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Article
Hydrochemical study of Rain Water In Baghdad city-Iraq

Authors: Jaafar Sadeq Maatooq --- Aqeel Shakir Al-Adili
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2008 Volume: 26 Issue: 4 Pages: 408-422
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

The chemical substance dissolved in rain water are generally considered to have two atmosphericsources, dry fallout and/or soluble salts. The present study deals with the rain water year 1995-1996 atBaghdad city were expressed in term of monthly averages of the collected samples . The concentrationsvalues of cations (Ca, Mg, K and Na) and anions (Cl, SO4 and HCO3),were expressed as averageannual. All ions concentration, are found to be within the excepted range of fresh water. These resultswere compared with rain water year 1985-1986. Appreciable reduction in concentrations of both cationsand anions have been recorded, and the percentages of reduction are ranging between 28% to 84%.Moreover, by adopting fractionation factor, the results revealed that the sea water have less contributionof all ions concentration than other sources (local activities). The results of the chemical analysis weredealt with statistically by using cluster and factor analysis .

أن تراكيز المركبات الكيميائية لمياه الأمطار ناتجة من مصدرين أساسيين هما ، ما يحمله غبار الهواء ، وكذلكماتحمله العواصف المطرية من أملاح ذائبة . تم في هذه الدراسة أجراء التحليل الكيميائي لعينات تمثل السنة المطرية1996 لمدينة بغداد، قسمت النتائج الى مجموعتين حسب أشارة المركب وقد بينت الدراسة أن كافة التراكيز تقع -19951986 ، وبينت - ضمن الحدود المسموحة للمياه النقية . تم مقارنة النتائج أيضًا مع النتائج الخاصة بالسنة المطرية 19851996 وكانت نسبة التناقص تتراوح - المقارنة تناقصًا في تراكيز المركبات الداخلة في الدراسة للسنة المطرية 199584 %. من ناحية أخرى تم أستخدام معامل التجزئة لمعرفة النسبة التي يساهم فيها مياه البحر من تلك -% مابين 28الناتجة عن مصادر الملوثات الأخرى وتبين من ذلك بأن نسبة مساهمة مياه البحر هي الأقل ولكافة المركبات . كما تممعالجة النتائج أحصائيا بأستخدام التحليل الأحصائي التجميعي والعاملي .


Article
Effect of water Clove Extract on Streptococci and Mutans Streptococci, in Comparison to Chlorhexidine Gluconate (A Comparative In Vitro and In Vivo Study)

Author: Dr.Jinan Mohammed Rashad, B.D.S., M.Sc. in Preventive Dentistry د. جنان محمد
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2008 Volume: 5 Issue: 4 Pages: 354-364
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Recently, in many parts of the world there is a rich tradition in the use of natural products for the treatments of many infectious diseases; many herbal remedies have been used because of their antibacterial, anti- inflammatory, cytostatic, antifungal and antiviral. Stimulated saliva was collected from four healthy looking females aged (20-21) from which mutans streptococci were isolated. Sensitivities of mutans streptococci according to Agar Well Technique showed that water clove extract was effective in the inhibition of these bacteria, mutans streptococci were more sensitive to chlorhexidine compared to water extract as indicated by the wider zones of inhibition on the Mueller Hinton Agar. An in vitro experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of these agents on acid formation by mutans streptococci, the result showed that chlorhexidine gluconate and water clove extract were effective in retardation of acid formation. The study involved one in vivo experiment to test the effect of water clove extract (10%) against salivary streptococci and mutans streptococci in comparison to 0.2% chlorhexidine and deionized water. Stimulated saliva was collected from 18 volunteers aged (24-27 years) they were divided into three groups each group rinsed once with either chlorhexidine, deionized water or clove water extract for one minute. The counts of bacteria were recorded at different time points (one minute prior to the rinse, 30 minutes after rinsing, one hour and two hours). No significant difference in the counts of streptococci was found between deionized water and water clove extract for all time points, rinsing with any one of these agents resulted in a slight decreased in the counts of these bacteria, chlorhexidine showed a sharp reduction in the counts of bacteria which was highly significant (P<0.001). For mutans streptococci, a highly significant differences were found between the three mouth rinses (P<0.001) in the counts of bacteria in the following time points (after thirty minute, after one hour). Within these times chlorhexidine was shown to be the most effective in reducing the counts of these bacteria followed by water clove extract. The result of the present study showed the effectiveness of clove especially against mutans streptococci, although it was less than chlorhexidine, but it can be use as effective anticaries agent. This study aimed to evaluate the effect of different concentrations of water clove extract in comparison to chlorhexidine gluconate 0.2% and deionized water on growth, acidogenicity of mutans streptococci in vitro and viability counts of streptococci and mutans streptococci among a number of volunteers.


