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Article
The Delay in Diagnosis and Treatment of Pulmonary Tuber culosis in AL-Anbar Province
التاخر في تشخيص وعلاج مرض التدرن الرئوي في محافظة الانبار

Authors: Mohammed J.Kadhim محمد جواد --- Najla`a F.Jamil نجلاء فوزي --- Abid AL- Hakeem K.Latef عبدالحكيم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2007 Volume: 20 Issue: 4 Pages: 446-452
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractAim: The current work was conducted aiming to determine the patients delay, doctor delay and treatment delay among patients with pulmonary TB and to detect the effect of some socio demographic factors on delay in diagnosis and treatment.Patients & method: Across sectional study was carried out in AL-Anbar province (AL-Anbar center for chest diseases and tuberculosis), for the period from the 1st of October 2003 to the 30th of May 2004. The study depends on inter view questionnaire of newly diagnosed pulmonary TB. (PTB)Results: Patients’ delay: Mean 67.26 + 31.04 days. Doctor delay: Mean 39.71 +24.42 days. Total delay: Mean 106.97 + 51.97 days.Conclusion: There was a delay in diagnosis of PTB both patients and doctors delay, but there was no delay in treatment.

الملخص:الهدف: الغرض من الدراسة الحالية هو معرفة مدة التخر في تشخيص وعلاج مرض التدرن الرئوي وكذلك معرفة تأثير بعض العوامل الاجتماعية والديموغرافية علة التاخر في التشخيص والعلاج0طريقة اجراء البحث: اجريت هذه الدراسة المقطعية في محافظة الانبار( مركز الامراض الصدرية والتدرن) للفترة من تشرين الاول 2003 الى نهاية ايار 2004, اعتمدت الدراسة على مقابلة المرضى المشخصين حديثا بمرض التدرن الرئوي0النتائج: التاخر بسبب المريض المعدل 26, 67 يوما (7-240) يوما بسبب المؤسسات الصحية المعدل 39,71 يوما(7-210) يوما التاخر الكلي المعدل 106,97 يوما+ (51,97) يوماالاستنتاج: كان هناك تاخر في تشخيص المرض( بسبب المريض والمؤسسات الصحية) ولكن لم يكن هناك اي تاخير في اعطاء العلاج المناسب بعد التشخيص مباشرة

Keywords

delay --- diagnosis --- treatment --- PTB


Article
Dental caries and treatment needs of primary and permanent dentition for children attending pedodontics clinic.

Author: Khawla M Saleh
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 80-87
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine the prevalence of dental caries in primary and permanent dentition (dmft, DMFT) and to investigate the reason for seeking dental treatment and the type of treatment carried out for children. Material and Method: The study includes (1178) case sheets which represent the total number of children attending the Pedodontics Department during the academic year of (2004 – 2005). The WHO methodology was used to assess the individual tooth status. Results: Indicated that the highest percentage group of attends was 11–12 years group, and the children attended to clinic seeking treatment for painful condition had higher percentage (60.10 %). The DMFT for the total sample was 2.68% and increased with increasing age with a statistically significant age differences, the percentage of caries free children for total sample was 10.3 %, while mean dmft for primary dentition was 3.05% and increasing from the first age group till the third age group and then decreased till the last age with no gender variation. Conclusions: The priority of dental health services for children attending Pedodontic clinic is primary prevention (fluoride application, scaling and polishing) followed by tertiary prevention (extraction) and then secondary prevention as a totally (amalgum, light cure and root canal filling).


Article
Features of Spot-Matrix Surface Hardening of Low-Carbon Steel Using Pulsed Laser
خصائص التصليد السطحي بنمط المصفوفة النقطية للفولاذ منخفض الكاربون باستخدام الليزر النبضي

Authors: Khawla S. Khashan --- Oday A. Hamadi
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2007 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 168-175
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

In this work, results of spot hardening in low-carbon steel by using a pulsedNd:YAG laser are presented. These results include determination ofhardening depth, diameter of hardened spot, aspect ratio and heat-affectedzone width with varying laser energy density. In order to determine the effectof irradiation profile on the overall achievable hardness, the profiles ofoverlapping, adjacent and separated hardened spots are compared and thepercent coverage of the workpiece as a function of the laser-hardened spotdimensions.

