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Article
Histological Study of the Liver and Kidney of Albino Mice Mus musculus Exposed to Lead
دراسة نسجية لكبد وكلى الفئران البيض السويسرية Mus musculus المعرضة للرصاص

Authors: Aticka A. El-Nouri عاتكة النوري --- Muna H. Jankeer منى حسين جانكير
Journal: Rafidain journal of science مجلة علوم الرافدين ISSN: 16089391 Year: 2009 Volume: 20 Issue: 2 E Pages: 42-51
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The present study was performed to investigate the histological effects caused by lead in the liver and kidney of male albino mice Mus musculus. The study was conducted on 25 mice, the animals were divided into 5 equal groups. The first group was given distilled water and used as a control group. The second and third groups were orally administered (2 and 4 mg lead acetate /kg of body weight) for two weeks. The fourth and fifth groups were orally administered (2 and 4 mg lead acetate/kg of body weight) for four weeks. The animals were anesthetized, the (liver and kidneys) were extracted for histological studies. Histological changes which observed in the liver were, vacuolation, fatty degeneration, necrosis in some hepatocytes, congestion within central veins, hemorrhage between hepatic cords and infiltration of inflammatory cells. In the kidney the changes noted were hemorrhage in the interstitial tissue with enlargement of epithelial layer lining renal tubules, necrosis of some tubules with hyalinization and focal inflammatory cells infiltration. In this study deleterious toxic effects observed in liver and kidney

أجريت الدراسة لتقييم التغيرات النسجية لتأثير الرصاص على الكبد والكلية في ذكور الفئران البيض السويسرية Mus musculus. استخدمت 25 فأرة، قسمت الحيوانات إلى خمس مجاميع (5 فأرة لكل مجموعة). جرّعت المجموعة الأولى ماء مقطر واعتبرت مجموعة سيطرة، في حين جرّعت المجموعتان الثانية والثالثة 2 و 4 ملغم خلات الرصاص لكل كغم من وزن الجسم لمدة أسبوعين. أما المجموعتان الرابعة والخامسة فقد جرّعت 2 و 4 ملغم خلات الرصاص لكل كغم من وزن الجسم لمدة أربعة أسابيع . تم تخدير الحيوانات وأخذ الكبد والكلى وعمل لها مقاطع لدراسة التغيرات النسجية، إذ لوحظ في الكبد تفجي وتنكس دهني وتنخر في بعض الخلايا الكبدية ، واحتقان في بعض الأوردة المركزية ونزف بين الخلايا الكبدية وارتشاح لخلايا التهابية. أما في الكلى كانت التغيرات النسجية نزف في النسيج الخلالي مع ازدياد في حجم الخلايا المبطنة للنبيبات الكلوية وتنخر في بعض النبيبات مع تزجج وارتشاح بؤري لخلايا التهابية. بيّنت الدراسة حصول تغيرات مرضية في الكبد والكلى.

Keywords

Lead --- Histological changes --- liver --- kidney.


Article
Surface changes of orthodontic brackets following treatment with fixed orthodontic appliances

Authors: Dr. Abeer B.Mahmoud M.Sc. B.D.S د. عبير محمود --- Dr. Shahba’a A. Mohammed M.Sc. B.D.S د.شهباء محمود
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 2 Pages: 145-151
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Fixed orthodontic appliances were used for long period in the treatment of malocclusion patients. It is subjected to the oral environment and affected by the changes that take place in this media. Many studies were done and express the tendency of these appliances to corrode inside the mouth. 150 orthodontic brackets related to three different companies (Orthodent, Ortho-organizers, and Dentaurum). These brackets examined after removing them from the patients' mouth and examined microscopically. Most of the brackets exhibit corrosion which is mainly pitting, crevice and erosion corrosion.


Article
Changes in liver functions tests during pregnancy
التغيرات في وظائف الكبد خلال مدة الحمل

Author: مريم إبراهيم سلمان
Journal: Journal of university of Anbar for Pure science مجلة جامعة الانبار للعلوم الصرفة ISSN: ISSN: 19918941 Year: 2009 Volume: 3 Issue: 1 Pages: 8-11
Publisher: University of Anbar جامعة الانبار