Article
The Effect of Sesarma boulengeri(Calman) Crab Burrows on Surrounding Pore Water Chemistry in the Shatt Al-Arab NW Arabian Gulf

Author: H.A. Kadhim حمزة عبد الحسن كاظم
Journal: Marsh Bulletin مجلة الاهوار ISSN: 18169848 Year: 2008 Volume: 3 Issue: 2 Pages: 114-124
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

The result of the present study has shown that presence of chemical elements concentration in the pore water surrounding the crab burrow depends on the distance from or depth of the burrow. After analyzing the samples in the laboratory, the results have demonstrated that the concentration of ammonium and phosphate decreases as we move away from the burrows edge, and there is also a significant difference with regard to the ammonium and phosphate concentrations. With respect to phosphate, there is no important significant difference, but the concentration of sulfide has increased with the distance from the burrow edge. Its highest concentration is at a distance of 12cm, such that there is a noticeable difference between the various samples. But there no change in the proportion of salinity and redox with the distance or depth from the burrow edge. The results have, also, that the crab burrows affect the pore water present in the sediments surrounding the burrows, to a distance that approaches 12 cm from the burrows opening . There, the activity of the crab burrows hasincreased the heterogeneity of the sediments in the area of study.


Article
Design Criteria of an Activated Carbon Bed for Dechlorination of Water

Author: Muna Y. Abdul – Ahad
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Chemical and Petroleum Engineering المجلة العراقية للهندسة الكيمياوية وهندسة النفط ISSN: 19974884/E26180707 Year: 2008 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 41-49
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Granular carbon can be used after conventional filtration of suspended matter or, as a combination of filtration - adsorption medium. The choice of equipment depends on the severity of the organic removal problem, the availability of existing equipment, and the desired improvement of adsorption condition.Design calculations on dechlorination by granular - carbon filters considering the effects of flow rate, pH , contact time, head loss and bed expansion in backwashing , particle size, and physical characteristics were considered assuming the absence of bacteria or any organic interface .


Article
The Effect of Magnetic Water on Growth of Chick-Pea Seeds

Author: Samir H. Nasher
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2008 Volume: 26 Issue: 9 Pages: 1125-1130
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

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Abstract

Abstract:Magnetized water has been experimented on chick-pea seed growth. Seeds are growing in plastic cupsfor 18 days and irrigating with magnetized water which prepared by using static magnetic field. Plantslengths are taken daily up to the day 18. Length results show that seeds irrigated with magnetizedwater were taller than seeds irrigated with tap water. The difference in length was (2.67 cm) betweenthem

تم اختبار تاثير الماء الممغنط على نمو بذور الحمص . البذور زرعت في اقداح مدة 18 يوما وسقيت يوميا بالماءالممغنط الذي حضر باستخدام مجال مغناطيسي ستاتيكي. اطوال النباتات قيسيت يوميا لغاية اليوم الثامن عشر .اظهرت النباتات المسقية بالماء الممغنط اطوالا اكبر من تلك المسقية بالماء العادي , حيث كان الفرق بالطول حوالي2.67 سم) بين المسقية بالماء الممغنط عن المسقية بالماء العادي


Article
The Effect of the Thermopress Curing Technique on the Water Sorption and Solubility of the Cold and Heat–Cured Acrylic Resins

Author: Lamia T Rejab
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2008 Volume: 8 Issue: 1 Pages: 11-17
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This study aims to evaluate the effect of the thermopress curing technique on the water sorption
and solubility of the cold–cured and heat–cured acrylic resins and compared this technique with the
bench curing technique used for the cold–cured resin and with the conventional water bath curing technique
for the heat–cured resin. Materials and Methods: they were to measure the water sorption and
solubility, the specimens were prepared as disks with a dimension according to the ADA Specification
No. 12. So specimens were divided into five groups depending on the type of the resin ( cold and heat–
cured ) methods of curing which were ( thermopress, conventional water bath and bench cure ) and the
time of curing cycle. Specimens were weighed before and after immersion in the distilled water and
after drying with silica gel using an electronic balance to measure the water sorption and solubility.
One way analysis of variance (ANOVA) followed by Duncan , s multiple range test was performed to
determined the significant different between the mean values among the tested groups at (p< 0.05)
level of significance. Results: There is a significant differences between the water sorption and solubility
of resin that cured by the different curing methods and different curing cycle times. The water
sorption and solubility of resin specimens that cured by thermopress have the higher values. Conclusions:
The water sorption and solubility of the cold and heat–cured acrylic resins is affected by the curing
method. The curing under higher pressure produces specimens with lower water sorption and solubility
values.


