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Article
Hafnia Alvei Urinary Tract Infection

Author: Jamela Ghadban Auda Al-Grawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 71-75
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The genus Hafnia , a member of the family Enterobacteriaceae, consists of Gram negative bacteriathat are occasionally implicated in both intestinal and extraintestinal infections in human. This genuscontains only a single species (Hafnia alvei).METHODS:The above bacterium was identified from 250 bacterial strains which were isolated from 220 urinesamples of patients with urinary tract infection.RESULTS:One H. alvei strain was isolated from an elderly patient, and identified by conventional biochemicaltests and API20E system at the first time in Iraq. Antimicrobial susceptibility test showed that thisstrain is sensitive to Cefotaxime, Ciprofluxacine, Chloramphenicol, Doxycycline and Trimethoprimsulfamethaxzole,while it is resistant to Penicillin, Oxacillin and Amoxicillin plus clavulanic acid.CONCLUSION:H. alvei an important uropathogen that causing urinary tract infection in elderly and may be inimmunocompromised patients.


Article
None anticipated bacterial urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetic patients relative to duration and angiopathies

Author: Salim M. Alruba’ae سالم الربيعي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2011 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 37-44
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Background: Diabetes mellitus is a well known metabolic and vascular illness associated with high incidence of bacterial urinary tract infections especially in diabetic complications including both micro and macro-vascular types. Objective: To study the incidence of bacterial urinary tract infections in type 2 diabetic patients, the type of micro-organism responsible in relation to age, sex of patients, duration of the disease & related micro & macrovascular diabetic complications. Methods: A prospective study of the diabetic patients including 40 males with mean age of 54(±9) years and 50 females, mean age of 51(±7) years and duration of the and sex matched controls (27 males and 33 females).Symptoms of urinary tract infections, general urine examination, urine culture & ultrasound of abdomen were studied & reported for both groups. Results: This study showed significant increase in urinary tract infections among diabetic patients with four fold rise in bacteriuria especially among diabetic women & Escherechia Coli was the predominant micro-organism in 85% of cases.Conclusion: Urinary tract infection has significant increase incidence in type 2 diabetic patients with fourfold rise among diabetic women.


Article
Effect of seed oil Ricinus communis on E. coli isolated from Recurrent Urinary Tract Infections
تأثير زيت بذور الخروع Ricinuscommunis في بكتريا E. coli المعزولة من التهابات المجاري البولية المتكررة

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Abstract

This study was conducted in Wasit governorate for the period between February 2012 to February 2013 to determine the impact of Castor seed oil at different concentrations 100, 75, 50 and 25% in inhibition of the growth of E. coli isolated from 52 male and female patients (2-70 yrs) attending Al Zahra Hospital and Al Karama Hospital in Kut city. Oil was extracted from seeds of Castor had the ability to inhibit E. coli isolated from patients presented with recurrent urinary tract infections . Zone of inhibition accomplishing was 9.06 mm in diameter.HPLC analysis revealed that the content of α-linolenic in Castor seed oil (18.90 µgml) was higher than other fatty acids followed by oleic. Perhaps this is why it able to inhibit E. coli; which affect the cellular components in bacteria.

أجريت هذه الدراسة في محافظة واسط للمدة مابين شباط 2012 وشباط 2013 لتحديد تأثير زيت بذور الخروع بتراكيز مختلفة 25 و 50 و 75 و 100% في تثبيط نمو بكتريا E. coli المعزولة من 52 مريضا من الاناث والذكور باعمار تتراوح 2-70 سنة الراقدين في مستشفى الزهراء والكرامة في مدينة الكوت. الزيت المستخلص من بذور الخروع له القدرة في تثبيط بكتريا E. coli المعزولة من المرضى الذين يعانون من التهابات المجاري البولية المتكررة وبقطر تثبيط 9.06 ملم . كشف تحليل HPLC أن محتوى حامض الفا- لينولينيك في زيت بذور الخروع (18.90 ميكروجرام مل) كان أعلى من الأحماض الدهنية الاخرى ويليه حامض الأوليك. ولعل هذا هو السبب في كونه قادر على تثبيط E. coli؛ اذ يؤثر في مكونات الخلية في البكتيريا.


