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Article
Hyperprolactinaemia: when MRI is indicated?

Authors: Wasan I. Majeed --- Mohammed Abd Kadhim
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 59-64
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Design: This prospective study was carried out at the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) unit at the department of diagnostic imaging of Al-Kadhmiya Teaching Hospital over a period of 26 months. Objective: To establish a strategy for the use of MRI of the pituitary region in patients with hyperprolactinaemia based on the possibility of finding a pathology in the pituitary region as a cause of hyperprolactinaemia with respect to serum prolactin (PRL) as well as the analysis of serum PRL in relation to the size of adenoma in the pre & post medical treatment evaluation to determine the need for MRI in the follow up in patients with pituitary adenoma. Subjects & Methods: We selected 69 women recently found to have clinical & biochemical evidence of hyperprolactinaemia with serum PRL exceeding the double the upper normal level of the control. MRI of the pituitary region & serum PRL were assessed at the initial presentation for all patients & after the institution of bromocriptine (BRC) treatment for 28 patients who were shown to have either micro or macroadenomas at the initial MRI. The diameter of the adenoma served as a predictor for its size & was considered for correlation with serum PRL level at the follow up period of 3 , 6 & 12 months of treatment. Results: At the initial MRI, 27 patients had microadenomas (39.1%), 12 patients had macroadenomas (17.4%), 9 patients had empty sella turcica (13.1%), and 21 patients (30.4%) had no obvious abnormality in the pituitary region The analysis of individual serum PRL level to establish a cut-off point of serum PRL above which all cases were positive for a pathology in the pituitary region on MR imaging, revealed a cut-off value = 84.6 ng/ml. A strong correlation has been found between the size of adenoma and serum PRL level at the initial presentation as well as at the follow up assessment that revealed a parallel reduction in adenoma diameter & serum PRL level. Conclusion: MRI of the pituitary region is justifiable in women with hyper-prolactinaemia when serum PRL level is approximately two & a half folds of the upper normal level where its likely to reveal an abnormality , but it should not be used routinely for the follow up of patients on treatment as the assessment of serum PRL level will suffice as a predictor of tumor shrinkage unless there is no response to medical treatment or the patient developed new symptoms that suggest increase in the size of the adenoma or involvement of the surrounding structures.


Article
Orthodontic Treatment and Temporomandibular Joint Condylar Position Relationship with Disk Displacement (Magnetic Resonance Imaging Study)

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Abstract

Temporomandibular joint (TMJ) is a complex synovial articulation between the mandibular condyle and the glenoid fossa of temporal bone. The question of whether a relationship exists between orthodontic treatment, abnormal condyle and disk position, and temporomandibular disorders has been investigated for many years. Despite the abundance of studies, the question continues to trouble orthodontists.This study conducted to assess the relationship between orthodontic treatments, abnormal condyle and disk position, with temporomandibular disorders, and to study the disk- condyle relationship in term of presence or absence of anterior disk displacement. By mean of Magnetic Resonance Imaging a cross sectional investigation for the condyles of temporomandibular joints (TMJs) and disk position was conducted to 50 TMJs of 25 patients between 19-30 years of age who had undergone orthodontic treatment (by upper and lower fixed orthodontic appliances with extraction of maxillary first premolar only for treatment of class II division 1 malocclusion), and 50 TMJs of 25 patients who had not yet received orthodontic treatment from the same class and matched age group.The results of this study showed that 30% of pre-treatment group have anterior disk displacement in comparison to 26.0% of the post treatment group. The condyle position is more concentric in post treatment group than pre-treatment, and the position of the disk is not affected by orthodontic treatment. This conclude that condyle position of the TMJ may be affected by orthodontic treatment, but the disk position is not.


Article
Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) study of human quadriceps femoris muscle
التصوير بالرنين المغناطيسي (MRI) دراسة الإنسان عضلة الفخذ الرباعية الرؤوس

Authors: Abdul Jabbar Jameel --- Abdul Karim S. Mahood --- Sabah S. Hussein
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2008 Volume: 1 Issue: 141 Pages: 12-22
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

The skeletal system is composed of a variety of specialized forms of supporting connective tissues, responsible for the movement of the skeleton and organs such as the globe of the eye and the tongue. It is often referred to as voluntary muscle, since it is capable of voluntary(conscious)control. n this study the effect of age on the quadriceps femoris muscle was investigated using magnetic resonance imaging(MRI). Sixteen living individuals male were examined with (MRI), divided into four groups each of four cases, in order to detect the cross sectional area (CSA) of the quadriceps femoris at the middle right thigh. The age of groups were as follows; group (A) was from 25-34 years, group (B) was from 35-44 years, group (C) was from 45-55 years, and group (D) was ،ف 55 years. It has been found, a decrease in cross sectional area (CSA), of quadriceps femoris muscle with ageing, and found that the vastus lateralis muscle was considered as a surrogate muscle, which revealed more atrophy with ageing than other members of quadriceps femoris muscle

ويتألف نظام الهيكل العظمي من مجموعة متنوعة من أشكال متخصصة من الأنسجة الضامة دعم، مسؤولة عن حركة الهيكل العظمي والأجهزة مثل في العالم من العين واللسان. وغالبا ما يشار إليها باسم العضلات الطوعية، لأنه قادر على السيطرة (واع) طوعي. ن هذه الدراسة تم دراسة تأثير العمر على عضلة الفخذ الرباعية الرؤوس باستخدام التصوير بالرنين المغناطيسي (MRI). تم فحص ستة عشر ذكر الأفراد الذين يعيشون مع (MRI)، وتنقسم الى أربع مجموعات كل واحدة من أربع حالات، من أجل الكشف عن منطقة مقطعية (CSA) من الفخذ الرباعية الرؤوس في الفخذ اليمين الوسط. وكانت سن مجموعات على النحو التالي: المجموعة (أ) كان من 25-34 سنة، المجموعة (ب) كان من 35-44 سنة، المجموعة (ج) وكان 45-55 سنة، ومجموعة (D) وكان، ف 55 سنوات. وقد تم العثور عليها، انخفاضا في منطقة المقطعية (CSA)، من عضلة الفخذ الرباعية مع الشيخوخة، ووجدت أن تم النظر في العضلات الوحشية المتسعة كما في عضلة البديلة، والتي كشفت عن مزيد من ضمور مع الشيخوخة من أعضاء آخرين في عضلة الفخذ الرباعية الرؤوس

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