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Abstract

Pregnancy is a normal physiological phenomenon associated with many physiological changesthat assist the nurturing and survival of the fetus, liver function affected by these changes. A prospectivestudy carried out to assess serum level of routine Liver Function Test (LFTs) which included Alb, T.S.B,S.ALT, S.AST, S.ALP and Prothrombin time in ninety pregnant women, thirty women in each trimester ofpregnancy and thirty aged matched non pregnant women as a control group who attended to Al-RamadiGeneral Hospital for Maternity and Children.The results were as follows: S. Alb and T.S.B levels were significantly lower (P<0.001) during all threetrimesters as compared to controls.S.ALP activity was significantly higher in third and second trimester (P<0.001) than in controls. SALTactivity was significantly higher (P≤0.05) in third trimester than in controls. While serum AST activity andprothrombin time did not give significant differences between pregnant and non-pregnant women

هدفت الدراسة الحالية الى دراسة بعض اختبارات وظائف الكبد الروتينية التي شملت الالبومين، البيلروبين الكلي للمصل،زمن التخثر, في تسعين امرأة حامل ثلاثين امرأة في كل ثلث من الحمل وثلاثين امرأة غير حامل ، ALP ، ALT ، AST أنزيماتبأعمار مقاربة للنساء الحوامل بوصفها تجربة ضابطة في مستشفى الرمادي العام للنسائية والأطفال، بينت النتائج: حدوث انخفاضفي مستوى الالبومين والبيلروبين الكلي خلال مراحل الحمل الثلاث مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة كما بينت النتائج (P< معنوي ( 0.001في الثلث الثاني والثالث من الحمل مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة وحدوث ALP في مستوى انزيم (P< حدوث ارتفاع معنوي ( 0.001خلال الثلث الثالث من الحمل مقارنة بمجموعة السيطرة في حين لم تظهر النتائج ALT في مستوى انزيم (P≤ ارتفاع معنوي ( 0.05وزمن التخثر بين النساء الحوامل وغير الحوامل. AST وجود فرق معنوي في مستوى انزيم


Article
Seasonal Changes of Nutrient Concentrations in Water of Some Locations in Southern Iraqi Marshes, After Restoration.
التغيرات الموسمية لتركيز المغذيات في مياه بعض مناطق اهوار جنوب العراق، بعد اعادة التأهيل

Author: Mohammed A. H. Al-Kenzawi محمد عبدالرضا حمدان الكنزاوي
Journal: Baghdad Science Journal مجلة بغداد للعلوم ISSN: 20788665 24117986 Year: 2009 Volume: 6 Issue: 4 Pages: 711-718
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

After restoration of Iraqi marshes during 2003, three locations were chosen, one in each main marsh (Um Al-Naaj site in Al-Hwaizeh marsh; Al-Nagarah site in Al-Hammar marsh and Al-Baghdadia site in Al-Chebaysh marsh) to determine the concentrations of nutrients (Nitrate, Nitrite, Phosphate and Silicate) in water seasonally for the period winter, spring, summer, and autumn at 2007. Five water replicates were collected from each site, seasonally. In the Lab., the samples were analyzed by colorimetric methods; the results showed that Um-Al-Naaj site has the highest nutrients level, while Al-Nagarah site has the lowest level. The statistical program t-test was applied at the significant levels (P-value < 0.01) and (P-value < 0.05) to know the significant differences in the nutrients concentration among the sites, as well as among the seasons. Statistically, the results showed that NO3, NO2, and PO4 concentrations have significant differences among the sites, as well as among the seasons. While, SiO2 concentrations have no significant differences among the sites, but they differed significantly among the seasons.

بعد اعادة تأهيل الأهوار العراقية سنة 2003، اختيرت ثلاث مواقع، واحد في كل هور رئيس. أم النعاج في هور الحويزة، النكارة في هور الحمار، البغدادية في هور الجبايش، لتحديد تركيز المغذيات النباتية (النترات، النتريت، الفوسفات، السليكات) في المياه بصورة موسمية (الشتاء، الربيع، الصيف، و الخريف) خلال سنة 2007. جمعت خمس مكررات من كل موقع، وفي المختبر حللت العينات حسب الطرق اللونية. بينت النتائج بأن محطة أم النعاج تملك أعلى تركيز للمغذيات، بينما النكارة تملك التركيز الأقل. طبق النظام الأحصائي t-test عند مستويات معنوية ((P-value < 0.05 و ((P-value < 0.01 لمعرفة المعنوية لتراكيز المغذيات بين المحطات وكذلك بين المواسم. احصائيا، النتائج بينت بأن تراكيز NO3، NO2، PO4 مختلفة معنويا بين المحطات وكذلك بين المواسم، وأن تراكيز SiO2 كانت مختلفة معنويا بين المواسم، بينما لا توجد اختلافات معنوية بين المحطات.


