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Article
Lipid Profile and Menopausal Status

Authors: Ahlam Disher --- Lamia M. Al - Naama --- Fouad Hamad Al - Dahhan
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2008 Volume: 4 Issue: 2 Pages: 8-12
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Dyslipidemia is a major cause of cardiovascular disease, which in turn, is the most common cause of female morbidity and mortality. Postmenopausal women (natural and surgical) are at higher risk of developing cardiovascular disease, especially coronary artery atherosclerosis.
Objective: To observe the relationship between blood lipids: total cholesterol (TC), high density lipoprotein-cholesterol (HDL-C), low density lipoprotein-cholesterol (LDL-C), triglycerides (TGs), and very low density lipoprotein- cholesterol (VLDL-C), LDL-C/ HDL-C ratio (atherogenic index) and menopausal status, and to determine the co-factors that may explain this relationship
Methods: A prospective, cross-sectional study, which includes 279 women, age range from 35-55 years agreed to participate in this study. They were divided into 4 groups according to their menopausal status. These were pre-, peri post- natural and surgical post- menopausal. Data were collected from participants in a pre-coded questionnaire and an overnight fasting blood sample was collected for biochemical analysis.
Results: Postmenopausal women had higher levels of lipids than pre or peri-menopausal. TC concentration and LDL-cholesterol levels were higher in natural and surgical menopause than in pre and pri-menopausal women (p<0.01 and p<0.05 respectively). While LDL/HDL-C ratio (atherogenic index) were higher in the surgical postmenopausal women than in pre-menopausal group (p<0.05). No significant inter-group differences were found in HDL-C. Triglycerides, and VLDL levels were higher in surgical menopause group than in both pre- and peri-menopause groups (p<0.05). No significant differences were demonstrated in pre-, peri-, and natural menopausal women with regard to triglyceride and VLDL levels and LDL/HDL-C ratio.
Conclusion: Dyslipidemia is more frequent among women with natural and surgical menopause groups than in the other groups. This makes those women more susceptible to CVD. Certain co factors appear to have direct associations with lipid levels in each group and those were discussed.
KeyWords: Menapause, Lipid profile

Keywords

menapause --- lipid profile


Article
Leptin in Goitrous patients

Authors: Feryal Hashim Rada --- Nahla Al-Sakkal --- Abdul-Karim Yahia
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 33-35
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum Leptin levels and metabolic syndrome, in (obese, non obese) control subjects, untreated hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients.Methods: A study was made on 63 goitrous patients and 25 control subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Serum T3, T4, TSH were measured by RIA method, serum lipid profile was measured by spectrophotometric method, serum Leptin was measured by ELISA method.Results: The mean serum Leptin level was significantly higher in obese than in non obese control subjects (29.1 vs. 5.8 ngm / ml) and higher in hypothyroid patients (27.9 ngm /ml), and lowest levels in hyperthyroid patients (3.4 ngm /ml). Conclusion: Leptin reduce body weight by decreasing food intake (appetite), fat deposition and increasing energy expenditure. Serum Leptin is highly correlated with the body mass index (BMI), other indices of adiposity (lipid profile) in normal obese human and hypothyroid patients.


Article
BIOLOGICAL AND ANALYTICAL VARIATION OF SERUM LIPID PROFILE
التباين البايولوجي والتحليلى لشحوم مصل الدم

Authors: SABA K. SALEH صبا صالح --- WAAD-ALLAH S. MULA-ABED وعدالله ملا عبد
Journal: Duhok Medical Journal مجلة دهوك الطبية ISSN: ISSN: 20717334 (online)/ ISSN: 20717326 (Print) Year: 2008 Volume: 2 Issue: 1 Pages: 41-53
Publisher: University of Dohuk جامعة دهوك

