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Prevalence of over and under weight among school children in Mosul

Authors: Mazin M. Fawzi مازن محمود فوزي --- Zaid M. Yassen زيد مؤيد ياسين
Journal: Annals of the College of Medicine Mosul مجلة طب الموصل ISSN: 00271446 23096217 Year: 2008 Volume: 34 Issue: 1 Pages: 1-8
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل


Aim: To evaluate the prevalence of over and under weight in children aged 6-14 years in Mosul city and to observe the important risk factors.
Methods: A cross-sectional study of four governmental primary schools in Mosul city with a total of 2056 child aged 6-14 years were included. Analysis of the data was done by using SPSS and excel computer systems, X2 test was used for statistical analysis.
Results: The study reveals that the prevalence of under weight is 6.8%; on the other hand the prevalence of over weight and obesity were 11.3% and 9.8% respectively. Also the study shows that about three quarters of over weight and obese students spend three or more hours daily in watching television, and (44.2%) of them eat more than three meals per day.
Conclusions: Overweight and obesity are prevalent problems in Mosul, it is valuable to conduct a study to evaluate the risk factors.

الهدف : تهدف الدراسة إلى حساب معدل انتشار زيادة ونقصان الوزن عند أطفال المدارس الابتدائية في الموصل .طريقة الدراسة : دراسة مقطعية .المشاركون في الدراسة : شملت الدراسة 2056 طفل بعمر 6-14 سنة .مكان الدراسة : أربعة مدارس ابتدائية في مدينة الموصل. قياس المحصلة النهائية : تم تحليل النتائج باستخدام برنامجي SPSS و Excel للحاسبة الإلكترونية وقد تم استخدام اختباري Z وX2 في التحليل الإحصائي . النتائج : أظهرت الدراسة أن معدل انتشار نقصان الوزن عند الأطفال هو 6.8% من جهة أخرى أكدت الدراسة على أن معدل انتشار زيادة الوزن والسمنة عند الأطفال هو 11.3% و9.8% بالتعاقب . الاستنتاج : في ضوء النتائج المستخلصة من الدراسة يمكن الاستنتاج بأن زيادة الوزن والسمنة يشكلان مشكلة لدى الأطفال فمن المجدي إجراء دراسة أخرى لتقييم الأسباب المؤدية إلى ذلك .


Overweight --- obesity


Authors: Zina H. Abdul-Qahar --- Mohammed H. Alosami --- Kismat M. Turki
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 372-376
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد


Background: New data suggests that joint damage in Knee Osteoarthritis (KOA) may be
caused by systemic factors like adipose tissue products; Adipokines, which may provide a
metabolic link between obesity & KOA. Recently, one of the known adipokines named
LEPTIN has been linked to KOA because it can be detected in serum & synovial fluid of
patients with KOA.
Objective: To evaluate the contribution of Leptin & serum lipids to the pathophysiology of
Osteoarthritis in Iraqi patients with Knee OA.
Subjects& Methods: The study was carried on 90 subjects divided into four groups:
Knee Osteoarthritis cases group (n=60).
Control group (n=30).
Obese subjects group (n=60).
Non-obese subjects group (n=30).
KOA cases were diagnosed clinically whereas obesity was specified by BMI ≥25kg/m2. For
all subjects studied measurements of fasting serum leptin and lipid profile have been done.
Results: Mean serum leptin level was significantly higher in KOA cases compared to control
group (P<0.001), and higher in obese than non-obese subjects (P<0.001). Serum leptin level
also showed a strong positive correlation with BMI (r=0.501, P<0.01).
Conclusions: Leptin may play an important role in the pathogenesis of KOA. In addition
abnormal lipid profile and obesity are important risk factors for KOA.

