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Article
Proportion and Determinants of Incomplete Vaccination among Children Aged Less than Two Years in Baghdad City

Authors: ,Faris Al-Lami --- Loai S. Fadil
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2010 Volume: 9 Issue: 2 Pages: 169-173
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND: Immunization is the most important public health advance of the 20th century and the most cost-effective and a life-saving intervention. The public health initiative is to get 90% of the nation's children adequately immunized before their third birthday. OBJECTIVE: To determine the proportion and determinants of incomplete vaccination among a sample of children aged less than two years in Baghdad city. Design: A cross sectional study. Setting: A random sample of 11 Primary Health Care Centers in Baghdad city. Data Collection time: Feb/1st-May/31st / 2008 SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A systematic random sample of 562 children aged less than two years, living in Baghdad city, and attended the selected Primary Health Care Centers for various health complaints apart from immunization. Vaccination status of children was verified for their age and according to the national Expanded Program of Immunization. RESULTS: The proportion of incomplete vaccination was18.8%; 0.5% were completely non-vaccinated. The proportion of incomplete vaccination increased with increasing age (P=0.000). Males showed higher proportion of incomplete vaccination (24.1%) than females (14.2%) (P =0.003). The major proportion of incomplete vaccination was among children of illiterate mothers (43%) (P =0.000). The main causes of incomplete vaccination were immigration problem (46.23%), security problem (29.25%), and parent’s related problem (15%), and other causes (9%). CONCLUSION: Around one of every five children aged less than two years in Baghdad was incompletely vaccinated; immigration and security obstacles were the main causes of incomplete vaccination


Article
Knowledge Economy Determinants in GCC Countries
محددات إقتصاد المعرفة في دول مجلس التعاونلدول الخليج العربية

Author: Abdullah Fadhil Al-Hayali عبد الله فاضل الحيالي
Journal: Regional Studies دراسات اقليمية ISSN: 18134610 Year: 2010 Issue: 20 Pages: 143-175
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The deep and speed changes witnessed by knowledge society in the21th century prove that the predominating economy will be knowledgeeconomy. Governments must possess efficient Institution systems,active economic incentives. good governance. as well as systems ofeducation. innovation and information & communications to motivatecreative entrepreneurship. The applied econometrics analysis resultsproved that economic incentives system. technology of information andcommunications determine about (%99) of changes in knowledgeeconomy index of GCCS in 2009. These states must crystallizeeconomic and scientific awareness to comprehend and stabilizetechnology of information and communications. concluding policiesthat come from fact by technical self-sufficiency to stabilize technologyinstead of importing and using economic feasibility standards withoutstopping at the last chain of technology which is consumption deemedby economic logic as of no use financial wasting

أن التحولات العميقة والسريعة التي يشهدها مجتمع المعرفة في القرن الواحد والعشرين تثبت أن الاقتصاد الذي سيسود هو اقتصاد المعرفة، وينبغي على الحكومات أن تتوافر على نظم مؤسسية كفوءة، وحوافز اقتصادية فعّالة، وحوكمة رشيدة، فضلاً عن نظم التعليم والإبداع، وتقنية المعلومات والاتصالات، بغية الاسهام في حفز النشاطات الريادية الخلّاقة. وأسفرت نتائج تحليل القياس الاقتصادي التطبيقي أن نظام الحوافز الاقتصادية، وتقنية المعلومات والاتصالات يحدِّدان وبمعنوية عالية نحو (99%) من التغيرات الحاصلة في دليل اقتصاد المعرفة للدول الخليجية العربية لعام 2009. ويجدر بهذه الدول بلورة وعي اقتصادي وعلمي لاستيعاب تقنية المعلومات والاتصالات وتوطيدها، واستنباط سياسات تنبع من الواقع على طريق الاكتفاء الذاتي التقني. بما يحقق توطيد التقنية بدلا ً من استيرادها، والاحتكام الى معايير الجدوى الاقتصادية، من دون الوقوف عند آخر حلقات التقنية المتمثلة بالاستهلاك، التي يعدها المنطق الاقتصادي هدرا ً ماليا ً لا طائل منه.


