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Effect of Phosphate Dissolving Fungi by Increasing of Phosphates Fertility availability in soil
تأثير الفطريات المذيبة للفوسفات في زيادة جاهزية الأسمدة الفوسفاتية

Author: S. J. Fakher سلوى جمعه فاخر
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2006 Volume: 32 Issue: 1B Pages: 28-37
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A pot experiment was conducted to study the effect of phosphate dissolving fungi (PDF) in increasing the availability of phosphates fertility during growing season of 2002-2003. Soils were inoculated with three isolates of PDE. These isolates were. Aspergillus candidus (F1), Trichoderma harzianum (F2), penicillium digitatum (F3). Inoculated soils were treated with either super phosphate or rock phosphate (as source of phosphorus) at rate of 40 mg P/Kg soil. Zea mays plants were planted in pots and treated with super phosphate and rock phosphate. After 50 days the plants were harvested. Plants were dried in oven at 70Co, then shoot dry weights were recorded. Plants were ground and subsamples were digested. Phosphorus concentration in plant samples were determined then phosphorus uptake was calculated. Available P in soil was also measured. Results showed that inoculation of soils with (PDF) significantly increased available P, dry weights and P uptake as compared to those of non inoculated plants. However, significant differences among used PDF isolates were noticed and being highest for (F1) isolate .

لدراسة دور الفطريات المذيبة للفوسفات في زيادة جاهزية الفوسفور في التربة، أجريت تجربة أصص في ظلة خشبية خلال الموسم الزراعي 2002/2003 . تم تلقيح الترب بثلاث انواع فطرية ، تم عزلها من ترب مختلفة الخصائص في محافظة البصرة/ جنوب العـراق هي (F1) Aspergillus candidus و (F2) Trichoderma horzianum و (F3) Penicillium digitatum ، تم تلقيح مجموعة من الترب الملقحة بسماد السوبر فوسفات ومجموعة أخرى بصخر الفوسفات بما يعادل 40 ملغم/كغم تربة تم معاملة نبات الذرة الصفراء بكلا النوعين من الأسمدة بعد الزراعة بأصص وتم حصاد النبات بعد خمسين يوماً من الانبات . جففت النباتات في درجة حرارة 70مْ وسجل الوزن الجاف لها . طحنت عينات من النباتات وتم تقدير الفوسفور الكلي في الجزء الخضري للنبات . حسبت كمية الفوسفور الممتصة في النباتات . تم تقدير كمية الفوسفور الجاهزة في ترب الدراسة بعد حصاد النباتات .أظهرت نتائج البحث ان التلقيح بالفطريات المذيبة للفوسفات ادى الى زيادة معنوية في كمية الفوسفور الجاهزة بالتربة وكمية الفوسفور الممتصة في النباتات مقارنة بالترب غير الملقحة ، كما أظهرت النتائج تفوق الفطر F1 على باقي الفطريات المستعملة وعند المعاملات جميعها .


Article
A clinical study of the anti–caries effect of 1.23% and 0.4% APF fluoride gel on primary dentition: One year follow–up

Authors: Tarik Y Khamrco --- Layla A Makani --- Karam H Jazrawi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2006 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 186-193
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the efficacy of acidulated phosphate fluoride (APF) gel in reducing cariesincrement in a group of pre–school children in Mosul City, and to compare between the anti–carieseffect of two different concentrations (full strength–1.23% and half strength–0.4%) after one year ofbi–annual application of the gel. Materials and Methods: The sample consisted of 363 kindergartenchildren [192 (52.89%) males and 171 (47.11%) females] aged 4 years –at the initial examination–from 10 randomly selected kindergartens in Mosul City Center. The sample was divided into twoexperimental groups and one control group. Children in the first group received bi–annual applicationof full strength (1.23%) APF gel; those in the second group received bi–annual application of halfstrength (0.4%) APF gel, whereas those in the third group did not receive any fluoride treatment.Dental examinations were done according to WHO criteria using dmft and dmfs indices: One beforefluoride application and the other after one year. Results: A significant reduction in dental cariesincrement of the two experimental groups compared with the control group regarding dmft and dmfsindices. The percentage of caries reduction regarding dmft and dmfs indices were 97.25% and 101.15%for the first group, and 95.94% and 85.33% for the second group, respectively. However, thedifferences between the two concentrations were statistically not significant, although children in thefirst group who received the full strength fluoride application revealed slightly better reduction incaries increment than those in the second group who received the half strength fluoride application.Therefore, to decrease the risk of ingesting a highly concentrated fluoride gel, the use of the lowerconcentration APF gel is recommended. Conclusion: The use of such a program involvingprofessional APF gel application for pre–school children is advised especially for those with evidenceof dental caries.

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