Effect of aging on growth hormone-leptin axis in normal andobese healthy subjects

Authors: Hedef D. El-Yassin --- Zaineb A. Razak Al-Sharifi (
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 383-390
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد


Background: Growth hormone is a hormone responsible for the normal body
growth and development by stimulation protein production in muscle cells and
energy release for breakdown of fat. On the other hand leptin is a newly discovered
hormone that is mainly synthesized in adipose tissues it decreases food intake by
causing satiety and promoting energy combustion . Both aging and obesity are
associated with a reduction in growth hormone secretion. In the mean time obese
humans have increased circulating leptin.
Objective: The aim of this paper is to shed light on the contribution of these two
hormones in the mechanism of aging process in an attempt of improving this
process for a better life at old ages.
Subjects and methods: Two hundred and seventy healthy subjects aged 25-64
years old participated in this study. The subjects' were divided into four groups
according to their ages and to three groups according to their weights. Urine
analysis from each subject was carried out to exclude diabetes and renal failure.
Sera from blood samples were used to carry out certain biochemical parameters and
hormone (growth hormone and leptin).
Results: The results obtained show a decrease in the level of growth hormone with
progression of age. In the mean time there is an increase in the level of serum leptin
with the advancement of age. Aging is usually associated with adiposity. Increasing
fat with age is probably multifactorial one potential mechanism for that is reduced
leptin transport across blood-brain barrier..
Conclusion: The increase in leptin level which was observed in elderly age group
and obese group suggest that the associated decrease in growth hormone serum
level is related to obesity in general and in particular to the aging process.


growth hormone --- leptin --- obesity --- aging.

Resistin , Insulin resistance and BMI in type 2 diabetes mellitus and healthysubjects.

Authors: Hashim M. Hashim --- Hedef D. Al-Yassin --- Zainab A. Al-Shamma
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2008 Volume: 50 Issue: 3 Pages: 377-382
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد


Background : Obesity and insulin resistance have been quite well recognized as fundamental
and leading causes of major health issues such as diabetes, hyperlipidemia, hypertension, and
cardiovascular diseases. Abdominal obesity, particularly visceral adiposity is considered to
play a major role in causing insulin resistance and type 2 diabetes mellitus , T2DM
The resistin is considered one of the causes of insulin resistance which lead to
hyperinsulinemia and a decrease in the quantitative insulin sensitivity check index (Quicki)
which has been recently reported to be a useful marker of insulin resistance in patients with
Objective : The aim of the present study is to find the relationship between resistin and
obesity as modulated by T2DM.
Subjects and methods : The study involved 50 patients with T2DM with age range of 30 -70
years , and 30 healthy subjects ( control group ) of matching age and sex.
Ten mLs of blood were collected from each patient and normal control subject after an
overnight fast . One mL. was kept in an EDTA tube for mesureement of glycated Hb ( HbA1c)
and the rest was allowed to clot , centrifuged and serum was divided into aliquots . Some
was kept at (- 20
C ) for measurement of resistin and insulin ( by enzyme linked
immunosorbant assay , ELISA) and the rest for measurement of glucose , urea and creatinine (
by the available routine laboratory tests ) at the same day of collection.
Results showed a significant rise in serum resistin in the obese diabetic patients as compared
to the non obese patients. There are significant correlations between resistin and each of insulin
resistance ( Quicki ) and degree of obesity (BMI) .
Conclusion : Resistin & insulin resistance are significantly affected by BMI in diabetic
patients only and not in the control group which implies that the obese control subjects didn’t
have insulin resistances enough to show any change in resistin level. This confirms the
synergistic effect of the obesity and diabetes on resistin level, while no effect of the disease per se could be detected from the present study.

Leptin in Goitrous patients

Authors: Feryal Hashim Rada --- Nahla Al-Sakkal --- Abdul-Karim Yahia
Journal: Mustansiriya Medical Journal مجلة المستنصرية الطبية ISSN: 20701128 22274081 Year: 2008 Volume: 7 Issue: 2 Pages: 33-35
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية


Objective: To evaluate the relationship between serum Leptin levels and metabolic syndrome, in (obese, non obese) control subjects, untreated hypothyroid and hyperthyroid patients.Methods: A study was made on 63 goitrous patients and 25 control subjects. Body mass index (BMI) was calculated. Serum T3, T4, TSH were measured by RIA method, serum lipid profile was measured by spectrophotometric method, serum Leptin was measured by ELISA method.Results: The mean serum Leptin level was significantly higher in obese than in non obese control subjects (29.1 vs. 5.8 ngm / ml) and higher in hypothyroid patients (27.9 ngm /ml), and lowest levels in hyperthyroid patients (3.4 ngm /ml). Conclusion: Leptin reduce body weight by decreasing food intake (appetite), fat deposition and increasing energy expenditure. Serum Leptin is highly correlated with the body mass index (BMI), other indices of adiposity (lipid profile) in normal obese human and hypothyroid patients.

