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Article
Effect of leptin level in non insulin dependant (type 2) obese diabetic subjects

Authors: Othman G. Othman --- Maysaa J. Majeed
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: PISSN: 00419419 / EISSN: 24108057 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 1 Pages: 76-80
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Determine how do obesity and type2 diabetes intertwined? and what it takes to turn an obese person into a person with diabetes. That link may help to understand why some obese people never develop diabetes while many others do.Serum sugar level was used as indicator of insulin level; leptin level was used as indicator of leptin resistance.A total of 50 obese subjects were involved in this study, 25 obese subject (BMI >30) had diabetes mellitus type 2(no insulin dependant), selected from Baghdad teaching Hospital in Baghdad /Iraq. The remaining 25 obese (BMI >30) were normal healthy individuals.Patients and Methods: ELSA technique was used for the measurement of serum leptin. Blood sugar was determined by using colorimetric method. Data were expressed as mean ± SD results and were evaluated using the student t-test for paired data. Conventional methods were used for the correlation and regression analyses.Results: Obtained results showed that the level of serum leptin in healthy obese subjects were significantly lower than that of obese diabetes subjects. , serum sugar in non diabetic obese subjects was significantly lower than obese diabetes type2 subjects.Serum leptin correlated negatively with level of serum sugar at the same time had a positive correlation with BMI in non diabetic obese group whereas level of serum leptin correlated positively with each of BMI and serum sugar in diabetic type2 group. All results are thoroughly discussed in the text.Conclusion: The present study indicates the possibility of future development of a new class of anti diabetic agents that act centrally and independent of insulin action.


Article
The Lipid Profile in Children with Type 1 Diabetes Mellitus in Erbil Governorate

Authors: Abbas A. Alrabaty --- Abdulkader A. Alnakshabandi --- Nazar B. Yahya
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 344-349
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Diabetes Mellitus is the most common endocrine-metabolic disease in children. Diabetic patients with hyperlipidemia frequently develop atherosclerosis which is an important cause of morbidity and mortality.OBJECTIVE:The aim of this study was to evaluate serum lipids total serum cholesterol, total serum triglyceride (TGs), High density lipoprotein (HDL-C), Low density lipoprotein (LDL-C) and very low density lipoprotein (VLDL-C) in children with type-1 diabetes mellitus in comparison with controls, and to determine the relationship of lipid profile with gender, body mass index (BMI) and duration of diabetes among patients.METHODS:In this case-control study, the lipid profiles of 52 patients aged 6-18 years (27 males 25 females) with established type 1 diabetes were compared with those of 52 healthy controls of the same age and gender from the first of December 2007 to the 29th of February 2008.RESULTS:The lipid profiles of patients with type 1 diabetes mellitus showed the following values, the mean total serum cholesterol 175 ± 55 mg/dl, total serum TGs 140 ± 135 mg/dl, HDL-C 59 ± 19 mg/dl, LDL-C 93 ± 51 mg/dl and that of VLDL-C 23 ± 13 mg/dl, whereas for the controls they were 136 ± 34 mg/dl, 74 ± 25 mg/dl, 53 ± 15 mg/dl, 68 ± 30 mg/dl and 15 ± 5 mg/dl respectively.CONCLUSION:The abnormalities in lipid profile regarding total serum cholesterol, total serum TGs, LDL-C and VLDL-C showed that they were significantly higher in diabetic patients than in control group, while HDL-C although it was higher among diabetic patients, but it was not statistically significant. Total serum TGs was significantly increased with the duration of diabetes.