Article
EFFECTS OF ARTIFICIAL SWEETENERS ON RABBITS HEMATOLOGCIAL CHANGES

Authors: Shakir M. Saied --- Asma A. Basheer --- Ehsan G. Zakaria
Journal: AL-TAQANI مجلة التقني ISSN: 1818653X Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 4 Pages: 151-158
Publisher: Foundation of technical education هيئة التعليم التقني

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Abstract

The possible deleterious effects and hematological changes accompanying an extensively used artificial sweeteners(mixture of saccharin, aspartame and sodium citrate ) have been studied on adult apparently healthy 9 males locally rabbits after feeding it for two months by juice containing these sweeteners at rate of 0.0 , 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 g/kg body weight/day, for (control), first, second and third dose respectively.. The little changes which were observed by the first dose was increased at second dose. Here the anemia(which caused the bone marrow failure) was due to decreasing of total red blood cell(RBC), hemoglobin (Hb g/dl) and packed cell volume PCV (%),Finally , feeding by the third dose caused dead due to high drop in hematological values

درست التأثيرات المحتملة والمصاحبة لاستخدام المحليات الاصطناعية (خليط السكرين والاسبارتام وسترات الصوديوم) على التغييرات الدموية لتسعة أرانب محلية بصحة جيدة،بعد تغذيتها لمدة شهرين بعصير يحوى هذه المحليات وبمعدل جرع 0.0 و0.5 و1.0 و1.5 غمكغم من وزن الحيوان في اليوم لجرع (السيطرة) والأولى والثانية والثالثة على التوالي. التغييرات الطفيفة باستخدام الجرعة الأولى زادت في الجرعة الثانية. إن فقر الدم هنا(والذي أدى إلى فشل فئ نخاع العظم) هو بسبب انخفاض تركيز الهيموكلوبين وكريات الدم الحمراء والنسبة المئوية لحجم حزمة الخلايا . واخيرا فان الجرعة الثالثة سببت الوفاة الناشئ عن الهبوط الحاد بقيم التغييرات الدموية.


Article
Histopathological Changes of Hydatidosis in the Liver and Spleen of Albino Mice: Dose Effect Changes
التغيرات النسيجية لداء المكيسات العدرية في كبد و طحال الفئران البيض: تأثير الجرعة على التغيرات

Author: Azhar Hatif Al-Kuraishi د.ازهار هاتف القريشي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2009 Volume: 22 Issue: 1 Pages: 59-64
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Background: A number of investigators have carried out experimental infections of hydatidosis or cystic echinococcosis, using albino mice as an experimental animal model, but there has been disagreement about the effect of the parasite infective dose on the outcome of infection. Studies, which have been carried out in Iraq and other places used protoscolices (PSCs) to produce cystic echinococcosis, but the inoculation dose showed variations.Objectives: This study was established to shed light on the relationship between the number of injected PSCs and the pathological changes that consequently occur in the liver and spleen, as these organs have a role in the immune status of the host, and they are a target for such an infection.Materials and Methods: Ninety male mice aged 7-8 weeks were injected intraperitoneally with 6 doses (250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000, 2500) of PSC/mouse. Fifteen mice were injected for each dose. All doses were paralleled by one control group of 15 mice injected with normal, saline. Five animals were sacrificed at one, two and four month post-injection. Their livers and spleens were collected for histopathological examination.Results: Microscopical examination of livers and spleens of animals injected with doses: 250, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 and 2500 PSCs/ mouse showed severe pathological changes which increased with dose and period post-infection.Conclusion: Both liver and spleen were affected in mice injected with different doses of PSCs, even if it did not show a well developed cyst. These effects were greater as the doses and post-infection period increased, especially in the four months post- infection. Key words: Histopathological changes, hydatidosis, liver and spleen, albino mice, dose effect.

