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Article
Natural fluoride Content of Drinking Water in Two District Areas in Iraq and Yemen (A comparative study).

Authors: May Gh Al–Ajrab --- Faraed D Salman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 90-103
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: To determine and compare the prevalence and severity of dental fluorosis in two district areas: Iraq and Yemen, in relation to age and sex for students aged 13–16 years old. Materials and methods: the study was conducted among 904 students of both countries. Five hundred and seventy two students from Iraq (Sinjar province): 334 males and 238 females. Three hundred and thirty two students: 173 males and 159 females, from Yemen (Thamar province); aged 13–16 years old were randomly selected from intermediate and secondary schools who had lived since birth in two different areas with concentration of fluoride in drinking water. Sinjar with high concentration (2.05–2.22 ppm), Thamar with moderate concentration (1.8–2.2 ppm) by the use of Dean index (1934) to assess dental fluorosis. Results: the study had shown that the prevalence of dental flourosis in Sinjar province was 52.1%, 63.53% within students and teeth respectively was much higher than Thamar province which was 16.99%, 30.23% within students and teeth respectively; ranging from questionable, very mild forms for all age groups, while for Thamar it was ranging from very mild to moderate with significant sex difference for individuals (females reported less prevalence than males) for both provinces for the first three degrees of flourosis at P<0.001, P< 0.05. The percent age of severity for Sinjar was much higher than Thamar province which increased significantly with increasing age at P<0.001, P<0.01,and P< 0.05. Also the distribution of severity of frequency was much higher in Sinjar than Thamar with highest percentage in upper and lower posterior teeth (75%, 72%) at P<0.001. The community flourosis index for Sinjar was 1.62 (moderate) while for Thamar province was 3.05 for these age groups (very marked). Conclusions: prevalence of dental flourosis increased infrequently with age in Sinjar while systematically in Thamar with sex difference (females reported less percentage than males).


Article
Analysis of Radon Concentrations in Drinking Water in Erbil Governorate (Iraqi Kurdistan) and its Health Effects
تحليل تركيز غاز الرادون في مياه الصلح للشرب في محافظة أربيل وتأثيراتها الصحية

Author: Asaad Hamid Ismail اسعد حميد اسماعيل
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2008 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This paper presents the results of radon level in drinking water in Erbil governorate and its districts. The measurements were carried out on 42 samples (tap water) of 21 major areas, and alpha track detectors (type CR-39) were used for the estimations. The average values for radon concentration of tap water were variable from the district to another, and it was found to be (4.693±2.213 Bq/l) with a maximum of 9.61Bq/L in Hugran region and minimum of 2.01 Bq/L in Haji-Omaran city. In addition, the average annual effective doses, and equilibrium factor between radon and its daughter were measured in each area and it was found to be (11.546±8.566 µSv/Yr) and (0.204±0.06) respectively. On the other hand, this paper presents an evaluation of the inhalation and ingestion doses from exposure to radon and also the contribution of radon concentration in drinking water to indoor radon concentration was estimated. When the results were compared with the internationally recommended reference levels (U.S Environmental Protection Agency limit 11.1 Bq/l), there were no indications of existence of radon problems in the water sources in this survey. therefore the drinking water in Erbil governorate is safe as far as radon concentration is concerned.

تُقدّمُ هذا البحث نتائج مستوى غاز الرادون في الماء الصالح للشرب في محافظةِ أربيل ومناطقها( الاقضية والنواحى) . اخذت المقاييس من 42 عينةِ من ماء الحنفيةِ في 21 منطقةِ ، حيث استخدمت كواشف الاثر النووي الصلب من نوع CR-39 للتخمينات .معدل القيم لتركيز غاز الرادون في مياه الحنفية كَانتْ تتغيّرة مِنْ منطقةِ(اقضية ونواحي) إلى أخرى، وقد وجدت تساوى (Bq/l 2.213±4.693), مَع حَدّ أعلى (Bq/l 9.61) في منطقةِ حجران , وحَدّ أدنى (Bq/l 2.01 ) في مدينة حاج عمران. اضافة الى ذالك, متوسطة الجُرَع الفعّالة السنوية وعامل موازنةِ بين الرادون ووليداتها قيس في كل مساحة (منطقة دراسية) ووُجِدَا تساوي (µSv/Yr 8.566±11.546) و(0.204 ±0.06) على التوالي. من ناحية الأخرى، هذا البحث تقدم تقييمَ الجُرَعِ المبتلعة والمستنشقة نتيجة التعرض الى غاز الرادون ,وكذلك تخمين مساهمة تركيز الردون في مياه الشرب في زيادة تركيز الرادون داخلى(Indoor radon). وعندما قورنت النَتائِج بمستويات الموصّى بهاِ دولياً (وكالةِ حمايةِ البيئيِ الامريكى حدد ب11.1 Bq/l)ليس هناك علامات وجود مشاكل غاز الرادون في مصادر المياه في هذا السرد. لذا المياه الصالح للشرب في محافظةِ أربيل سالمة بقدر ما تعني بتركيز عاز الرادون .

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