في هذا البحث، جرى تقديم نتائج عملية لتصليد عينات من الفولاذ منخفض الكاربون بالنمطالنقطي باستخدام ليزر النيدميوم -ياك النبضي . تضمنت هذه النتائج تحديد عمق التص ليد وقطرالبقعة المصلدة والنسبة الباعية وعرض المنطقة المتأثرة حرارياً كدالة لتغير كثافة طاقة الليزر.ومن أجل التعرف على تأثير نمط التشعيع على الصلادة الإجمالية للسطح والتي يمكن تحقيقها،جرى مقارنة الأنماط المحتملة لاستخدام الليزر النبضي في التصليد وهي نمط التراكب ونمطالبقع المتجاورة ونمط البقع المنفصلة، كما جرى تحديد النسبة المئوية لتغطية سطح العينةكدالة لأبعاد البقعة المصلدة بالليزر


Article
Performance of Pulsator Clarifier (Low Turbidity)

Authors: Salam K. Al-Dawery --- Raad M. Hussain --- Kadhem M. Shibeeb
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2007 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 9-17
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Experimental and theoretical investigations are presented on flocculation process in pulsator clarifier. Experimental system was designed to study the factors that affecting the performance of pulsator clarifier. These factors were water level in vacuum chamber which range from 60 to 150 cm, rising time of water in vacuum chamber which having times of 20, 30 & 40 seconds, and sludge blanket height which having heights of 20, 30 & 40 cm. The turbidity and pH of raw water used were 200 NTU and 8.13 respectively. According to the jar test, the alum dose required for this turbidity was 20 mg/l. The performance parameters of pulsator clarifier such as, turbidity, total solids TS, shear rate, volume concentration of sludge blanket and the flocculation criteria were studied. It was observed that by decreasing the water level in vacuum tube and by increasing the rising time and sludge blanket height, low turbidity of output water attained. Moreover, flocculation criteria value GCt was within the optimum range values (100-500). A theoretical models was applied for total solids TS of output water. The difference between experimental and theoretical data was ranged between (11-24)% of mean deviation at water level range of (125-150) cm and sludge blanket height 20 cm.


Article
Asymptomatic Faulty Endodontic Treatment ( Radiological and Clinical Assay)

Authors: Anas A Mohammad --- Sawsan H Al–Jubori --- Lamia T Rejab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2007 Volume: 7 Issue: 3 Pages: S35-S40
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aim: The aim of this study is radiological assay of at least two years period of clinically asymptomatic faulty endodontic treatment among the patients sex and treated teeth location. Materials and Methods: A total of 447 individuals (20–60y age) from both sexes were selected, they had history of endodontic treatment for at least two years ago. They were clinically asymptomatic and radiographic examination showed they had faulty endodontic treatment. Radiographic examinations in this study was intraoral periapical projection, used bisecting angle technique, used dental x–ray machine, periapical film. Special chart was prepared for this study. The faulty endodontic treatments were radiographically categorized as under–filling, overfilling, missing root canal, perforations of the root canal, and fractured or separated instrument in the root canal. Statistically frequency distributions calculated. Chi–square test was used to calculate significance difference with the level of p < 0.05. Results: The results showed that the under–filling had the highest percentage of the faulty endodontic treatment and the females had a higher percentage than that of the males, and the posterior teeth had a higher percentage than that of the anterior teeth. Conclusion: Faulty endodontic treatment is not the direct cause of the signs and symptoms of endodontic treatment failure, there are no significant differences of the faulty endodontic treatment among the patients sex, but there is a significant difference among the location of the treated teeth.


