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Article
Evaluation of periodontal status in type 2diabetic patients on statin therapy
تقييم حالة دواعم السن عند مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني الذين يعالجون بأدوية السـتاتينات

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Abstract

Background: Dyslipidemia is prevalent in type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). Statin drugs were first used to treat hypercholesterolemia and later to treat dyslipidemia particularly in DM. However, it was found that they also have an anti-inflammatory pleiotropic effect. Chronic periodontitis is a continuous inflammatory process whose progression is modulated by the presence of DM.Aim of study: To assess the association between the use of statin drugs and any improvement in periodontal status.Materials & methods: Eighty (40 males and 40 females) type 2 diabetic patients were enrolled in this study. Patients were selected consecutively but with consideration of sex and exclusion criteria to compose two groups: - Forty (20 males and 20 females) patients who were on a statin drug for at least six months and were assigned as the ( Statin group ).-Forty (20 males and 20 females) patients who received no statin drug at any time and were assigned as ( Non statin group ).Periodontal status was evaluated by periodontal disease index (PDI) which includes plaque, calculus, and periodontal components of this index.Assessment of glycemic control included serum glucose assay and HbA1c assay.Lipid profile assay included estimation of serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and calculation of low density lipoprotein (LDL-C). Results: The difference between the mean levels of HbA1c in statin group and non statin group was statistically non significant (8.61±1.82% vs. 9.10±1.26% respectively). There were no significant differences between statin group and non statin group in regard to the mean levels of TC, HDL-C, and LDL-C. The mean level of TG was higher in statin group and the difference was statistically of high significance (151.10±55.02 vs. 122.43±34.39 mg/dl, P<0.01). The mean values of plaque, calculus, and periodontal disease index were lower in statin group than in non statin group. The difference in plaque index was statistically highly significant (1.31±.0.57 vs. 1.70±0.50, P<0.01), while the differences in calculus index and periodontal disease index were statistically significant (0.61±0.47 vs. 0.87±0.65, and 2.75±0.89 vs. 3.16±.0.78 respectively, P< 0.05).Conclusion: Diabetic patients on statin therapy exhibited fewer clinical signs of periodontal disease than those without statin therapy. Key words: Diabetes mellitus, Dyslipidemia, Statins, Periodontitis

الخلفية: أن شذوذ شحميات الدم هو حالة منتشرة في مرضى السكّري من النوعِ الثاني . أن ادوية الستاتينات ( Statins ) قد اَستعملت في البدايةًً لمعالجة فَرْطُ كوليستيرولِ الدَّم ولاحقاً لمُعَالَجَة شذوذ شحميات الدم خصوصاً في السكّري. لقد وُجِدَ بأنّ لهذه الادوية تأثيرات متعددة المظاهر و منها تأثيرها المُضادُّ للالْتِهاب ً. أن الْتِهابُ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ المُزمن هو عملية ألتهابية مستمرة يتأثر تقدمها بوجود السكري هدف الدراسةِ: تَقييم العلاقة بين إستعمالِ ادوية الستاتينات وأيّ تحسن في الْتِهابُ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ.المواد والطرق: ثمانون من مرضى السكري (40 ذكر و40 أنثى)قد سُجّلوا في هذه الدراسةِ. المرضى إختيروا لإعْداْد مجموعتين:- أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى كَانوا يعالجون بادوية الستاتينات لستّة شهورِ على الأقل. - أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى لم يعالجوا بأدوية الستاتينات. تم تقييم حالة دواعم السن باستخدام دالة مرض دواعم السن والتي تشتمل على دالة اللوحة السنية، دالة القلح أو التكلس السني، ودالة دواعم السن.أن تقدير تضبيط سكر الدم قد تضمن قياس الكلوكوز في مصل الدم والهيموغلوبينِ الغليكوزيلاتي في الدم. أن تقدير مرتسم الشحوم قد تضمن قياس الكوليسترول الكلي وثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد وكوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ رَفيعُ الكَثافَة في مصل الدم وحساب كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ خفيض الكَثافَة. النَتائِج: كانت الفروقات بين متوسط مستويات الهيموغلوبينِ الغليكوزيلاتي في مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات مقابلْ مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات لايعتد بها أحصائيا ( 8.61 ± 1.82 % مقابل 9.1 ± 1.26 % على التوالي ). لم يكن هنالك فرق يعتد به أحصائيا في متوسط مستويات مكونات مرتسم الشحوم لمجموعتي الدراسة بأستثناء ثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد الذي كان أعلى في مجموعة مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات مقابلْ مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات ( 151 ± 55 مقابل 122.4 ± 34.4 ملغرام % على التوالي ، P < 0.01 ).أن متوسط القِيَم لدوال اللوحة السنية ِ،القَلَحٌ أوالتكلس السِنِّيّ ، و الْتِهابُ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ كَانْ أوطأ في مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات مِنْ مجموعةِ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات وكان 1.31 ± 0.57 مقابل 1.7 ± 0.5 ، P < 0.01 لدالة اللوحة السنية وكان 0.61 ± 0.47 مقابل 0.87 ± 0.65 ، P < 0.05 لدالة القلح السني وكان 2.57 ± 0.89 مقابل 3.16 ± 0.78 ، P < 0.05 لدالة دواعم السن على التوالي.الا ستنتاج : أن مرضى السكري الذين يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات أظهروا علامات سريريةَ خاصة بمرضِ الْتِهابِ دَوَاعِمِ السِّنّ أقل مِنْ مرضى السكري الذين لا يعالجون بأدوية الستاتينات.