Article
Epidemiological Study of Symptomatic and Asymptomatic Bacteriuria Among Pregnant Women Attending Antenatal Clinic in Baquba- Diyala Province

Authors: Sawsan Talib Salman سوسن طالب سلمان --- Nadhim Ghazal Noaman ناظم غزال نعمان --- Anfal Shakir Motib انفال شاكر متعب
Journal: Diyala Journal of Medicine مجلة ديالى الطبية ISSN: 97642219 Year: 2013 Volume: 4 Issue: 1 Pages: 79-86
Publisher: Diyala University جامعة ديالى

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Abstract

Background: Pregnancy causes many changes in the pregnant women, due to mechanical and hormonal changes which lead to ureteral dilatation and urinary stasis which contribute to the  increased risk of developing urinary tract infection. Subject and methods: A cross sectional study was conducted at Al-Batool Teaching Hospital in antenatal care clinic from March during October 2012 to study the epidemiology of symptomatic and asymptomatic bacteriuria among pregnant women. Results: out of 200 pregnant women who were included (24%) and (14%) with ≤20 years old age group were asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively, and (56%), (64%) were asymptomatic and symptomatic in age group 21-30 years old , while in those ≥ 31 years age group was (20%) and (22%) asymptomatic and symptomatic respectively. The asymptomatic bacteriuria was (77%) and it was higher among 31-40 weeks of gestation than other weeks of gestations (p= 0.006).The nulliparous was (27%) asymptomatic and (21%) symptomatic, where para1- para3 was (56%) asymptomatic and (65%) symptomatic and para4 and above was (17%) asymptomatic and (14%) symptomatic. Escherichia coli was (42.3%) more than other species.Conclusion: Urinary tract infections is a public health problem, Routine urine culture test should be performed on all antenatal asymptomatic and symptomatic pregnant women to identify unsuspected infection.


Article
Bacterial isolates associated with urinary tract infections in children
العزلات البكتیریة المرافقة لخمج المجاري البولیة للاطفال

Author: Zahrah Adnan dlakhal
Journal: Misan Journal of Acodemic Studies مجلة ميسان للدراسات الاكاديمية ISSN: 1994697X Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 22 Pages: 56-60
Publisher: Misan University جامعة ميسان

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Abstract

Urinary tract infections UTI are common conditions worldwide and thepattern of antimicrobial resistance varies in different regions. We describe therelationships between sex,age and isolated bacterial agents and antibioticresistance of UTIs solates . The study was confined to UTIs in children .Thepresent study were aimed to investigate the antibiotic resistance of urinarypathogens isolated from Al - Sadder Hospital .The total number of samples was(50) sample, from 22 children samples were positive for culture.The mostbacterial isolates in the present study was Enterobacter spp 6(27.2%) , Ecoli4(18.1%) , Pseudomonas spp 3(13.6%) , Escherichia spp, Staphylococcus aureus,Salmonella spp, Klebseilla spp, Citrobacter spp were 2(9.09) % andEdwardsilla spp 1(4.5%) Antibiotics resistance in the most common gramnegative than in gram positive. The high effective antibiotics were Imipenem inall isolates.

التھاب المجاري البولیة من الامراض الواسع الانتشار في العالم و ذات مدى عالي للمقاومة المضد


Article
Virulence Genes Profile of Escherichia coli Isolated from Urinary Catheterized and Non-Catheterized Patients
الملف الشخصي لعوامل الفوعة لبكتريا Escherichia coli المعزولة من مرضى القثطرة البولية وغير القثطرة

Authors: Saba Nazeih Abdul-Ghaffar صبا نزيه عبد الغفار --- Rasmia Abed Abu-Risha رسمية عبد ابو ريشة
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 2B Pages: 820-835
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The severity of UTI produced by E. coli is due to the expression of a wide spectrum of virulence factors. In this study the role of E. coli virulence determinants in the pathogenesis of UTI in urinary catheterized and non-catheterized patients has been evaluated. The isolates were recovered from 129 patients admitted to the hospital. Virulence genes of E. coli were detected by polymerase chain reaction analysis for the prevalence of these virulence factors. The targeted genetic determinants were those coding for Type 1 fimbriae, Pyelonephritis-Associated Pili (PAP), Antigen 43 (Ag43), α-Hemolysin and Aerobactin siderophores among the studied isolates. The prevalence of genes fimH, papC, ang43, hlyA and iutA were 88.37%, 72.09%, 18.60%, 51.16% and 79.06% respectively. The fimH gene with 88.37% had a highest prevalence of virulence genes in patients with UTIs. Statistically in the present study, there was no significant difference in the prevalence of genes profiles of E. coli isolates causing UTI in non-catheterized and catheterized patients. However, all the studied strains exhibited 16 virulence gene patterns; among the strains isolated from patients with urinary catheter showed multitude and greatest diversity of genes patterns than strains from non-catheterized patients.