Article
Influence of Heat Treatment Conditions on Microstructure of Ti- 6Al-7Nb Alloy As Used Surgical Implant Materials

Authors: Abdulsalam K. Swadi --- Thair L. Alzubaydi --- Sami Abualnoun Ajeel
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2007 Volume: 25 Issue: suppl.of No.3 Pages: 431-442
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The study involves mechanical deformation and heat treatment effect onthe microstructure of the Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy which is used as surgical implantedmaterials. The observed properties of (alpha-beta) Ti-based alloy are stronglydependent on their microstructures. These alloys are heat treated by solutiontreatment and aging (STA) as an effective strengthening method for (alphabeta)titanium alloys.Ti-6Al-7Nb alloy is hot rolled in the (alpha-beta) field and subjectedto solution treatment above and below its beta transformation temperature.The solution treatments are applied at three different temperatures (850oC,930oC and 950oC) for one hour to these treatments. The solution treatmentspecimens are water quenched (WQ), normalizing [air cooled (AC) andannealed,[ furnace cooled(FC)] and subsequently aged the quenched andnormalized specimens at 550oC for 4 hours.Changes in the microstructure were observed from heat treatmentaction using optical microscopy, Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy (AAS) andphases analysis by X-ray diffraction (XRD). The microstructure examinationresults for as received alloy indicate alpha grains within a b- transformedmatrix. The results also indicate that the grain size and percent of a /b for theheat treated specimens depend on heat treatment type and cooling media. Themicrostructure of specimens heat treated at 950oC with air cooled shows fineduplex (a /b) structures which have excellent properties for surgicalimplanted field applications.

تتضمن الدراسة تأثير التشكيل الميكانيكي والمعاملات الحراريه على التراكيب المجهريةالمستخدمة في الزوارع الجراحية. لوحظ بأن خواص سبيكة التيتانيوم (Ti-6Al-7Nb) لسبيكة) تعتمد بشدة على التراكيب المجهرية هذه. تعامل هذه السبائك بطريقة a / b ثنائية الطور (). يتم a / b المعاملة المحلولية والتعتيق كطريقة فعالة لتقوية سبائك التيتانيوم ثنائية الطور (درفلة هذه السبيكة على الساخن في منطقة (الفا- بيتا) وتجري لها معاملة محلولية فوق وتحتدرجة حرارة تحول الطور بيتا.(o ٩٥٠ م , o ٩٣٠ م , o استخدمت المعاملة المحلولية بثلاث درجات حرارية هي ( ٨٥٠ موبزمن قدره ساعة واحدة لجميع تلك المعاملات . تبرد هذه السبيكة بعد المعاملات اعلاه بثلاثاوساط تبريد هي التبريد السريع (تبريد بالماء) ، والمعادلة (تبريد بالهواء) والتلدين (تبريدلمدة اربعة ساعات للنماذج التي o داخل الفرن). يتم بعدها اجراء عملية التعتيق عند ٥٥٠ متم تبريدها (بالماء والهواء).لوحظ حصول تغيرات في البنية المجهرية بفعل هذه المعاملات بأستخدام المجهرأظهرت .(XRD) الضوئي، طيف الامتصاص الذري وتحليل الاطوار بأستخدام حيود الاشعةنتائج الفحص الدقيق للسبيكة (كما استلمت) على حبيبات الفا في ارضية بيتا .تبين النتائج ايضاًان نسبة وحجم حبيبات الفا / حبيبات بيتا للنماذج التي عوملت حرارياً بأنها تعتمد على نوعتلك المعاملة ووسط التبريد. تشير نتائج البنية المجهرية لنماذج السبيكة المعاملة حرارياً عند) الذي يمتاز بأفضل الخواص a / b وتبريد بالهواء الى وجود تركيب مزدوج دقيق( o ٩٥٠ مالتطبيقية في مجال الزوارع الجراحية.