ملخص:خلفية: هناك عدد من الباحثين الذين عملوا على الإصابة التجريبية بداء المكيسات العدرية اومرض الأكياس المائية والذين استعملوا الفئران البيض كحيوانات مختبرية نموذجية. أشتركت هذه الدراسات التي اجريت في العراق و اماكن آخرى في استعمال الرؤويسات الأولية كمسبب مرضي للأكياس المائية لكن مقدار جرعة الإصابة كانت متغايرة. الهدف: أجريت هذه الدراسة لتسليط الضوء على العلاقة بين عدد الرؤويسات الأولية المحقونة وتتابع التغيرات المرضية التي تحدث في الكبد والطحال حيث ان لهذه الأعضاء دور في الحالة المناعية للمضيف وهي كذلك هدف للطفيلي.طرائق العمل: حقنت ذكور الفأر الأبيض بعمر 7-8 أسبابيع في الخلب بواحده من ستة جرع هي: 250 و 500 و 1000 و 1500 و 2000 و 2500 رؤويس أولي/فأر المأخوذة من أغنام مصابة. أستعمل لكل جرعة15 فأر وكذلك 15 فأر كسيطرة لكل المجاميع حيث حقنت بالملح الفسيولوجي في الخلب. تمت التضحية بخمسة فئران بعد مرور شهر وشهران و أربعة أشهر بعد الإصابة لكل جرعة. اخذت أكباد و طحال هذه الحيوانات للفحص النسيجي.النتائج: اظهرالفحص النسيجي لأكباد و طحال الحيوانات المحقونة بالجرع:250 و 500 و 2000 و 2500 رؤويس أولي/فأر، تغيرات نسيجية حادة و التي كانت تزداد مع زيادة الجرعة و الوقت بعد الإصابة.الأستنتاج: ان كلاً من الكبد والطحال في الحيوانات المحقونة بالرؤويسات الأولية قد تأثر حتى في الفئران التي لم تنمو فيها أكياس مائية اوالتي لم تظهر أي إصابة. وكان هذا التأثر يزداد بزيادة الجرعة خاصة الجرع العالية ومع زيادة الوقت بعد الإصابة خاصة بعد أربعة أشهر.


Article
Evaluation of Dimensional Stability for Denture Bases in different Curing Techniques

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Abstract

Stable record base is critical for recording an accurate maxillo-mandibular relationship and evaluation of the esthetics and phonetics of the wax trial prosthesis. To ensure intra-oral stability and retention of the record base, the base should maintain close adaptation to the cast and be dimensionally stable, this study compare the dimensional stability of visible light cure acrylic both conventionally and by using new technique of short curing cycle. Thirty maxillary cast edentulous models poured with a type IV dental di-stone, the specimen divided into three subgroups each group consist of ten cast. In the first group denture base constructed from heat cure acrylic resin using short curing cycle, while in the second group it constructed by using visible light cure acrylic resin and for the third group from visible light cure acrylic resin using new technique, the gap space occurs between the denture base and the cast measured by using traveling microscope measuring device. In this study the reading for the gap space occur between the denture base and the cast show that significantly both the short cycle and VLC new technique more dimensionally stable than that of VLC conventional technique when compared by ANOVA Table and LSD multiple comparison. The dimensional accuracy or fit for the denture base improved by using either a heat cured acrylic resin (using short curing cycle or by using light activated poly methylmethacrylate with the aid of new technique so that better stability and retention of the record bases obtained.


Article
FOOD HABITS OF SEASTAR Asteropecten polycanthus polycanthus MULLER AND TROSCHEL FROM NORTH – WEST
طبيعة الغذاء لنجم البحر Asteropecten polycanthus polycanthus mullur and Troschel

Author: K.D. Saoud خيري دفار سعود
Journal: Journal of Basrah Researches (Sciences) مجلة ابحاث البصرة ( العلميات) ISSN: 18172695 Year: 2009 Volume: 35 Issue: 4A Pages: 11-15
Publisher: Basrah University جامعة البصرة

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Abstract

A total of 158 specimen of seastar collected during the period from Feb. 1999 to Apr. 2000 from Khor Al- Umia (North-West Arabian Gulf). The stomachs of all collected seastar were dissected and the food composition were analyzed. Mollusca occurred in 87% of all stomachs containing food and contributed 94% of food volume. The most important food items were Monodonata vermiculata, Mitrella blanda, Solen vagina, Paphia texilla. There was no distinct seasonal difference in the composition of the diet, but tendency to minimize feeding activity in February-April, probably related to the spawning period.

جمع 158 نموذج من نجم البحر Asteropecten polycanthus polycanthus من منطقة خور العمية (شمال غرب الخليج العربي) للفترة من شباط 1999 ولغاية نيسان 2000 وفحصت معدها مختبريا . شكلت النواعم نسبة 87 % من مجموع المعد المفحوصة و 94 % من حجم الغذاء وان اهم الانواع التي ظهرت هي النوع Monodonta vermiculata، Mitrella blanda ، Solen vagnia ، Paphia texilla. كما لوحظ عدم وجود تغيرات فصلية واضحة في تركيبة الغذاء للنوع المدروس. ولكن هناك انخفاض في نشاط التغذية في الفترة من شباط إلى نيسان.