ان شدة التهاب المجاري البولية المتسببة من بكتريا E. coli تعود الى انتاجها لطيف واسع من عوامل الفوعة. في هذة الدراسة تم تقييم دور محددات الفوعه لبكتريا E. coli في مرض التهاب المجاري البولية الماخوذة من مرضى القثطرة البوليه وغير الفثطرة البولية. وان العزلات اخذت من 129 من المرضى الذين يرتادون المستشفى. تم تطبيق تقنية تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل للتحري عن عوامل الفوعه لبكتريا E. coli ودراسة انتشار عوامل الفوعه هذه. وكان الهدف الجيني لمحددات الفوعة وكانت للجينات المشفرة لانتاج Type 1 fimbriae و Pyelonephritis-Associated Pili (PAP) و Antigen 43 (Ag43) و α-Hemolysin و Aerobactin siderophores ضمن العزلات المدروسة. وكانت نسبه انتشار الجينات fimH و papC و ang43 و hlyA و iutA هي 88٫37٪ و 72٫09٪ و 18٫60٪ و 51٫16٪ و 79٫06٪ على التوالي. وكان الجين fimH بنسبة وجوده 88٫37٪ اكثر انتشارا بين عوامل الفوعة لمرضى خمج المجاري البولية. تبين من خلال التحليل الاحصائي لهذه الدراسة عدم وجود اي فرق معنوي في انتشار التكوين الجيني لعزلات بكتريا E. coli المسببة لمرض خمج المجاري البولية لكلا من مرضى القثطرة وغير القثطرة البولية. واظهرت العزلات في هذه الدراسة 16 نمطا جينيا وكانت السلالات المعزولة من مرضى القثطرة البولية اكثر واكبر تباينا في الانماط الجينية بمقارنتها بعزلات غير القثطرة البولية.


Article
Prevalence of urinary tract infection in diabetic patients and identification of the causal microorganisms
انتشار عدوى المسالك البولية في مرضى السكري وتحديد الكائنات الحية الدقيقة المسببة

Author: Ahang Ali Ahmed
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 1 Pages: 363-369
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Urinary tract infection (UTI) is a condition in which the urinary tract is infected with a pathogen causing inflammation. One of the predisposing factors for UTIs is diabetes mellitus (DM), spillage of glucose into the urine provide a good culture medium for bacteria. The objectives of this study were to evaluate the distribution of UTIs among diabetic patients of both genders with studying the effect of some relative factors, and identifying types of the causal microorganisms. Methods: Diabetic patients (type1 and 2), from both genders were included in this study. All patients were interviewed. Uncontaminated urine samples were collected for microscopic and macroscopic analysis. Isolations and identifications of bacteria were done by standard methods. Results: Out of 150 diabetic patients, 53 (35.33%) have UTI. Gender, middle age and high level of proteinuria were risk factors, while type and duration of DM with its type of treatment, body mass index (BMI), and hypertension were non significant. The isolated types of pathogens were Escherichia coli (45.3%), Klebsiella pneumoniae (15.1%), Staphylococcus saprophyticus (15.1%), Citrobacter diversus (11.3%), Candida albicans (7.5%) and Staphylococcus aureus (5.7%). Conclusion: This study revealed that diabetic females were most susceptible to get UTIs than diabetic males. In both genders the most reliable age for UTI were between 31-40 years. The results showed that the level of proteinuria was higher in patients suffering from UTIs associated with DM, which considered as a risk factor. Certain types of microorganisms were isolated; the most common types were Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae and Staphylococcus saprophyticus.