Article
Water Quality Indices For Tigris River In Baghdad City

Authors: NAWAR O.A. NASSER --- RAFA H. SH. AL Suhaili
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2008 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 2656-2668
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Due to the deterioration of water quality within the last few years because of the increase of water consumption and the waste water production and disposal into the river The water quality in both surface and ground water resources was negatively affected .The concept of water quality index is used as a tool for water quality classification in Tigris River within Baghdad City .Twenty two parameters of pollution were selected to measure the water quality indices of Tigris river within Baghdad city .Those parameters were measured during (2000-2004)as average monthly values ,three water treatment plants were selected out of the eight water treatment plants that exist along the river.Al Kharkh water treatment plant to reflect the water quality north of Baghdad ,Al Wathba water treatment plant to reflect water quality at the center and Al Rasheed water treatment plant located south of Baghdad to reflect the water quality at this area .The estimated water quality indices indicated that the river quality deteriorate south of Baghdad and the geological and hydrological conditions played the prime role relative to the agricultural and industrial activities within the catchments on the quality of Tigris river .Furthermore ,due to the continuous decrease of flow and the simultaneous increase in agricultural and industrial development with time ,the river showed a general deterioration in quality while the worst years were 2002,2003 due to the significant decrease in the amount of flow .

نتيجة لتردي نوعية المياه خلال السنوات الاخيره بسبب زيادة استهلاك الماء وكذلك زيادة تصريف مياه المخلفات الى النهر ادى ذلك الى تردي نوعية المياه السطحيه والجوفيه .لذلك تم استخدام مؤشر نوعية المياه كوسيله لتصنيف نوعية مياه نهر دجله في مدينة بغداد ,فقد تم اختيار اثنين وعشرين عنصر من عناصر التلوث وقياس معدل تراكيزها الشهريه خلال السنوات 2000-2004 فقد تم اختيار ثلاث محطات معالجه من اصل ثمانيه محطات معالجه على امتداد نهر دجله وهم مشروع الكرخ شمال مدينة بغداد ومشروع الوثبه في مركز مدينة بغداد ومشروع الرشيد جنوب مدينة بغداد .مؤشر نوعية المياه الذي تم حسابه اشار الى ان نوعية مياه نهر دجله تتردى جنوب مدينة بغداد بسبب الظروف الجيولوجيه والهيدرولوجيه للمنطقه بالاضافه الى تطورالنشاطات الزراعيه والصناعيه وتناقص تصريف النهر,وخصوصا في السنوات 2002, 2003


Article
Hydrochemical Aspects and Determination of Some Heavy Metals in AL-Haweja Canal, Kirkuk ,Iraq
المظاهر الهايدروكيميائية وتقدير بعض العناصر الثقيلة في قناة الحويجه المائية /كركوك ,العراق

Author: AL-Jumaily ,H . A.A. حسن احمد علي ألجميلي
Journal: Tikrit Journal of Pure Science مجلة تكريت للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: 18131662 Year: 2008 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 40-45
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

Nine samples of water have been collected from different sites at AL-Haweja canal. The hydrochmical data of dissolved solids show that these water are consists of fresh water ecosystem. The major cation and anion is Ca2+ and HCO32-respectively. The water in generals is Mg-Na-Ca-HCO3-Cl-SO4 .The dominant hydrochemical process in the water of studied canal is chemical processing of recent sediment and dissolved mineral. Heavy metals pollution levels were also noticed. These water samples contain high value of heavy metal ( Cd and Mn ) with respect to EPA 2000 standards probably due to chemical and anthropogenic activities.

تم جمع تسع عينات لمواقع مختلفة من قناة الحويجه المائية ,وأظهرت البيانات الهيدروكيميائية بان النظام البيئي لهذه المياه عائد إلى المياه العذبة. وان الكتيون والانيون السائدين فيها هما الكالسيوم والبيكاربونيت على التوالي, و نوعية المياه هي من نوع مغنيسيوم- صوديوم-كالسيوم-بيكاربونيت-كلوريد-كبريتات. في حين العملية الهايدروكيميائية السائدة في هذه المياه هي العملية الكيميائية للرواسب الحديثة والمعادن الثقيلة.كما ولوحظ في هذه القناة تلوثها بتراكيز عالية من العناصر الثقيلة وبخاصة عنصري الكادميوم والمنغنيز بسبب الفعاليات الكيميائية والنشاطات البشرية المنشأ.