Article
The Prevalence of Weight Loss Assessed by Body Mass Index in Patients with Stable Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease

Authors: Kassim M. Sultan --- Muhammed .W.AlObaidy --- Alaa. I. Hussein
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2009 Volume: 8 Issue: 4 Pages: 327-331
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:The association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and weight loss has long been recognized and is a common clinical observation and it is one of the systemic manifestations of COPD. A number of studies have identified weight loss and low body mass index (BMI) as independent predictors of mortality and worse prognosis.OBJECTIVE:We have undertaken this study to confirm the association between BMI, weight loss and COPD and the relation to its severity.METHODS:A cross section study of 100 patients with stable COPD have been identified and classified according to Global initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease (GOLD) guideline. BMI have been calculated according to the formula: BMI=Body Weight (kg)/Height2 (kg/m2) Subjects; were classified according to the BMI in to three groups using World Health Organization guideline: underweight, normal weight and overweight also classified as current cigarette smokers and ex smokers.RESULTS:It had been shown in this study that the underweight more common in COPD (23%),compared with the control subjects only (7%).low BMI significantly associated with more severe stages of COPD and in current smoker than in Ex-smoker and with increase in age ,but there is no significant difference between gender and nutritional status .CONCLUSION:Weight loss is a prevalent condition in patients with COPD and BMI can be used to assess this relationship there was an interaction between smoking habits and BMI in COPD patients. BMI correlates well with FEV1 and COPD severity and can be used by every clinician because it is a simple, inexpensive, readily available tool.


Article
Obesity, Glycemic and Hormonal Criteria Of Polycystic Ovary Syndrome

Author: Tawfeeq F. R. AL-Auqbi توفيق العقابي
Journal: Al-Kindy College Medical Journal مجلة كلية الطب الكندي ISSN: 18109543 Year: 2009 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 33-39
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Polycystic ovary syndrome (PCOS) is the most common endocrinopathy affecting women, at reproductive age. PCOS is a chronic hyperandrogenic state that has many significant short-term and long-term implications for patients such as oligomenorrhea, amenorrhea, infertility, diabetes mellitus, cardiovascular disease, increased risk of endometrial cancer, and hirsutism.Objectives: To evaluate the obesity and glycemic criteria among women with polycystic ovary syndrome.Method: A case control designed study was carried out at the National Diabetes Center (NDC) / Al-Mustansiryia University; on 50 participants formed the PCOS group and 50 healthy control participants. Data collected about age, age at menarche and BMI. Also, blood samples examined for FPG and 2-h OGTT test carried out for all the participants. Moreover hormonal assessment for the LH, FSH and total testosterone were done for all participants.Results : PCOS group women age and age at menarche were 27.62 ± 5.74 and 12.0 ± 1.06 years; vs. the control group were 25.42 ± 4.94 and 11.64 ± 0.69 years respectively. All PCOS group were experienced signs and symptoms of ovarian dysfunction, and infertility while the control group did not experience any of such evidences. BMI showed significant difference between study groups (t-test (P < 0.05)); 98% of the PCOS group was obese vs. 58% of the control group. The waist/hip ratio showed insignificant difference (t-test (P > 0.05). Fasting plasma glucose (FPG) showed insignificant difference between the study groups (t-test (P >0.05); about 18% of the PCOS group was prediabetic (Impaired Fasting Glucose, IFG) (100-125mg/dl) and 6% was diabetic (>126mg/dl) whereas the entire control group was normoglycemic. The OGTT showed significant difference between the study groups (t-test (P < 0.05)); about 22% of the PCOS group was prediabetic (Impaired Glucose Tolerance, IGT) (140-199mg/dl) and 6% was diabetic (>200mg/dl) whereas the entire control group was normoglycemic. PCOS group showed highly significant elevation in the LH level vs. the control group by about four folds (t-test (P < 0.05)). Also, FSH showed similar elevation by about two folds among the PCOS group vs. the control group (t-test (P < 0.05)). Moreover the LH/FSH ratio was elevated by about two folds among the PCOS group vs. the control group (t-test (P < 0.05)). Total serum testosterone of the PCOS group showed significant raise vs. the control group (t-test (P < 0.05)). Whole the PCOS group had A total testosterone level >60 ng/dL and in contrary the entire control group didn't show any elevation >60ng/dl.Conclusion: obesity of android (central) type was frequent and prevalent among PCOS women. About 20-28% of PCOS women was prediabetic or diabetic due to insulin resistance and decreased insulin sensitivity. Hormonal assay of LH, FSH, LH/FSH ratio and total testosterone were all significantly elevated by two folds or more among the PCOS women. It is not essential that a woman who had polycystic ovaries by ultrasound to have PCOS.