Article
Accordingly، money supply (MS2) and the exchange rate of the Libyan dinar are the main determinants of the rate of inflation in the Libyan economy in the short and long term
تأثير عرض النقود وسعر الصرف على التضخمفي الاقتصاد الليبي

Authors: رمضان الصويعي --- محمود محمد داغر
Journal: journal of Economics And Administrative Sciences مجلة العلوم الاقتصادية والإدارية ISSN: 2227 703X / 2518 5764 Year: 2010 Volume: 16 Issue: 60 Pages: 158-193
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Economists believe that the rate of domestic inflation is mainly determined by several factors including money supply and exchange rate، where the money supply is clearly related and linked to monetary base (HB). They also think that the impact of exchange rate on money supply can be explained particularly through the mechanism of the movements in the balance of payments and foreign assets.The aim of this study is to find out the impact of the fluctuations in money supply and exchange rate on the rate of domestic inflation in the Libyan economy. The study tries to contribute to the literature by examining the effects of money supply and exchange rate on the rate of domestic inflation in the Libyan economy during the period of 1990-2008. The study divided into four sections، following the introduction، section two gives a brief review of the relationship between the inflation rate، money supply and exchange rate based on the economic theory. It also، attempts to address the issue of stabilized function of the demand for money and the main determinants of the exchange rate based on thoughts of variety of economic schools (e.g. classical and new-classical schools). Section three gives a descriptive analysis of relationship between the inflation rate، money supply and exchange rate in the Libyan economy. Further، the money supply (in its wide (MS2) and narrow (MS1) concept) and exchange rate are determined and explained in this chapter in order to give the theoretical background for the following chapter. Sophisticated economic models and econometric techniques have been utilized in Section four in order to achieve the main objectives of this study. These models and techniques include Error correction model (ECM) and Granger Causality model. The Error Correction Model is developed and tested in this chapter in order to analyze the long and short run relationship among the rate of inflation، money supply and exchange rate in the Libyan economy during the period 1990-2008. Furthermore، a two-way causality between the variables of the exchange rate and inflation (CPI)، has been tested using the methodology of Granger causality test in this chapter in order to determine the causation or the direction between these variables.The main results of this study are illustrated in Section four. These results indicate that a two-way causality between exchange rate and inflation represented by consumer price index (CPI) occurred and found to be statistically significant. The result of Error correction model (ECM) shows that there is a long and short relationship among the variables under investigation. Furthermore، The granger causality test indicates that the presence of a causal relationship with one direction from the money supply in its broad definition (MS2) to consumer price index (CPI) and the exchange rate of the Libyan dinar against the U.S. dollar (E). Accordingly، money supply (MS2) and the exchange rate of the Libyan dinar are the main determinants of the rate of inflation in the Libyan economy in the short and long term

تهدف هذه الدراسة إلى محاولة التعرف على اثر كل من عرض النقود وسعر الصرف على معدل التضخم في الاقتصاد الليبي خلال الفترة 1990-2008. ولتحقيق ذلك فقد تم اختيار الرقم القياسي لأسعار المستهلك ليمثل معدل التضخم، وعرض النقود بالمفهوم الواسع ممثلا لعرض النقود، وسعر صرف الدينار الليبي مقابل الدولار الأمريكي ممثلا لسعر الصرف وقد أخضعت المتغيرات لاختبار السكون والذي تشير نتائجه إلى أن التضخم وعرض النقود وسعر الصرف غير ساكنة في مستوياتها، وان صفة السكون تتحقق فقط عند فرقها الثالث وعليه انتقلت الدراسة إلى اختبار التكامل المشترك بين المتغيرات الثلاث والذي أشارت نتائجه إلى وجود سببية على الأقل في اتجاه واحد، وبهذا فان النموذج الأكثر ملائمة لتقدير العلاقة بين أي متغيرات تتصف بخاصية التكامل المشترك هو نموذج تصحيح الخطأ، ثم انتقلت الدراسة لاختبار العلاقة السببية بين التضخم وكل من عرض النقود بالمعنى الواسع وسعر الصرف الدينار الليبي مقابل الدولار الأمريكي.
وقد أوضح اختبار السببية المبني على نموذج تصحيح الخطأ وجود سببية ذات اتجاهين وذلك بين متغيري سعر الصرف ومعدل التضخم (CPI)، كما أن اختبار السببية دل على وجود علاقة سببية ذات اتجاه واحد وذلك من عرض النقود بمفهومه الواسع (MS2) إلى كلا من الرقم القياسي لأسعار المستهلك (CPI) ممثلا لمعدل التضخم وسعر صرف الدينار الليبي مقابل الدولار الأمريكي (E)، وبناء على نتيجة اختبارات السببية تستنتج الدراسة أن :
التغيرات في نمو عرض النقود بمفهومه الواسع (MS2) وكذلك التغيرات في نمو سعر صرف الدينار الليبي مقوما بالدولار الأمريكي (خفض قيمته) تساعد في تفسير التغيرات في نمو معدل التضخم في الأجلين القصير والطويل.

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