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Article
Aflatoxin B1-Induced Kidney Damage in Rats

Authors: Hayder Hammadi Abdul-Ameer --- Akram Abood Jaffar --- May Fadhil Majid Al-Habib
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 147-150
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) is a widely distributed mycotoxin in nature. Several investigations have shown its biological effects on different organs and in different animal species. However, the effects of AFB1 on the rat kidney have not been much elucidated histologically. Objective: This study aims to demonstrate the effects of AFB1 contaminated diet on the rat kidney from the histological and morphometric aspects. Method: Twelve mature albino rats were divided equally into a control group fed with usual diet and a treated group which was daily fed with diet contaminated with 20 mg AFB1/kg of body weight for 30 days. Semithin sections from renal cortex were stained with methylene blue and examined by light microscopy. Corpuscular changes were also detected morphometrically in terms of the ratio between the area of Bowman’s capsule and the area of its contained glomerulus (B/G ratio). Results: The treated group showed a marked increase in body weight. Histologically, there was evidence of acute tubular necrosis and increase in urinary space. Morphometrically, there was a diffuse significant increase in the B/G ratio compared to the control. Conclusion: Gain in weight can be attributed to fluid retention that accompanies the ensuing renal damage. The dietary dose of AFB1 (20 mg/kg of body weight) for 30 days was sufficient to produce acute tubular necrosis. The corpuscular changes indicated by the increase in the B/G ratio can be attributed to compensatory hypertrophy.

Keywords

Aflatoxin --- Kidney --- Rat --- Morphometry


Article
Correlation between the conventional, routine histological grading of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and morphometric analysis

Authors: Hassanain A.J Al-Obaidi --- Zainab A.J. Al-Obaidi
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2007 Volume: 49 Issue: 1 Pages: 107-110
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder is one of the important malignancies in both sex groups .It is considered as a heterogenous neoplasm with different biological behavior, in which the majority are early non invasive with tendency for recurrence and some may progress to invasive tumor. An important clinicopathological features are ,the tumor stage and histological grade which are used as prognostic parameters of the tumor and play an important role in therapy. Due to the subjectivity of the histological grading , the reproducibility was low . Many studies showed the value of quantitative analysis of the tumor as an important method in determining the recurrence of the tumor and muscular invasion, some other studies showed the value of nuclear measurement as a prognostic tool for bladder carcinoma. Aim of the study: To evaluate the benefit of nuclear image analysis as an objective method for grading of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder and compare it with the subjective routine histological grading. Material and method: Sixty two cases of transitional cell carcinoma of the urinary bladder, histologically diagnosed and graded according to WHO grading system ,were selected . In each case 8-10 HPF were examined &10-20consecutive cells were studied, also we measured the largest 10 nuclei for each case separately by a computerized image analysis system at x400 magnification. Nuclear area and roundness were determined. Statistical analysis was performed using the analysis of variance and Tukey’s test (HSD). Results: There was no statistical difference in the mean value of nuclear roundness between the three grades (P<0.05), while there was a statistical difference between grade I&III of their mean nuclear area (MNA) &MNA of the largest 10 nuclei (P<0.05). No such difference was found between grade I&II or grade II&III (P<0.05). Conclusion: Morphometric analysis should be based on the selection of special areas and not by random measurement as done on routine histological grading.


Article
THE VALUE OF NUCLEAR MORPHOMETRY IN BREAST CARCINOMA
أهمية الدراسة الشكلية للنواة في سرطان الثدي

