research centers


Search results: Found 5

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by

Article
Membranes Separation Process For Oily Wastewater Treatment
عملية الفصل بالأغشيةِ لمعالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت

Authors: Zaid Waadulla Rashad --- Maha H. Al-Hassani --- Ahmed Faiq Al-Alawy --- Hasan Ferhood Makki
Journal: Journal of Engineering مجلة الهندسة ISSN: 17264073 25203339 Year: 2011 Volume: 17 Issue: 2 Pages: 235-251
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

Pilot-scale dead end microfiltration membranes were carried out to determine the feasibility of the process for treating the oily wastewater which discharge from some Iraqi factories such as power station of south of Baghdad and the general company of petrochemical industries. Polypropylene membranes (cylindrical shape) with different pore diameters (1 and 5 micron) were used to conduct the study on micromembrane process. The variables studied are oil concentration (100 – 1000 ppm), feed flow rate (20 – 40 l/h), operating temperature (31 – 50°C) and time (0 – 3 h). It was found that the flux increases with increasing feed flow rate, temperature and pore size of membrane, and decreases with increasing oil concentration and operating time. It was found also that the effect of feed oil concentration has the greatest effect on the fouling of membrane among other variables. The percent rejection of oil improved significantly with decreasing oil concentration but decreased with increasing feed temperature, pore size of membrane and operating time. Feed flow rate has slightly effect on oil rejection. The type of oil used in this work is 20W-50 gasoline and diesel engine oil.A general model of dead end filtration mode has been successfully evaluated to explain fundamental mechanisms involved in flux decline during dead end microfiltration of oily water emulsions. Analysis of the fall in flux with time for the polypropylene membrane (5 μm) indicates that intermediate and standard pore models give the best prediction for experimental behavior. Empirical correlations for the prediction of the flux and percent reject of oil were determined in this study. These equations have the correlation coefficient 98.87% and 91.49% respectively.

اغشية المايكرو فلتر ذو النهاية المسدودة بمنظومة ريادية نفذت لتحديد دراسة لعملية معالجة المياه الملوثة بالزيوت التي تطرح من بعض المصانع العراقية مثل محطة كهرباء جنوب بغداد والشركة العامة للصناعات البتروكيمياوية. اغشية البولي بروبلين باقطار مختلفة (1 و 5 مايكرون) تم استخدامها لاجراء الدراسة على عملية غشاء المايكرو. المتغيرات التي تم دراستها هي تركيز الزيت (100 – 1000 جزء بالمليون) , معدل الجريان (20 – 40 لتر/ساعة) , درجة حرارة التشغيل (31 – 50 م°) والزمن (0 – 3 ساعة). لقد وجد بأن معدل التدفق يزداد بزيادة معدل الجريان للقيم (المغذي) , درجة الحرارة وحجم المسام للغشاء , ويقل بزيادة تركيز الزيت وزمن التشغيل. وكذلك وجد بأن تركيز الزيت ذو تأثير اكبر على تلوث الغشاء من بين المتغيرات الاخرى. نسبة الرفض للزيت تتحسن بشكل ملحوظ بنقصان تركيز الزيت الداخل ولكن تقل بزيادة درجة حرارة اللقيم (المغذي) , حجم المسام للغشاء وزمن التشغيل. معدل جريان اللقيم (المغذي) له تأثير قليل على نسبة رفض الزيت. ان نوع الزيت المستخدم في هذا العمل هو20W-50 زيت محرك الديزل والكازولين. نموذج عام من نمط ترشيح النهاية المسدودة قُيم بنجاح لتوضيح اليات اساسية تستخدم في هبوط الجريان خلال المايكرو فلتر ذو النهاية المسدودة لمستحلبات الماء الزيتية. تحليل الهبوط في الجريان مع الزمن لغشاء البولي بروبلين (5 مايكرون) يوضح بأن نماذج المسام المتوسطة والقياسية تعطي افضل تنبؤ للسلوك التجريبي. معادلات الارتباط التجريبية لحساب الجريان ونسبة الرفض للزيت تم تحديدها في هذه الدراسة. هذه المعادلات لها معامل الارتباط 98.87% و 91.49% على التوالي


Article
POLYPROPYLENE MESH IN STRESS URINARY INCONTINENCE

Author: Liqaa R Al-Khuzaee لقاء رياض الخزرجي
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2011 Volume: 9 Issue: 4 Pages: 332-337
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