Prevalence of Obesity among Adult Population in Karbala

Author: Al-Hilaly K. A*
Journal: KUFA MEDICAL JOURNAL مجلة الكوفة الطبية ISSN: 1993517X Year: 2008 Volume: 11 Issue: 1 Pages: 343-352
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة


Objective: To determine the prevalence and type of obesity in adult population in Karbala city and its correlation with age, sex, social class, educational level, occupation, history of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity.Design: Population-based observational study.Setting: Al Hussein Hospital in Karbala city.Subjects: A total of 1545 companion of patients attending the outpatient clinic in Al Hussain hospital. They were 844 men and 701 women and aged 20-81 years.Methods: Socio-demographic data collected includes age, sex, socioeconomic status, educational level, type of work, presence of chronic medical diseases, and family history of obesity. Anthropometric indices including weight, height, and waist circumference were measured. Individuals with body mass index (BMI) ≥ 30 kg/ m2 were considered obese. Abdominal obesity was considered when waist circumference ≥102 cm for men and ≥ 88 cm for women. The results were statistically analyzed using SPSS program.Results: Of the 1545 individuals who were examined in this study 453 (29.3%) were obese, 485 (31.4%) were overweight, 519 (33.6%) had normal body weight and 88 (5.7%) were underweight. The average BMI was higher in women Abdominal obesity was determined in 51.5% of women and 13.3% of men. Positive correlations were determined between BMI and age, and family history of obesity, and waist circumference. The prevalence of obesity showed a positive correlation with age and it is higher in individuals with low educational level.Conclusion: Obesity affects about 30% of adult population in Karbala, and it is higher in women. Abdominal obesity affect more than 50% of women. This high prevalence of obesity should be described as an epidemic which demands community based multiple strategies to control and to treat affected individuals.

تمهيد: إنّ السمنة مشكلة صحية خطيرة تهدد أغلب دول العالم المتقدمة والنامية، وهي في زيادة مستمرة، وأصبحت تشكل وباءً. تعتبر السمنة عامل خطورة لكثير من الأمراض المزمنة، مثل داء السكري وارتفاع ضغط الدم وأمراض الشرايين التاجية وبعض الأمراض السرطانية، مثل سرطان الثدي والرحم وعنق الرحم. تسبب السمنة هدر كثير في ساعات العمل والانفاق في علاج الأمراض المسببة لها.الأهداف: معرفة مدى إنتشار السمنة في مدينة كربلاء وعلاقتها بالعمر والجنس والحالة المادية والمستوى الثقافي ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه والأمراض المزمنة ووجود تاريخ عائلي للسمنة.الطرق: تمت هذه الدراسة في مستشفى الحسين في مدينة كربلاء، وشملت الدراسة الأشخاص المرافقين للمرضى المراجعين للعيادة الاستشارية للأمراض الباطنية، وكان عددهم 1545 شخصاً، منهم 844 ذكراً و701 أنثى، تتراوح أعمارهم بين 20 و 81 سنة. المعلومات التي تم جمعها تشمل العمر والجنس والحالة المادية، والمستوى الثقافي، ونوع العمل الذي يمارسه الشخص، ووجود أمراض مزمنة يعاني منها الشخص، ووجود السمنة في أفراد العائلة. القياسات التي تم أخذها تشمل الوزن والطول ومحيط الخصر. السمنة تعتبر عندما يكون معامل كتلة الجسم 30 كلغم/م2 أو أكثر. والسمنة البطنية عندما يكون محيط الخصر 102 سم أو أكثر للرجال، و 88 سم أو أكثر للنساء. تم استعمال البرنامج الإحصائي الأس بي أس أس لتحليل النتائج.النتائج: معدل السمنة كان 29,3%، وزيادة الوزن 31,4% و33,6% كانوا ضمن الوزن الطبيعي. معامل كتلة الوزن كان أكبر عند النساء. معدل السمنة البطنية كان 51,5% في النساء و13,3% في الرجال. علاقة السمنة كانت إيجابية مع العمر، وكانت أعلى في الأشخاص ذوي المستوى الثقافي المنخفض.الاستنتاجلت: السمنة تصيب حوالي 30% من الأشخاص البالغين في مدينة كربلاء، وهي أكثر في النساء. وهذه النسبة العالية تستدعي إتخاذ إجارءات إجتماعية ورسمية للحد من هذه الظاهرة.

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