Article
A Study of the Nutritional Behavior and Body Mass Indexes for Students of Age (17-25) Years In Baghdad, Iraq.
دراسة السلوك الغذائي ومؤشرات المقاييس الجسمية لدى الطلبة من عمر(17-25 سنة) في مدينة بغداد-العراق

Author: Ibtisam A.H. Salih ابتسام عبد الحميد صالح
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 3 Pages: 480-487
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

The aim of this study was to assess the nutritional status for samples at the age of 17-15 years. These samples were taken from secondary schools and universities in Baghdad area, 123 of them were male and 261 were female. Data on weight, height and body mass index (BMI) were determined in each individual.Smaller sample of 215 individuals (male and female) from the original sample was taken in order to record their nutritional behavior and daily food intake during the 24 hours prior to the visit through personal meeting using special questionnaire.The results showed that the weight and the height were within the range of the people of neighboring Arab countries, who are in the same age. Beside 44.4- 55.95% of these samples were within the normal weight using body mass index. Percentages of obesity and overweight were between 43.5- 6.5% for male and female respectively.There was an increase in daily food intake in general for essential diet and energy indeed, as recorded in nutritional behavior. 67% of samples have their breakfast every day. There were 51% of the samples having snacks (additional meal) between the major meals everyday and 62% have beverages every day. Also high percentage of samples were having milk and its products, vegetables, fruits (as nutritional sources) every day and the percentages were 47%, 67%, 78% respectively.In general their nutritional behavior and daily food intake were within the limits which showed by American recommended daily dietary, still there was some incorrect nutritional behavior which need more education and learning about nutrition.

هدفت هذه الدراسة الى تقييم الحالة التغذوية لعينات من الطلبة الشباب بأعمار 17- 25 سنة. فقد شملت الدراسة 384 طالب وطالبة من المدارس الإعدادية والمرحلة الجامعية في بغداد وكان 123 منهم من الذكور و261 من الإناث حيث تم تسجيل الطول والوزن ومؤشر كتلة الجسم Body Mass Index (BMI) كما تمت دراسة العادات الغذائية والنمط الغذائي لعينة مختارة من العينة السابقة عددها 237 وذلك عن طريق ملء استمارات خاصة وأخذ المعلومات بالمقابلة الشخصية وتسجيل معلومات عن الغذاء المتناول خلال 24 ساعة السابقة للزيارة.ولقد كانت النتائج بالنسبة للأوزان والأطوال مقاربة لما سجل في الدول العربية المجاورة كما وجد بأن نسبة 44.4-55.9% من العينات المدروسة كانت ضمن الوزن الطبيعي وذلك باستخدام مؤشر كتلة الجسم BMI وان النسبة المئوية للوزن الزائد والسمنة تراوحت بين 43.5% و6.5% على التوالي ولكلا الجنسين.كما لوحظ ارتفاع نسبي في كمية الغذاء المستهلك بصورة عامة وللمغذيات الكبرى والطاقة أما بالنسبة للسلوك الغذائي بصورة عامة فتبين أن 67% يتناولون الإفطار يوميا و51% يتناولون الوجبات السريعة (وجبة إضافية بين الوجبات) و62% يتناولون المشروبات الغازية يوميا . اما بالنسبة لتناول الحليب ومشتقاته والخضروات والفواكه (مواد مغذية) فكانت نسبها 47% و67% و78% على التوالي وذلك بصورة يومية . وكانت نسبة ما يقارب 63% من الشباب يمارسون الرياضة يوميا.وبصورة عامة وجد إن السلوك الغذائي والتغذية كانت ضمن الحدود والتوصيات الغذائية الأمريكية. مع ذلك توجد بعض العادات الغذائية الخاطئة التي تتطلب تصحيحاً من خلال التوعية والتثقيف الغذائيين.

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