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Detection of salivary flow rate and minerals in smokers and non smokers with chronic periodontitis (Clinical and Biochemical study)

Authors: Basima Gh. Ali باسمة علي --- Omar Husham Ali عمر هشام علي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 68-71
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Chronic periodontitis is an inflammatory disease that affects the supporting tissues of the teeth and it’s acommon chronic adult condition. Smoking is considering a major risk factor for development and progression ofperiodontal disease, and it has an effect to the salivary minerals which cooperate with plaque and calculusinitiation, maturation, and metabolism with periodontal disease formation. The purpose of this study was to evaluatethe effect of smoking on the salivary minerals in subjects with chronic periodontitis compared to healthy subjects bybiochemical analysis of these minerals. .Materials and methods: The study group included 75 males–25 males smokers with chronic periodontitis (G1), 25males non-smokers with chronic periodontitis (G2) and 25 males non smokers with healthy periodontium (G3). All withan age rang 30-40 years. Clinical measurements include (PLI, BOP, PPD, CAL) were determined for each toothexcept third molar. Unstimulated whole saliva was collected. PH and salivary flow rate (SFR) were obtained and thelevels of five elements–sodium, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and phosphate in each specimen were analyzed.Results: A highly significant difference in PLI in (G1) group than in (G3) group and a non significant in (G1) group than(G2) group. A highly significant relation of gingival bleeding on probing in (G2) group in compared to (G1) groupwith very clearly marked decrease in the total sites that bleed in smokers than non-smokers. Significant differences inPPD and CAL were found between (G1) group and (G2) group. The results of this study for salivary minerals showedthat there were high significant differences between (G1) group and (G2) group for Ca+2, Na+1 and K+1 ions andbetween (G1) group and (G3) group for Ca+2, Na+1, K+1 and Po4-3 ions while significant differences were found in (G1)group compared with the other groups for Mg+2 ion. Salivary flow rate was significantly higher in (G1) groupcompared with the other groups. A significant increase in PH level in (G1) group compared to (G3). In (G1) group,there was a significant positive correlation between the mean level of Ca+2 and PLI. There was also a significantnegative correlation between the mean level of Po4-3 and CAL.Conclusions: The researcher could conclude that monitoring for changes in salivary composition might be a usefultool to detect the effect of smoking on periodontal health status.

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