Article
Association between periodontitis and the main components of metabolic syndrome

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Abstract

The prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and itappears to increase independently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis hasbeen shown to have an association with the risk of cardiovascular disease.The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between periodontalstatus and the main components of metabolic syndrome, singly, and in combination intype 2 diabetic patients.One hundred and seventy five patients (96 males and 79 females) with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the study. The following clinicalcharacteristics were reported: age and gender, body mass index (BMI) and bloodpressure. Periodontal status was assessed using periodontal disease index whichincludes plaque, calculus, and periodontal component of the index. An assessment ofserum lipid analytes included estimation of serum triglycerides (TG) and serum highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).There was a significant difference in mean value of periodontal disease index(PDI) between normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients (3.31±0.83 vs.3.82±0.65, P<0.001). Also there was a significant difference in PDI between normaland high TG groups (3.49±0.73 vs. 3.81±0.61, P<0.01). There was a significantincrease in TG level in hypertensive compared to normotensive diabetic patients(P<0.01). Only in presence of hypertension and obesity in addition to diabetes thatPDI was significantly increased in comparison with diabetic hypertensive non obesepatients (4.1±0.58 vs. 3.62±0.64, P<0.001). There were no significant differences inTG level between obese and non obese diabetic patients while there was a significantincrease in TG level in patients who were hypertensive obese compared tonormotensive non obese (174.64 ±61.39 vs. 150.80±54.96 respectively, P<0.05).Presence of two or more characteristics of MetS has resulted in a significant increaseof PDI when compared with patients who had only diabetes (P<0.001).In conclusion, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia as main components ofMetS are singly associated with periodontitis in T2DM and the presence of any twostudied components of MetS in addition to diabetes will attain the worst deteriorationin periodontal status.


Article
Elevated Levels Of Salivary Sialic Acid In Periodontitis Disease

Author: Akeel S. Abd AlSada
Journal: Iraqi National Journal Of Chemistry المجلة العراقية الوطنية لعلوم الكيمياء ISSN: 22236686 Year: 2010 Issue: 40 Pages: 736-741
Publisher: Babylon University جامعة بابل

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Abstract

AbstractSugars are found as a free form present only in traces in fasting saliva. Most of the carbohydrate content of saliva is in bound form. The carbohydrate part of glycoproteins is readily split off from the proteins by ill defined bacteria. In saliva liberating reducing sugars.A total of 50 volunteers suffering from a case studied periodontitis, they were treated medically, their total sialic acid and lipid associated sialic acid were investigated.A comparison study was adopted using 50 samples of healthy subjects as controls.Significant elevated values of total sialic acid (75.43±0.1mg/dl) and lipid associated sialic acid (45.04±3.15mg/dl) were found in the cases studied compared with normal levels in controls (TSA= 60.13±5.06mg/dl, and LASA= 20.41±6.05 mg/dl).A colorimetric determination was applied to follow the determinations.