Article
Histopathological Changes of Experimental Hydatidosis in Liver and Spleen of Albino Mice: Age and Sex Effect

Author: Azhar H. Al-Kuraishi* BSc, MSc, PhD د. ازهار القريشي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2009 Volume: 51 Issue: 4 Pages: 423-428
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Summary: Background: A number of investigators have carried out experimental infections of hydatidosis, using albino mice as an experimental animal model, but there was disagreement on the effect of strain, sex and age of this model. Materials and Methods: Two hundred and forty mice (120 males and 120 females) were injected intraperitoneally with a single dose of 2000 protoscolices (PSCs) /mouse at four ages (3-4, 7-8, 10 and 20 weeks). Each age group consisted of 60 mice (30 males and 30 females); in which 15 animals of each sex were the treated group, while the other 15 animals were a control group (injected with normal saline). Five animals from each age and sex were sacrificed at one, two and four month post-injection, and their livers and spleens were collected for histopathological examination. Results: the highest numbers of cysts and the most severe histopathological changes in livers and spleens of mice were observed at the age 3-4 weeks in both sexes. These changes increased with time post-infection. The changes became more severe in males than females in the age 7-8 weeks, but at the age 20 weeks, the females showed the most severe histopathological changes, while the age 10 weeks showed the lowest changes in both sexes. Conclusion: The age and the sex of the host can modify the course of infection with hydatidosis, and the present results suggest that, mice at the ages 3-4 (in both sexes) and 7-8 weeks old (males) produce the most severe pathological changes in these organs. The more resistant age to hydatidosis was observed at 10 weeks old in both sexes. Keywords: Histopathological Changes, hydatidosis, liver and spleen, albino mice, effect of ages and sexes.


Article
Pulmonary changes findings in patients with systemic sclerosis by high resolution computed tomography
رئوي التغييرات في نتائج مرضى التصلب الجهازي بواسطة التصوير المقطعي ارتفاع القرار

Author: Sameer K. Muhammad سمير خيرالله محمود
Journal: The Medical Journal of Tikrit مجلة تكريت الطبية ISSN: 16831813 Year: 2009 Volume: 1 Issue: 151 Pages: 117-123
Publisher: Tikrit University جامعة تكريت

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Abstract

This study was done to assess the ability of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in detecting the early signs of pulmonary involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The chest in ten patients with established diagnosis of SSc according to American College of Rheumatology criteria for classification of systemic sclerosis-1980 were examined by conventional chest x-ray (CXR) at Tikrit teaching hospital,(2007-2008) . After that, each patient was subjected to chest HRCT. The finding in HRCT imaging seen in nine patients (90%), while only five patients (50%) showed an abnormality on conventional CXR suggestive of an interstitial lung disease and/or chronic pulmonary fibrosis. The HCRT findings were distributed among the reticular and nodular structures (70%), decreased opacity (70%) and other accompanying lesions seen in (60%) of patients. No one of the examined group showed a sign of increased opacity which include the sign of ground glass appearance. HRCT scanner considered a worthfull imaging modality in all patients with SSc, especially at an early stage of the disease as the management of the pulmonary complication in such patients is more effective when applied early

This study was done to assess the ability of high resolution computed tomography (HRCT) in detecting the early signs of pulmonary involvement in patients with systemic sclerosis (SSc). The chest in ten patients with established diagnosis of SSc according to American College of Rheumatology criteria for classification of systemic sclerosis-1980 were examined by conventional chest x-ray (CXR) at Tikrit teaching hospital,(2007-2008) . After that, each patient was subjected to chest HRCT. The finding in HRCT imaging seen in nine patients (90%), while only five patients (50%) showed an abnormality on conventional CXR suggestive of an interstitial lung disease and/or chronic pulmonary fibrosis. The HCRT findings were distributed among the reticular and nodular structures (70%), decreased opacity (70%) and other accompanying lesions seen in (60%) of patients. No one of the examined group showed a sign of increased opacity which include the sign of ground glass appearance. HRCT scanner considered a worthfull imaging modality in all patients with SSc, especially at an early stage of the disease as the management of the pulmonary complication in such patients is more effective when applied early

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