatcesarean sections and listing the indications of theoperation according to maternal and fetal conditionwith their percentage.Results: Total births during the period of this studywere 4556 births, 3732 vaginal deliveries and 824cesarean sections. Cesarean section rate was found tobe 17.94% of total live births, the most frequentindication for cesarean section was malpresentation(24.3%). Primary cesarean sections contribute to 75%of cases.Conclusions: A primary cesarean section is one of themost important causes of high cesarean section rate.Decreasing the incidence of primary operations willhelp in reducing cesarean section rate.


Article
On Primary Multipliction Modules
المقاسات الجدائية الابتدائية

Author: Uhood S. Al-Hassani عهود سعدي الحسني
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 3 Pages: 815-819
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Let R be a commutative ring with identity and M be a unitary R- module. We shall say that M is a primary multiplication module if every primary submodule of M is a multiplication submodule of M. Some of the properties of this concept will be investigated. The main results of this paper are, for modules M and N, we have M N and HomR (M, N) are primary multiplications R-modules under certain assumptions.

يقال لمقاس أحادي M معرفا على حلقة ابدالية ذات عنصر محايد R بأنه جدائي ابتدائي أذا كان كل مقاس جزئي ابتدائي منه هو مقاس جزئي جدائي. درسنا بعض خواص هذا المفهوم وبرهنا على انه اذا كان كل من M وN مقاسا فأن N Mو HomR (M,N) مقاسان جدائيان ابتدائيان تحت شروط معينة.


Article
Phytoplankton primary production in southern Iraqi marshes after restoration
الانتاجية الاولية للهائمات النباتية لاهوار جنوب العراق بعد اعادتها

Authors: W. D. Taylor ويليم دي تايل --- D. S. Abdulah داوود سلمان عبدالله --- A. H. Talib عادل حسين طالب --- A. A. Al-Kubaisi عبدالرحمن عبدالجبار الكبيسي --- et al.
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 1عدد خاص بمؤتمر علوم الحياة Pages: 519-530
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Primary productivity and chlorophyll-a were used in this study to monitor the restoration process of southern Iraqi marshes (Al-Hewaizeh, central marshes, and Al-Hammar). The phytoplankton primary productivity was based on oxygen light/dark bottle method. Two different depths samples were taken monthly from six studied marshes stations (two stations for each marsh) during November 2005 to October 2006, while chlorophyll-a samples taken from surface water. The phytoplankton primary productivity values ranged 9.38 – 249.79 mg C/m3.hr for all marshes, its values for surface water sample ranged 11.71 – 256.24 mg C/m3.hr, while for 1m depth ranged 9.38 – 142.5 mg C/m3.hr. Chlorophyll-a values ranged between (1.1 – 21.26) µg/l indicating high values of productivity in the studied marshes comparing with other aquatic Iraqi ecosystems. Also, dissolved oxygen and oxygen saturation rate were measured in this study.

استعملت الانتاجية الاولية للهائمات النباتية والكلوروفيل-أ في هذه الدراسة لمراقبة عمليةِ إعادةِ اهوار جنوب العراق (الحويزة والاهوار المركزية والحمّار). اعتمدت طريقة قناني الأوكسجينِ ضوء/ظلام. اُخذت عينتان بعمقين مختلفتين شهريا من ستة محطاتَ في الاهوار الثلاثة (محطتين لكُلّ هور) للمدة من تشرين الثّاني 2005 إلى تشرين الأولِ 2006، فيما اُخذت عينات الكلوروفيل-أ من السطح فقط. تراوحت معدلات الإنتاجية الأولية بين 9.38 - 249.79 ملغم كاربون/م3.ساعة لكُلّ الاهوار، فيما تراوحت قِيَمها لعيّنةِ السطح بين 11.71 - 256.24 ملغم كاربون/م3.ساعة بينما لعينة العمق 1 mفتَراوحَت بين 9.38 - 142.5 ملغم كاربون/م3.ساعة. سجلت قيم الكلوروفيل-أ مدى تراوح بين 1.1 الى 21.26 مايكروغرام /لتر للاهوار الثلاثة مسجلة ً قيم عاليةلانتاجية الاهوارالمدروسة مقارنة بالمسطحات المائية العراقية الاخرى. ألاوكسجين الذائب ونسبةَ إلاشباعِ للأوكسجينِ قِيست ايضاً في هذه الدراسةِ.