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Abstract

Background: Breast carcinoma is the most important malignant tumor in female population. There are many indications for the use of adjuvant chemotherapy in its treatment, which need a special selection of patients especially those with high risk &this is judged by several prognostic parameters such as patient’s age, tumor size, histological grade and others. Nuclear morphometry has shown to be a good objective, quantitative method for the evaluation of prognosis, in which the Mean Nuclear Area &Standard Deviation of Nuclear Area showed an increase from the baseline value of normal breast epithelium to invasive carcinoma &found to be strongly correlated with the recurrence rate within 2.5 years.Objective:To evaluate some prognostic parameters of breast carcinoma by the use of computerized nuclear morphometry.Material &Methods: Fifty-four cases of a histologically diagnosed invasive breast carcinoma of ductal type with a known tumor grade, size &patient’s age were reviewed. In each case an average of 5-10 microscopical fields were screened &30 consecutive nuclei were determined at x400 magnification by the use of an image analysis system. Statistical analysis was performed using ANOVA, Tukey’s and t-test. Results: The mean values of nuclear area varied between the three histological grades (grade I, II and III) by using analysis of variance (p>0.01). These values increased with increasing histological grade, (Tukey’s test: p>0.01). Similarly the mean values of nuclear area were significantly higher in tumors measuring more than 5cm in diameter than those less than 5cm in diameter. (t-test :p>0.01). On the other hand, the nuclear area in tumors of patients less than 50 years and more than 50 years of age showed no significant difference. (t-test: p<0.01)Conclusions: The Mean Nuclear Area was of value in the assessment of the histological grade, in which higher figures seen in higher grades. The same relationship found between tumors more than 5cm and those less than 5cm in diameter, in which higher values seen in tumors more than 5cm in diameter. On the contrary the importance of the Mean Nuclear Area was restricted when comparing tumors in patients less than 50 years and those more than 50 years of age. In conclusion our data suggest that adapting a nuclear morphometric parameter e.g. nuclear area, which was performed on this study, may be a valuable objective tool in evaluating various prognostic indices. Keywords: Breast carcinoma, nuclear morphometry , and prognosis.

خلفية الدراسة: يعتبر سرطان الثدي من أهم الأورام الخبيثة لدى الإناث. وهناك دلائل عديدة لاستعمال العلاج الكيميائي المساعد في حالات سرطان الثدي و الذي يحتاج إلى اختيار دقيق للمرضى, خصوصا للذين هم بحاجة شديدة إليه.ويعتمد اختيار المرضى على عوامل تكهنية عديدة , مثل عمر المريضة , حجم الورم ,درجة خبث الورم وعوامل أخرى , وتعتبر طريقة القياس الشكلي للنواة وسيلة موضوعية وكمية لتقييم العوامل التكهنية للورم , حيث اظهر فحص مساحة النواة زيادة واضحة عند قياسها في خلايا الثدي الطبيعية ومقارنتها بالخلايا السرطانية.ولوحظ إن هذه القياسات لها علاقة متبادلة بسرعة معاودة الورم خلال سنتين ونصف من تشخيصه.هدف الدراسة: تقييم بعض العوامل التكهنية لسرطان الثدي عن طريق القياس الشكلي للنواة بواسطة الحاسوب.المواد وطرق إجراء الدراسة: تم إعادة فحص أربعة و خمسون حالة لسرطان الثدي القنوي( مشخصة من قبل أخصائي النسيج المرضي ) والمعروف حجمه وتصنيفه النسيجي وعمر المريضة أثناء التشخيص. في كل حالة تم فحص 5-10 مقاطع مجهريه وفي كل مقطع تم قياس مساحة 30 نواة باستعمال جهاز التحليل الشكلي تحت تكبير x400. النتائج: أظهرت التحريات وجود فروق مهمة إحصائيا عند قياس مساحة النواة بين درجات التمايز الثلاثة( p>0.01 (. وكذلك بالنسبة للأورام البالغ قطرها 5 سم, حيث ظهرت قيم مساحة النواة أعلى من قيمها في الأورام التي يبلغ قطرها اقل من 5 سم (p>0.01 ). في حين لم يكن هناك اختلاف إحصائي واضح في مساحة النواة للأورام عند المرضى اكبر من 50 عام أو اقل من 50 عام (p< 0.01).الاستنتاج: إن دراسة التحليل الشكلي للنواة, كاستعمال متغير مساحة النواة قد يكون ذات فائدة موضوعية عند تقييم العديد من العوامل التكهنية لسرطان الثدي.مفتاح الكلمات: القياس الشكلي للنواة , العوامل التكهنية , سرطان الثدي.

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