BackgroundThe pubovaginal sling (PVS) is a safe and durable surgical procedure for stress urinary incontinence (SUI) of all types. Among numerous modifications of the procedure is using synthetic sling material to decrease surgical morbidity and increase long-term success.ObjectiveTo present the results of pubovaginal sling with a polypropylene mesh in women with SUI.MethodsWe studied 12 consecutive patients who underwent PVS procedure using polypropylene mesh for SUI between January 2008 and April 2009. Stress urinary incontinence was demonstrated by positive cough test, filling cystometry. Urethral hyper mobility was demonstrated with straining cotton swab (≥ 30◦), with different grades of vaginal wall prolapse. Urodynamic study was not performed. All these patients were treated with pubovaginal sling (PVS) with a low-cost polypropylene mesh confectioned by the surgeon. The sling was placed at the level of the proximal half of the urethra and tied with adequate tension, but not obstructing the bladder outlet. Postoperatively, the patients were evaluated at 6-month with a symptom questionnaire, physical examination, and postvoid residual volume determination. Demographic criteria, complications during surgery and post operative period, and subjective cure rate at three months were assessed.ResultsTwelve patients with mean age of 55.5 years and median parity of 4 years underwent bladder neck sling surgery using polypropylene mesh. Body weight range was 45-68 kg. No intraoperative or major postoperative complications were reported. Mean duration of surgery was 65.5 minutes (60-120 minutes). Concomitant procedures were performed, including cystocele repair (n= 10) rectocele repair (n=11). Mean duration of hospital stay was 2 days (1-5 days). Ten patients had complete cure of SUI, one patient had significant decrease in the severity of stress urinary incontinence. One patient had persistent SUI.ConclusionsThe construction of a pubovaginal sling using a low-cost polypropylene mesh is a safe and effective technique for the relief of SUI. It should be considered an alternative, especially in patients with weak rectus fascia.Key wordsstress urinary incontinence; pubovaginal slings; polypropylene


Article
The Effect of Additives in Hot Asphalt Mixtures
تاثير المضافات على المزيج الاسفلتي الساخن

Author: Sady Abd Taih سعدي عبد تايه
Journal: Journal of Engineering and Sustainable Development مجلة الهندسة والتنمية المستدامة ISSN: 25200917 Year: 2011 Volume: 15 Issue: 3 Pages: 132-151
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The increase in road traffic during the last two decades in combination with an insufficient degree of maintenance due to shortage in funds have caused an accelerated and continuous deterioration of the road network in Iraq. To alleviate this process, several types of measures may be effective, e.g., securing funds for maintenance, improved roadway design, use of better quality of materials and the use of more effective construction methods. In this research, waste plastic bags as one sort of polymers and polypropylene fiber are used to investigate the potential prospects to enhance asphalt mixture properties. The objectives also include determining which one of the two additives is better than the other to be used and its proportion. The two additives were introduced to the mixture in state of small pieces (2-4 mm). Marshall mix design was used, first to determine the optimum bitumen binder content and then further to test the modified mixture properties. In total, (51) samples were prepared (15 samples were used to determine the optimum binder content and the remaining samples were used to investigate the effect of modifying the asphalt mixtures). The optimum asphalt content was (5 %). Six proportions of each additive type and stated by weight of the optimum binder content were selected to be tested (2, 4, 6, 8, 10, and 12%). The tests include the determination of bulk density, stability and flow. Marshall Mix design requires the determination of the percentages of air voids and air voids of mineral aggregate. The results indicated that polypropylene fiber (PPF) modifier provides slightly better engineering properties. The recommended proportion of the polypropylene fiber (PPF) modifier is not more than (6%) by the weight of bitumen content, while it is not more than (8%) for recycled plastic bags (polyethylene). It is found to increase the stability, reduce the density and slightly increase the air voids and the voids of mineral aggregate, but no clear effect on the flow for both additives.

إن الزيادة في الحجم المروري أثناء العقدين السابقين مع الصيانة الغير كافية بسبب نقص الموارد قد تسببت في التدهور المتسارع والمستمر في شبكات الطرق في العراق. للحد من هذه العملية، هناك عدة حلول مؤثرة، كمثال، رصد المبالغ لغرض الصيانة، تحيسن تصميم الطرق، استخدام مواد بجودة أعلى، واستخدام طرق إنشاء أكثر نجاعة. في هذا البحث، تم استخدام أكياس البلاستك المستعملة كأحد مصادر البوليمرات، بالإضافة إلى ألياف البوليبروبيلين للتحري عن الدلائل المحتملة لتحسين خصائص الخلطة الإسفلتية.الاهداف أيضاتتضمن تحديد الأفضل بين هذين النوعين من المضافات لاستخدامها و نسبة إضافتها. المضافان الاثنان ادخلا الى الخليط بحالة قطع صغيرة (2-4 ملم). وقد استخدمت طريقة مارشال لتصميم الخلطة الاسفلتية , اولا لتحديد النسبة المثلى للمادة الاسفلتية الرابطة ثم الاستمرار الى فحص خواص الخلطات المعدلة. كمجموع تم اعداد (51) نموذج، (15 نموذجا منها استخدمت لتحديد المحتوى الاسفلتي الامثل و النماذج المتبقية استخدمت للتحري عن تأثير تعديل الخلطات الاسفلتية). محتوا القير الامثل كان (5%). ستة نسب من كل نوع من المضافات محسوبة من وزن المحتوى الاسفلتي الامثل اختيرت لتكون (12,10,8,6,4,2%). الفحوصات تضمنت تحديد كل من الكثافة العظمى و الثبات و الزحف.لقد اشارت النتائج بأن مضاف الياف البوليبروبيلين (PPF ) تعطي تحسين طفيف للخواص الهندسية. النسبة المقترحة لأضافة الياف البوليبروبيلين (PPF ) لا تزيد عن ( 6% ) من وزن المحتوى الاسفلتي، في حين هذه النسبة لا تزيد عن (8%) من وزن المحتوى الاسفاتي بالنسبة للاكياس البلاستيكية المعادة (PE). لكلا المضافين، وجد بأنهما يزيدان الثباتية و يخفضان الكثافة و يزيدان الفراغات الهوائية بعض الشيء وكذلك نسبة الفراغات مابين حبيبات الركام المعدنية, ولكن لا تأثير واضح على التدفق لكلا المضافين.