Article
Bacteriological study of Hospital-acquired urinary tract infections in Erbil city
دراسة بكتريولوجية لعدوى المسالك البولية المكتسبة من المستشفيات في مدينة أربيل

Author: Aza Bahadeen Taha
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 2 Pages: 45-50
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Background and objectives: Urinary tract infections are amongst the most common infections, Hospital-acquired urinary tract infection increases not only morbidity and mortality but also hospital costs. The objectives of this study were to determine bacteria responsible for hospital-acquired urinary tract infection, their antibiotic sensitivities and to describe the risk factors of the infection.Methods: All urine samples fulfilling the criteria for significant bacteriuria were included in the study. Isolation and identification of bacteria was performed by standard method and susceptibility testing was determined by disk diffusion method.Results: Out of 290 patients, 133 (45.86%) have acquired hospital-acquired urinary tract infection. Older age, hospitalization and catheterization were risk factors of the infection. Escherichia coli (51.70%) and Klebsiella pneumoniae (16.33%) represented the most common isolates. The most bacteria isolates were sensitive to ciprofloxacin, rifampin and trimethoprim + sulphamethoxazole.Conclusions: To prevent hospital-acquired urinary tract infections, important factors must be taken into consideration, for example: avoid unnecessary urethral catheterization, choose narrow spectrum antibiotics according to antibiotic sensitivities, and investigate regularly the causative bacteria and their susceptibility patterns


Article
Urinary Tract Infection Prevalence and Antibiotic Resistance A Retrospective Study in Basra Governorate, Iraq
دراسة إنتشار أصابات الجھاز البولي في محافظة البصرة ومدى مقاومتھا للمضادات الحیویة

Authors: Ali Mohammed Hadi علي محمد هادي --- Falah Hasan Sheri فلاح حسن --- Ausama Ayoub Jaccob اسامة يعقوب
Journal: Al-Mustansiriyah Journal for Pharmaceutical Sciences مجلة المستنصرية للعلوم الصيدلانية ISSN: 18150993 Year: 2014 Volume: 14 Issue: 2 Pages: 129-135
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract:Urinary tract infections (UTIs) is one of the most common infectious diseases, due topresence of bacteria in urine together with symptoms, and sometimes signs, of inflammationlike frequent micturation, dysuria, pyuria, nucturia, fever, and haematuria, most commonlyoccurring in women. Antimicrobial agents are among the most frequently prescribed drugs forUTIS, in other hand the high consumption of often inappropriately prescribed antibioticscombined with crowding, multiple pathology and frequent uses of invasive devices are themajor factors contributing to high level resistance.This retrospective study was designed to evaluate the prevalence of microorganisms inUTIs and the pattern of antimicrobial utilization and their susceptibility also the risk ofdifference in sex on UTIs in Basra, Iraq.The study was conducted at the urology wards in Al-Basra General Hospital, Al-Fayhaa General Hospital, Alsader Teaching Hospital and Al-Mowani General Hospital inBasra, Iraq, where the data collected after getting approval from the institutional ethicalcommittee. Ninety patients were included and accepted. The sensitivity results from the fileswere further confirmed by reviewing the hospital laboratory archives.This study showed a high prevalence of UTIs in female compared to male. Among theculture positive, patients had E. coli (higher percent) and remaining had Pseudomonas Spp.,Proteus Spp., Klebsiella Spp, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus Spp. infections.Regarding antibiotic sensitivity pattern, the pathogens showed more sensitivity to imipenemfollowed by amikacin and less frequency to ciprofloxacin, nitrofurantoin and amoxiclave,while the lowest sensitivity were shown in co-trimoxazole and cefotaxime.In conclusion E.coli is the most important cause of UTIs in Basra, Iraq with highprevalence ratio in females. Imipenem and amikacin are the first line drugs irrespective of thecausative agent for UTIs., while cefotaxime and co-trimoxazole resistance are very high.Key Worde: Urinary tract infections (UTIs), Antibiotics, Resistance.