Article
Periodontal treatment needs among dental and non dental Iraqi students (A comparative study)

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Abstract

The direct relation between periodontal disease and the oral hygiene level on one hand and the level of education on the other hand were repeatedly proved throughout a large number of epidemiologic periodontal studies. Based on this fact, one can conclude that the periodontal treatment need among highly educated individuals (as university students) seems to be less than that of individuals with low educational level, but a question that may arise in this area is: Does the treatment need among dental students differ from that of their colleagues in other studies or not? The present research aimed at providing an answer for this question. Three hundreds university students (150 dental &150 non dental) were examined by using CPITN and the data were analyzed statistically. Results indicated that in general the periodontal treatment need was comparable between dental and non dental students in this social class. Results also indicated that programs aimed at improvement of oral hygiene of this social class may be applicable in our community, the matter that calls for full cooperation from the health authorities to carry out a national campaign directed toward this social class.


Article
Behavior Assessment Of Various Filters Configuration In Removing Water Low Turbidity: A Statistical Treatment
تقييم سلوكية مختلف أنواع المرشحات في إزالة العكورة الواطئة: معالجة إحصائية

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Abstract

Abstract The research focuses on the behavior of laboratory bench-scale filters that receive low-turbidity raw water. The filters have different configuration in terms of materials type, materials size and thickness. These filters operate under in-line and direct mode of filtration with different doses of alum and coagulant aid. A total of 200 filter runs were conducted. Statistical methods had been used in the determination of best configurations of tried filters. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) and Duncan multiple range test had been employed for this purpose. The results showed the superiority of filters operating under direct filtration mode compared to those of in-line filtration mode. It was thought that flocculation played a role in this result. Fine sand media of 0.56 mm E.S appeared to surpass the coarse media due to more trapping of impurities at pore spaces. The effect of coagulant aid addition was detected to act positively only with capping media filters, where an improvement in performance did occur. However, such improvement was low and did not justify importation of anthracite coal and coagulant aids and add an economic burden. Keywords: Filtration modes, Filtration, Water turbidity, Water treatment.

الخلاصة يركز البحث حول أداء مجموعة من المرشحات المختبرية في معالجة مياه قليلة العكورة. هذه المرشحات ذات اوساط مختلفة المواد والاعماق والاحجام المؤثرة . تعمل المرشحات بطريقتي الترشيح بالمسار والترشيح المباشر وتتغذى بجرع متغايرة التركيز من الشب ومساعدات التخثير. جرى تحليل النتائج احصائيا باتباع طريقة تحليل التباين واختبار دنكن بقصد تحديد أفضل تركيبة من هذه المرشحات. وقد أظهرت النتائج تفوق المرشحات العاملة بطريقة الترشيح المباشر على نظيرتها العاملة بطريقة الترشيح بالمسار، ويعتقد ان لعملية التلبيد في الترشيح المباشر دورا مهما في هذا التفوق . كما وجد ان المرشحات المتكونة من أوساط من الرمل ذي الحجم المؤثر (0.56) ملم أظهرت كفاءة أفضل من مرشحات الرمل ذات الحجم المؤثر الأكبر وهذا يعود الى تاثير حجم الفراغات بين حبيبات الرمل في اقتناص المزيد من الشوائب. كما وجد ان استخدام مساعدات التخثير يفيد فقط في حالة استخدام مرشحات ثنائية الوسط إذ تتحسن أداء المرشحات في إزالة العكورة. وبنفس الوقت فان استخدام الأنثراسيت أو مساعدات التخثُير لا يبرر استيراد هاتين المادتين لان الفرق ضئيل في مدى التحسن الحاصل في كفاءة الازالة.


Article
The CV Phonological Treatment of Consonantal Gemination in Arabic

Author: Majid Abdulatif Ibrahim ماجد عبد اللطيف ابراهيم
Journal: ADAB AL-BASRAH آداب البصرة ISSN: 18148212 Year: 2007 Issue: 42 Pages: 10-30
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة


Article
Performance of Dual-Media Down-Flow Rapid Gravity Filters

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Abstract

The present study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variation of influent raw water turbidity, bed composition, and filtration rate on the performance of mono (sand) and dual media (sand and anthracite) rapid gravity filters in response to the effluent filtered water turbidity and head loss development. In order to evaluate each filter performance, sieve analysis was made to characterize both media and to determine the effective size and uniformity coefficient. Effluent filtered water turbidity and the head loss development was recorded with time during each experiment.

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