Article
ONE DIMENSIONAL MODEL FOR WATER MANAGEMENT THROUGH THE MEMBRANE OF A HYDROGEN PEM FUEL CELL

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Abstract

This work presents a one dimensional modeling study for water movement through the membrane of a hydrogen fuel cell. The model studies the effect of electro-osmotic drag, pressure gradient and back diffusion on local water concentration through the membrane. It is found that the current density increases the water movement due to electro-osmotic drag while the pressure gradient increases the hydraulic permeation and back diffusion. It is also found that after about 30 seconds both effects are equalized and the water concentration throughout the membrane reaches equilibrium state.

تم في هذا البحث تطوير موديل رياضي أحادى البعد لدراسة حركة الماء خلال غشاء خلية وقود الهيدروجين.يتناول الموديل تأثير الحركة الازموزية الكهربائية، انحدار الضغط والانتشار العكسي على التركيز الموقعي للماء خلال الغشاء. لقد أوضحت الدراسة ان زيادة كثافة التيار تزيد من حركة الماء الناتجة بسبب الحركة الازموزية الكهربائية بينما تؤدي زيادة انحدار الضغط إلى زيادة حركة الماء بسبب تيارات الحمل والانتشار العكسي. كذلك أوضحت الدراسة انه بعد 30 ثانية يحصل توازن بين تأثير الحركة الازموزية الكهربائية وتأثير تيارات الحمل والانتشار العكسي ويتساوى تركيز الماء خلال الغشاء أي تحصل حالة التوازن.

Keywords

fuel cell --- membrane --- water management --- anode --- cathode


Article
EFFECT OF MAGNETIZED WATER ON THE PROPERTIES OF CEMENT MORTARS AT THE EARLIER AGES
تأثير الماء الممغنط على خواص المونة السمنتية في الأعمار المبكرة

Author: Adnan Flayih Hassan
Journal: Al-Qadisiyah Journal for Engineering Sciences مجلة القادسية للعلوم الهندسية ISSN: 19984456 Year: 2008 Volume: 1 Issue: 1 Pages: 95-108
Publisher: Al-Qadisiyah University جامعة القادسية

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Abstract

This study had been conducted to investigate the influence of magnetized water on the properties of cement mortars such as initial and final setting time, consistency and compressive strength with various water/cement ratios at the ages of 1 and 7 day. Results of (50) specimens with different shapes had been adopted, which represented mortars specimens having compressive strength ranging from (5.5) to (32.5) MPa, initial setting time ranging from (4) to ( 32) minutes and final setting time ranging from (303) to (546) minutes, by using two types of mixing water , first one is tap water , and the other is magnetized water.The results showed that the use of magnetized water in producing cement mortars lead to increase in the compressive strength and decreasing in the initial and final setting time with compare to use of tap water. Results also showed that the optimum water/cement ratio give best compressive strength under the conditions of this study was (0.45).

أجريت هذه الدراسة للتحري عن تأثير استخدام الماء الممغنط على خواص المونة السمنتية, كزمن التجمد الابتدائي و النهائي و القوام و مقاومة الانضغاط باستخدام نسب ( ماء/ سمنت ) مختلفة , مقاومة الانضغاط تم فحصها بعمر 1 و 7 يوم . تم اعتماد نتائج 50 نموذج ذات مقاومة انضغاط تـــــراوحت بين ( 5.5) و ( 32.5) MPa , زمن تجمد ابتدائي تراوح بين (4) و ( 32) دقيقة و زمن تجمد نهائي تـراوح بين ( 303) و (546) دقيقة وباستخدام نوعين من ماء الخلط , الأول هو ماء الحنفية و الثاني هو الماء الممغنط. النتائج بينت إن استخدام الماء الممغنط في إنتاج المونة السمنتية يؤدي إلى زيادة مقاومة الانضغاط و نقصان في زمن التجمد الابتدائي و النهائي بالمقارنة مع استخدام ماء الحنفية . أما أفضل نسبة ( ماء/ سمنت ) أعطت أعلى مقاومة انضغاط في ظل ظروف هذه الدراسة كانت (0.45).

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