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Article
Bladder Mucosal Pathological Changes Accompany High Grade and Squamous Cell Bladder Tumors

Author: Jassim Mohammad Alkhazraji
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 536-541
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT:BACKGROUND:Carcinoma of the bladder is the second most common cancer in Iraq. The status of the bladderurothelium other than the principal lesions can provide distinct diagnostic information with regard totreatment response and outcome. Positive mucosal biopsy results are a significant indicator ofintravesical recurrence. Currently, in our urological practice, the importance of performing this step incystoscopy is relatively underestimated.OBJECTIVE:The objective of this study is to carry out a histological assessment of 'extra-tumor' bladder mucosa fordysplasia, and correlate the resulting findings of dysplasia with the grade, the type, and the macroscopicappearance of the tumor.MATERIALS AND METHODS:A total of 350 biopsies were taken by cystoscopy from 68 patients admitted with bladder tumors, eitherby cold-cupped biopsy forceps or resectoscope as part of TUR of the tumor. Normal-looking mucosa ofthe bladder was included in each patient's biopsy in a four quadrant way. All biopsies were examinedby the same histopathologist. All patients were managed according to their presentation, cystoscopicand histopathological findings.RESULTS:Statistical analysis showed that the highest significant difference was obtained in patients with tumorgrade, low against high grade (p<0.005). However, a noticeable difference was found in the other twocomparison groups, namely, the type, transitional against squamous and the macroscopic appearance,papillary against solid (p<0.05).CONCLUSION:The high grade, solid tumors and squamous cell carcinoma are associated with general bladder mucosaldysplastic changes which may exclude the bladder preserving procedures as an option of surgicaltreatment. In Iraq, more extensive studies are necessary to come out with appropriate guidelines for abetter treatment and outcome of bladder carcinoma which is a major health problem.


Article
Influence of Fine Aggregate Grading on Some Properties of Self – Compacting Concrete
تاثير تدرج الركام الناعم على بعض خواص الخرسانة ذاتية الرص

Author: Luma Abdul Ghani Zghair لمى عبد الغني زغير
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2010 Volume: 14 Issue: 3 Pages: 18-37
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

Self compacting concrete ( SCC ) can be classified as high – performance concrete .It does not require to be vibrated to achieve full compaction. This offers many benefits and advantages over conventional concrete. The main object of this work was to investigate the properties of SCC produced by locally available materials and to evaluate the effect of grading of fine aggregate ( Coarse Grading CG , Medium Grading MG and Fine Grading FG ) with fineness modulus ranging from (1.9 to 2.7) on some properties of SCC .To achieve this aim, three different mixes of SCC were designed and tested . The used cement content was ( 350 kg/m3) , the powder content material ( cement + limestone dust) maintained constant (500 kg/m3 ) and the water/powder content ratio was ( 0.34). To determine the workability , different test methods were adopted as slump flow , J-ring and L –box tests . It is found the workability of all studied mixes is good, with slump flow diameter greater than or equal to (600 mm), flow times range between (3 and 7.5)sec. while the step of blocking ranges between (0 and 1)mm. The mechanical properties of hardened SCC mixes are also assessed. (compressive strength, splitting tensile strength , modulus of rupture , static modulus of elasticity, and density ) . The results of this study show the possibility of using different grading of fine aggregate with fineness modulus ranging from ( 1.9 to 2.7 ) to produce SCC . The grading pf fine aggregate has a significant effect on fresh properties of SCC while it has insignificant effect on mechanical properties of SCC.

يمكن تصنيف خرسانة الرص الذاتي على انها خرسنة عالية الاداء . ان هذا النوع من الخرسانة لا يحتاج الى الرج للوصول الى حالة الرص التام ، مما يوفر عد فوائد و مزايا تتفوق على الخرسانة الاعتيادية الهدف الرئيسي من هذا البحث هو لدراسة خواص الخرسانة الذاتية الرص المنتجة من مواد متوفرة محليا " و تقييم تاثير تدرج الركام الناعم ( تدرج خشن ، تدرج متوسط ، تدرج ناعم) مع معامل نعومة تتراوح بين ( 1.9 – 2.7 ) على خصائص الخرسانة الذاتية الرص . و لتحقيق هذا الهدف ، تم تصميم و فحص ثلاثة خلطات مختلفة من الخرسانة الذاتية الرص ، نسب محتوى السمنت التي استعملت هي ( 350 كغمم3 ) ، محتوى مادة المسحوق ( سمنت + الغبرة ) كانت (500 كغمم3 ) و نسبة محتوى المسحوق الى الماء كان (0.34 ) . الفحوصات المختبرية التي استخدمت لايجاد قابلية التشغيل هي فحص جريان الهطول باستخدام االقمع و الشكل ( J) و فحص الصندوق على شكل ( (L . قابلية تشغيل الخلطات الخرسانية كانت جيدة حيث كانت انتشار الخرسانة كانت اكثراو يساوي 650 ملم ، زمن الجريان يتراوح بين ( 2.8 و7.5 ثانية) بينما درجة حجز الخرسانة بين( 0 الى 15 ملم ) . ان الخصائص الميكانيكية التي تم درساتها في هذا البحث هي ( مقاومة الانضغاط ، مقاومة الانشطار ، مقاومة الشد بالكسر ، معامل المرونة و الكثافة ) . النتائج اضهرت امكانية استعمال تدرج مختلف من الركام الناعم مع معامل نعومة تتراوح بين ( 1.9 – 2.7 ) في انتاج خرسانة ذاتية الرص و تاثير التغير في تدرج الركام الناعم ليس واضحا" على الخرسانة المتصلبة ، بينما كانت اكثر وضوحا" على الخرسانة الطرية .

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