Article
Strength Prediction of Polypropylene Fiber Reinforced Concrete

Authors: Najaat H. Ne'ma --- Abdulnasser M. Abbas --- Rana A. Mtasher
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 2 Pages: 305-311
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The main purpose of this investigation is to study the effects ofpolypropylene fiber on the compressive and flexural strength of normal weightconcrete. Four mixes used polypropylene fiber weight with 0.4, 0.8, 1.0 and 1.5%of cement content. To provide a basis for comparison, reference specimens werecast without polypropylene fiber. The test results showed that the increase ofmechanical properties (compressive and flexural strength) resulting from added ofpolypropylene fiber was relatively high. The increase was about 64 percent forcompressive strength, while, in flexural strength was about 55.5 percent.


Article
Behavior of Plain and High Performance Polypropylene Fiber Concrete Subjected to Elevated Temperatures

Author: Luma Abdul Ghani Zghair
Journal: Engineering and Technology Journal مجلة الهندسة والتكنولوجيا ISSN: 16816900 24120758 Year: 2011 Volume: 29 Issue: 8 Pages: 1517-1535
Publisher: University of Technology الجامعة التكنولوجية

Loading...
Loading...
Abstract

The aim of this work is to determine the residual compressive strength and splitting tensile strength after exposure to an elevated temperature (between100 to 500 C ◌ْ ) of plain and polypropylene fiber reinforced concrete (PPFRC) in comparison with specimens exposed to ordinary temperature 25C ◌ْ . High – performance concrete mixes were produced by using high rang reducing agent superplasticizer (SP) and 10% high reactivity metakaoline (HRM) as a partial replacement by weight of cement (350)Kg/m3 . A single concrete mix with HRM,SP and four PPF contents of (0.25, o.5, o.75 and 1%) by volume were adopted. The workability of the concrete was kept constant ( slump 100 ± 5mm ).Each group of specimens ( plain and PPFRC ) was heated to a specified temperature and kept at the temperature for one hour before being gradually cooled to room temperature and then they were tested .The results show at ordinary temperatures 25 C ◌ْ, the addition of fiber volume fraction (VF%) of (0.25%) increases the compressive ( 20.6% ) comparable to HPC without fiber . While the addition of ( 0.5 , 0.75 and 1% ) of polymer fibers , the compressive strength decreased (12.6 , 19 and 33%) respectively comparable to HPC without fiber . On the other hand the addition of (VF%) of (0.25) increased splitting tensile strength ( 15%) comparable to HPC without fiber . while theaddition of fiber volume fraction (VF%) of (0.5 ) increased splitting tensile strength by a percentage which is lower than that in specimens with VF% of 0.25 , the increase in splitting tensile strength was ( 6%) comparable to HPC without fiber at ordinary temperaturesThe results also shows that , when (1% ) fibers was used , the splitting tensile strength decreased ( 10.8%) in comparable to HPC without fiber At elevated temperature the results show an appreciable decrease in compressive strength and splitting tensile strength after exposure to temperature higher than 300 C ◌ْ of both plain and PPFRCSpecimens containing PPF ( 0.25 , 0.5 , and 0.75 %) the percentage ofreduction in splitting tensile strength is lower than that in HPC specimens ( without fibers ) after exposure to a temperature ( 500 ,300 and 100 C ◌ْ ) comparable to normal temperature 25C ◌ْ .While specimen containing PPF ( 1% ) the percentage of reduction in splitting tensile strength was higher than specimen without PPF after exposure to a similar temperature .On the other hand , specimens containing PPF ( 0.25 , 0.5 , 0.75 and 1 %) the percentage of reduction in compressive strength is higher than that in HPC specimens ( without fibers ) after exposure to a temperature (500 ,300 and 100 C ◌ْ). comparable to normal temperature 25C ◌ْ

Listing 1 - 5 of 5
Sort by
Narrow your search

Resource type

article (5)


Language

English (4)

Arabic and English (1)


Year
From To Submit

2011 (5)