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Abstract

Background Dyslipidaemia is a major risk factor for coronary heart disease which can be assessed by measuring serum lipid profile. Biological variation has an important effect on the interpretation of all laboratory investigations, including lipid profile. Objectives To define the biological and analytical components of variation for the different parameters of serum lipid profile. Methods The present study was conducted in Mosul City in northern Iraq, from 1st February to 30th April 2004. Fasting venous blood was collected from each of 10 apparently healthy volunteers (6 men and 4 women, aged 22-40 years), at 8-10 am following an overnight fast, at intervals of one week for 10 weeks. Sera were separated and stored frozen, in duplicate. Measurement and calculation of the different components of serum lipid profile were made including: triglycerides (TG), total cholesterol, HDL-C, LDL-C and ratios of total cholesterol: HDL-C, LDL-C: HDL-C and TG: HDL-C. Results The intra-individual (CVI) and inter-individual (CVG) variation were 21% and 37% for TG, 7.5% and 16.7% for total cholesterol, 11.2% and 24.5% for HDL-C, 13.7% and 28.3% for LDL-C, 13.1% and 25.4% for total cholesterol: HDL-C, 25.9% and 34.7% for LDL-C: HDL-C, and 27.2% and 40.7% for TG: HDL-C respectively. The indices of individuality, as reflected by CVI/CVG, for these parameters were all <1.0 (0.57 for TG, 0.45 for total cholesterol, 0.46 for HDL-C, 0.48 for LDL-C, 0.52 for total cholesterol: HDL-C, 0.95 for LDL-C: HDL-C and 0.85 for TG: HDL-C). The analytical goals for imprecision, as reflected by analytical variation (CVA), was 6.3% for TG, 4.0% for total cholesterol, 5.2% for HDL-C, 7.8% for LDL-C, 5.8% for total cholesterol: HDL-C, 5.7% for LDL-C: HDL-C and 5.9% for TG: HDL-C. The critical difference calculated as 2.77(CVA2+ CVI2)1/2 was 60.7% for TG, 23.5% for total cholesterol, 34.2% for HDL-C, 43.6% for LDL-C, 39.7% for total cholesterol: HDL-C, 73.3% for LDL-C: HDL-C and 97.5% for TG: HDL-C. Conclusion The biological and analytical components of variation showed marked individuality. This together with the index of individuality supports the limited usefulness of using the conventional population-based reference range for interpretive criteria. The critical differences also confirm that single determination of lipid profile may have limited value in screening purpose.

خلفية البحث: يعتبر اضطراب شحوم الدم من عوامل الاختطار للاصابة بمرض القلب الاكليلي، وقد يتأثر قياس شحوم مصل الدم، شأنها شأن الفحوصات المختبرية الاخرى، بالتباين البايولوجي الذي يجب الانتباه اليه عند تفسير النتائج. الأهداف: تعريف مكونات التباين البايولوجي والتحليلى للقيم المختلفه لشحوم الدمالمنهجية: أجريت الدراسة خلال الفترة من 1/2 لغاية 30/4/2004، تم اخذعينة دم وريدى من كل من المتطوعين الاصحاء العشرة (6 ذكور و4 إناث بأعمار 22-40 سنة) أسبوعيا ولمدة عشرة أسابيع. جمعت نماذج الدم فى الساعه 8-10 ق. ظ في حالة الصوم من كافة المتطوعين في الدراسة. تم فصل المصول وحفظت مجمده بشكل مزدوج لحين اجراء التحليل. اجرى قياس وحساب المكونات المختلفه لشحوم مصل الدم التي شملت ثلاثي الغليسريد، الكولسترول الكلي، الكولسترول رفيع الكثافة، الكولسترول خفيض الكثافة، وكذلك نسب الكولسترول/ الكولسترول رفيع الكثافة، الكولسترول خفيض الكثافة / الكولسترول رفيع الكثافة و ثلاثي الغليسريد/الكولسترول رفيع الكثافة. النتائج: كانت قيم الاختلاف البايولوجي داخل وبين الأفراد 21% و 37% لثلاثي الغليسريد، 7.5% و 16.7% للكولسترول الكلي، 11.2% و 24.5% للكولسترول رفيع الكثافة، 13.7% و 28.3% للكولسترول خفيض الكثافة، و13.1% و 25.4% لنسبة الكولسترولالكولسترول رفيع الكثافة على التوالى. أما نسبة الاختلاف داخل الفرد / الاختلاف بين الأفراد "عامل الفردية" لهذه القيم فكانت اقل من 0.6 مما يقلل من أهمية اعتماد المجالات المرجعية التقليدية وربما يعطي استخدامها دلائل خاطئة عند الرجوع إليها في تفسير النتائج. كانت دلائل الاختلاف التحليلي لمكونات شحوم الدم مقبولة حيث كانت قيمها 6.3% لثلاثي الغليسريد، 4% للكولسترول الكلي، 5.2% للكولسترول رفيع الكثافة، 7.8% للكولسترول خفيض الكثافة، و5.8% لنسبة الكولسترول:الكولسترول رفيع الكثافة. أما الفروقات الحرجة المعتمدة على الاختلاف البايولوجي داخل الفرد والاختلاف التحليلي فكانت 60.7% لثلاثي الغليسريد، 23.5% للكولسترول الكلي، 34.2% للكولسترول رفيع الكثافة، 43.6% للكولسترول خفيض الكثافة، و39.7% لنسبة الكولسترولالكولسترول رفيع الكثافة.الاستنتاج: أظهرت الدراسة أن لمكونات التباين البايولوجي والتحليلي لشحوم مصل الدم فوارق واضحة بين الأفراد مما يؤيد محدودية فائدة استخدام المجالات المرجعية التقليدية وان الفروقات الحرجة أيدت بأن الفحوصات المفرده لشحوم الدم ذات دلالة محدودة في الدراسات المسحية.

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