الخلاصةتتواجد السكريات الحرة ضمن تراكيز ضعيفة في لعاب الافطار وان معظمها تكون بصورة مرتبطة. ففي حالات الاصابة البكتيرية, فأن هذه السكريات المرتبطة تنفصل عن البروتينات المرتبطة بها محررة بذلك السكريات المختزلة. لقد تم تقدير حمض السياليك كسكر مرتبط وكذلك حمض السياليك المرتبط بالدهن في عينات لعاب (50 عينة) المصابين بالتهاب اللثة وقد قورنت النتائج بمثيلاتها من العينات في لعاب الاصحاء. حيث وجد ان هناك ارتفاعا معنويا ملحوظ في تراكيز حمض السياليك (75.43±0.1 مغ/ دسل) وكذلك ارتفاع ملحوظ في تركيز حمض السياليك المرتبط بالدهن (45.04 ± 3.15 مغ/دسل) مقارنة بمثيلاتها في لعاب الاصحاء ( حمض السيليك= 60.13 ±5.06 مغ/دسل و حمض السياليك المرتبط بالدهن = 20.41± 6.05 مغ/دسل) . أتبع اسلوب المطيافية اللونية في قياس هذه التراكيز.


Article
Chronic periodontitis chief complaints: gender and age distribution; their correlation with plaque indeand probing pocket depthx

Author: Dr. Ali Abbas Abdulkareem BDS, M. Sc .* د.علي عباس عبد الكريم
Journal: MUSTANSIRIA DENTAL JOURNAL مجلة المستنصرية لطب الاسنان ISSN: 18138500 Year: 2010 Volume: 7 Issue: 1 Pages: 143-149
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

To determine the most common chief complaints of chronic periodontitis patientsto assess the public awareness about this disease symptoms, their distribution amongmales & females and their correlation with age and some of periodontal parameters(PLI & PPD).Chief complaints of 1115 (641 males & 474 females) chronic periodontitispatients attending the College of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad seeking treatment.The age range was from 23 to 67 years; the mean age was 46.1. The patients dividedaccording to age groups & according to gender.The majority of patients expressing symptoms of chronic periodontitis weremainly between 40 and 60 years old. A highly significant difference between malesand females in referral and bleeding (P value= 0.001), a significant difference inmobility, altered gingival appearance, and pain (P value= 0.004, 0.022, and 0.002respectively); the other chief complaints (pathologic tooth migration and malodor)showed no significant differences between the two groups (males & females)(Pvalue= 0.909, and 0.872). The highest complaint was bleeding (about 31%) followedby referred patients (19.6%), while the malodor was the least reported chiefcomplaints (5.5%). An obvious correlation between chief complaints and age withPPD and PLI for all chief complaints groups.This study showed that there is an ignorance of the nature of periodontal diseaseson a community level which calls for more education programs to be carried out bydental team members concerning the proper oral hygiene measures instruction andmotivation to reverse or at least minimize the effect of periodontal disease(s).


Article
Association between periodontitis and the main components of metabolic syndrome

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Abstract

AbstractThe prevalence of metabolic syndrome (MetS) is increasing worldwide, and itappears to increase independently the risk of cardiovascular disease. Periodontitis hasbeen shown to have an association with the risk of cardiovascular disease.The aim of the present study is to investigate the association between periodontalstatus and the main components of metabolic syndrome, singly, and in combination intype 2 diabetic patients.One hundred and seventy five patients (96 males and 79 females) with type 2diabetes mellitus (T2DM) were enrolled in the study. The following clinicalcharacteristics were reported: age and gender, body mass index (BMI) and bloodpressure. Periodontal status was assessed using periodontal disease index whichincludes plaque, calculus, and periodontal component of the index. An assessment ofserum lipid analytes included estimation of serum triglycerides (TG) and serum highdensity lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C).There was a significant difference in mean value of periodontal disease index(PDI) between normotensive and hypertensive diabetic patients (3.31±0.83 vs.3.82±0.65, P<0.001). Also there was a significant difference in PDI between normaland high TG groups (3.49±0.73 vs. 3.81±0.61, P<0.01). There was a significantincrease in TG level in hypertensive compared to normotensive diabetic patients(P<0.01). Only in presence of hypertension and obesity in addition to diabetes thatPDI was significantly increased in comparison with diabetic hypertensive non obesepatients (4.1±0.58 vs. 3.62±0.64, P<0.001). There were no significant differences inTG level between obese and non obese diabetic patients while there was a significantincrease in TG level in patients who were hypertensive obese compared tonormotensive non obese (174.64 ±61.39 vs. 150.80±54.96 respectively, P<0.05).Presence of two or more characteristics of MetS has resulted in a significant increaseof PDI when compared with patients who had only diabetes (P<0.001).In conclusion, hypertension and hypertriglyceridemia as main components ofMetS are singly associated with periodontitis in T2DM and the presence of any twostudied components of MetS in addition to diabetes will attain the worst deteriorationin periodontal status.

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