Article
OPEN VERSUS CLOSED METHODS IN TREATMENT OF PILONIDAL SINUS DISEASE

Authors: Ali A Ali علي عزيز علي --- Basher A Abdul-Hassan بشار عباس عبد الحسن --- Anees K. Nile انيس خليل نايل
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-119
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background: Pilonidal sinus disease can be managed surgically either by excision & primary closure, or by excision and leaving the wound to heal by secondary intention. This study is designed to show the difference between these two methods.Objective: To assess the difference between excision and primary closure versus excision and healing by secondary intention in treatment of pilonidal sinus disease.Methods: Between January 2005 and January 2009, 60 median aged patients with Pilonidal sinus disease were studied in Al-Kadhimiya Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq; 30 cases were operated by excision and primary closure (group І); the remaining 30 cases were operated by excision and healing by secondary intention, without closure (group II). The principle outcome measures recorded were duration of hospital stay, operative time, duration of complete healing, wound infection and recurrence rate. Satisfaction and comfort of patient was monitored by using visual analogue scale during first five days post-operatively. Data were statistically analyzed by using SPSS & Chi square.Results: A total of 60 patients were divided into 2 groups, 30 patients operated by using primary closure (group I), and 30 patients operated without closure (group II). Age range of patients was from (16 - 37 yrs). Duration of hospital stay and duration of complete healing was longer in patients of group II than those of group I (p ≤ 0.001). Operative time in group I is more than that in group II (p ≤ 0.001). Pain scores were lower in group I than group II (p = 0.004). The frequency of wound infection and recurrence rate after one year follow up were more in group I than group II, this was statistically of little significance.Conclusions: Excision and primary closure is recommended as a preferred procedure in the management of chronic sacral PNS disease. It has the advantages of short hospital stay, early wound healing, rapid return to work.Key words:pilonidal sinus, primary closure, secondary intention


Article
THE EFFECT OF FISSURE MORPHOLOGY ON CARIES SEVERITY OF ADULTS IN NORTH IRAQ
تاثير شكل الشقوق الطاحنه على شدة النخر عند البالغين في شمال العراق

Author: Faraed D. Salman
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2011 Volume: 24 Issue: 4 Pages: 29-37
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

Background: The presence of pits and fissures are normal occurrence found in molars, premolars. They can be considered as areas with high susceptibility to caries lesion.Materials and Methods: The extracted premolars were 655 for orthodontic purposes. Ekstrand clinical severity index (1995) was used to assess the severity of primary fissure occlusal caries. They were divided into 5 subgroups on the basis of fissure morphology (I, V, U, IK and Y types)(Nagano,1961). Thereafter, the teeth were sectioned into buccolingual direction in central fossa and microscopically analyzed by stereomicroscope (150× magnification).Aim of study: The study was designed to examine the effect of fissure morphology on primary caries of occlusal fissures in premolars in North of Iraq. Results : V– and IK– shaped fissures were found to have the maximum percentage (48% and 22.44%, respectively). Percentage was very poor for I (18.77%), Y (18.01%) and U (17.09%) types of fissureConclusions: V– and U– shapes have less severity of dental caries in comparison with I–, Y– and IK– types with increasing severity index scores.

ان وجود الوهاد والشقوق هو تكوين طبيعي في الطواحن والضواحك ،فهي تعتبر مناطق عالية لحدوث النخر.صممت هذه الدراسة لفحص تاثير شكل الشقوق الطاحنة على النخر الابتدائي في هذه الشقوق للضواحك في شمال العراق .تم استخدام مؤشرEkstrand(1995) لقياس شدة النخرعلى السطوح الطاحنة. تم قلع (655) ضاحك مستخدمة لغرض التقويم ،قسمت الاسنان الى خمس مجاميع حسب شكل الشقوق لمؤشر )Nagano (1961. قطعت الاسنان في مركز الوحدة الدهليزية اللسانية ثم فحصت بالستيروميكروسكوب قوة تكبيره 150 مرة .اظهرت النتائج ان نوع الشقوق ((V&IK كان اعلى نسبة(22.44%&48 %) على التوالي متبوعا ب (I) (18.77%)،) (Y) 18.01) ثم (U) (17.09%). ظهران الاشكال ( (U&Vتمتلك اقل شدة للنخر مقارنة ب ( IK,I,Y) مع زيادة درجات شدة النخر مع عدم وجود فروقات معنوية لكلا الجنسين حسب توزيع اشكال الاخاديد المختلفة.


Article
Calculation of Coefficients of Cassegrain Telescope Mirrors
حساب معاملات مرايا تلسكوب كاسكرين

Author: Ahmed Kamil Ahmed أحمد كامل أحمد
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2011 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 161-167
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

In the present work, a program for calculating the coefficients of the Aplanatic Cassegrain Telescope (ACT) system, free from the effects of spherical and coma aberrations, were constructed. In addition, the two-mirrors of the optical system, as aspherical surfaces, were adopted. This means, that the two-equations of the mirrors are assumed to be polynomial function of five even terms only. The numerical method, least-squares curve fitting method to calculate the two-mirror coefficients system, was adopted. For choosing the values and ratios that give the best results, Rayleigh Criterion (Rayleigh Limit), for purpose of comparison and preference, was adopted.

تم في هذا البحث, بناء برنامج لحساب معاملات منظومة تلسكوب كاسكرين اللازيغي, خالياً من تأثير كلا الزيغين: الزيغ الكروي وزيغ السبيخة. أضافة الى ذلك, تم أعتماد سطحي مرآتي المنظومة بشكل سطوح لاكروية. أي ان معادلتي مرآتي المنظومة, قد تم تمثيلها بالدالة المتعددة الحدود, ذات خمسة حدود زوجية فقط. أخيراً, تم تبني الطريقة العددية التربيعات الصغرى للمنحنيات الأوفقية لحساب المعاملات الخاصة لمرآتي المنظومة. ولأغراض المقارنة والمفاضلة, تم تبني معيار ريلي (حد ريلي), لأختيار القيم والنسب التي تعطي أفضل النتائج.

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