الخلاصة:إن التھابات المسالك البولیة ھي واحدة من أھم الأمراض الجرثومیة التي تتمیز بوجود البكتیریا في البول متزامنةمع علامات وأعراض الالتھاب مثل التبول اللیلي، ألم أثناء التبول، وجود القیح أو الدم مع البول وارتفاع حرارة الجسم. إنالمضادات الحیویة ھي من أھم الادویة التي تستخدم لمعالجة المرض، ولكن من جانب آخر فان الاستخدام الخاطئللمضادات الحیویة واستخدام الالات الاجتیاحیة أدى الى ظھورالمقاومة البكتیریة للعلاج.تھدف ھذه الدراسة الى التقییم والكشف عن نسب الاصابة بالمرض بین الذكور والاناث ونسب البكتیریا المسببةلھ ونمط الاستفادة من المضادات الحیویة ومدى تاثیرھا وحساسیة البكتیریا لھا في محافضة البصرة العراقیة.AJPS, 2014, Vol. 14, No.2Date of acceptance: 1-9-2014130أجریت الدراسة في ردھات المسالك البولیة في مستشفیات محافضة البصرة (مستشفى البصرة العام، مستشفىالصدر التعلیمي، مستشفى الفیحاء العام ومستشفى الموانئ العام). تم جمع المعلومات من المرضى الراقدین بمشاركةتسعون مریضا وتم التحقق من الملفات في ارشیف المختبر.لقد بینت الدراسة أعلى نسب للاصابة كانت بین الاناث مما ھو علیھ في الذكور وأن البكتریا المسببة الاكثرشیوعا في البصرة ھي مكورات الاشیریشیا یتبعھا انواع اخرى. اكبر نسبة من الاستجابة لوحظت لعقار الامبینیموالامیكاسین وبدرجة أقل للسبوفلوكساسین والنایتروفیورانتوین والاموكسیكلاف، والاستجابة ضعیفة جداوالكوتریموكسازول.


Article
A Comparative Study of Amoxicillin Sensitivity Against Escherichia coli Isolates Isolated from Urinary Tract Infections
دراسة مقارنة حساسية مضاد الاموكسيلين ضد بكتيريا الاشيريشا القولونية المعزولة من التهاب المجاري البولية

Authors: Sameer Abdul ameer Abid Ali سمير عبد الامير عبد علي --- Ghydaa H. Aljeboury غيداء حسين عبد الرحيم2
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Science المجلة العراقية للعلوم ISSN: 00672904/23121637 Year: 2017 Volume: 58 Issue: 1C Pages: 417-426
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The purpose of this study was to investigate the bacterial etiology of urinary tract infections microbiologic properties of Escherichia coli isolated from urinary tract infection patients against nine amoxicillin antibiotic. E.coli isolates were collected from patients samples suffering from urinary tract infection, based on biochemical tests of Epi 20 system .Nine Amoxicillin antibiotics were selected (some vials and other are capsules) which manufactured in different countries were bought from local pharmacies in Baghdad, for the purpose of knowing the inhibitory activity of these antibiotics on E.coli one of the main microorganisms to cause urinary tract infection, the antibiotics were prepared in a concentration of 100mg/ml and their activity was tested against the growth of the selected isolates and variations in the results were noted. Antimicrobial susceptibility was tested by the disk diffusion method. Results showed that. E. coli reveals variations in the susceptibility to amoxicillin.

هدفت الدراسة الحاليه الى دراسة تاثيرالفعالية التثبيطية لمضاد الاموكسيلين المصنع في عدة مناشئ ضد واحدة من اهم المسببات المرضية للمرضى الذين يعانون من التهاب المجاري البولية.جمعت عزلات من بكتيريا الاشيريشا القولونية لمرضى يعانون من التهاب المجاري البولية وعزلت البكتيريا وشخصت العزلات اعتمادا على الاختبارات الكيوحيوية لفحوصات العدة التشخيصية الابي 20 الخاصة بالعائلة البكتيرية المعوية. اختيرت تسعة مناشئ لتصنيع المضاد اموكسيلين في عدة مدن وقد تم شراؤه من الصيدليات المحلية في بغداد،ولمعرفةالتاثيرالتثبيطي لهذه المضادات على بكتريا القولون المسبب التهاب المجاري البوليه، حضر المضاد الحيوي اموكسيلين بتركيز 100 ملغم / مل لغرض الدراسه.اختبرت الفعالية التضادية باستخدام طريقةالانتشار في الحفر للوسط حيث اظهرت النتائج تغاير في حساسية البكتيريا تجاه مضاد الاموكسيلين.

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