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Article
Accuracy and precision of a photographic system for the three-dimensional study of facial morphology

Authors: Shwan E Abdulkareem شوان عبد الكريم --- Nagham Al-Mothaffar نغم المظفر
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 1 Pages: 138-145
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Facial analysis is vital for orthodontic treatment planning but traditional methods of facial analysis areincapable of fully capturing the three-dimensional complexity of the human face. The purpose of this study was todetermine the precision and accuracy of facial anthropometric measurements obtained through low-cost digitalthree-dimensional photogrammetry system.Materials and methods: Eighteen standard craniofacial measurements were obtained from faces of thirty youngadults using two methods: calipers and 3D photos (obtained with a Photomodeler system). After markinganthropometric landmarks on the faces of the sample, direct measurements were taken using calipers then fivephotographs were taken at different angles and 3D model constructed and the same measurement were takenusing Photomodeler. Differences between two methods were calculated. To test the precision of the newphotogrammetric system, measurements were repeated on the same photographs by the researcher and then byanother examiner and also a new set of photographs were taken for each individual and measurements were doneon them. Three different precision estimates were calculated to measure random error for the new method.Results: Systematic errors between the two methods were found for seven measurements but most mean differenceswere clinically insignificant (below 2 mm). In terms of measurement precision, no systematic biases were foundbetween repeated measurements on the same photographs or on different photographs and our precisionestimates showed a clinically acceptable level of repeatability for the Photomodeler system.Conclusion: It can be concluded that Photomodeler 3D photogrammetry system can provide accurate and reliablefacial measurements. It is relatively fast and requires only inexpensive equipment


Article
The variation of facial soft tissue thickness in Iraqi adult subjects with different skeletal classes (A comparative cephalometric study)

Author: Hiba M. Hussein Al-Chalabi هبة الجلبي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: special issue 2 Pages: 143-149
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The variation of facial soft tissue thickness is an important factor in facial reconstruction andsuperimposition methods in forensic dentistry as well as for orthodontist and plastic surgeons because they providethe basis for quantification and repeatability. The purpose of this study was to compare facial soft tissue thickness ofIraqi patients with different types of skeletal relations.Materials and method: Lateral cephalometric study was conducted on 60 adult Iraqi patients with normal verticaldimensions (diagnosed clinically and radiographically as SN-Mandibular Plane angle 28›-36›), aged 18-30 years,classified according to skeletal sagittal relationship using ANB angle into three groups (each group consist of 10 maleand 10 female subjects): Class I group (ANB2-4›), Class II group (ANB>4›) and Class III group (ANB<2›). Cephalometricanalysis of soft tissue thickness was achieved by 10linearmeasurements using AutoCAD program 2007.Results and Conclusions: This study showed that the facial soft tissue thickness measurements were significantly higherin male than in female in almost all measured midline landmarks, in comparing the three skeletal relation groups,Class III group show the highest readings when compared to Class I and Class II, Class II show the lowest resultsamong the three groups (except for the labiomental fold area and pogonion area), while Class I group lies betweenthe other two groups for all the measured values.


Article
Clinical Comparison between Diode Laser and Scalpel Incisions in Oral Soft Tissue Biopsy

Authors: Wael S Shalawe --- Zaid A Ibrahim --- Ali D Sulaiman
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 337-343
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims of the study: To compare the new diode laser (1064nm) incision with conventional blade inci-sion wounds after oral soft tissue biopsy in terms of haemostasis, local anesthetic required, duration of incision and post operative pain. Materials and Methods: This study was conducted in the Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery Department at College of Dentistry/University of Mosul and Oral and Maxil-lofacial Surgery Department in Al-Salam Teaching Hospital between February 2010 and May 2010. Thirty patients were enrolled and divided into two groups, each consisted of fifteen patients. The first group included fifteen patients requiring biopsy (based on their indications for biopsy) in the oral cavi-ty, where the incision was done using surgical blade no.15. The second one included fifteen patients who needed biopsy in the oral cavity (based on their indications for biopsy), here the incision was made by using diode laser (FOXTM, A.R.C. laser, Germany) wavelength 1064nm with output power (3.5Watt) CW in contact with the tip of bare fiber (200micron). All biopsies in the two groups were excisional and done under local anesthesia using infiltration technique. Results: In comparison be-tween the two groups: the amount of local anesthetic required in the second group (diode laser wound group 0.73 ml) was less than that required by the first group (blade incision wound group 1.6 ml) and showed statistically high significance at p value < 0.05. The mean of the difference in the weight of the gauze before and after the operation in the second group(0.16 gm) was less than the difference in the weight of the gauze in the first group(0.96 gm) which showed statistically high significance at p value <0.05. The mean of the duration for incision was statistically not significant between the two groups and the mean of pain score at the first post-operative day was statistically significant in the second group in comparison to the first group but there was no statistical difference in the pain score level at the third postoperative day between the two groups. Conclusion: The use of Diode (1064nm) laser to perform oral biopsy has several advantages over the blade incisions wound including less amount of local anesthesia required, enhanced haemostasis (suturing after surgery was not necessary) , minimal postoperative pain.


Article
Assessment of sagittal lip position and some affecting factors in a sample of Iraqi adults

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Abstract

This study aimed to determine the sagittal lip position and some of the factorsaffecting it regarding the gender differences, and their correlations in a sample of Iraqiadults.Sixty two participants (37 females and 25 males) collected among dental studentshaving Cl I skeletal and occlusal relations and full permanent dentition regardless thethird molars were chosen for this study. Each person was subjected to clinicalexamination and digital true lateral cephalometric radiograph. The radiographs wereanalyzed by using AutoCAD 2007 computer program to measure the sagittal lipposition using the soft tissue analyses of Steiner, Burstone, Ricketts, Sushner,Holdaway, and Merrifield. Descriptive statistics were obtained from themeasurements of both genders; independent samples t-test was performed to evaluatethe gender differences and Pearson’s correlation coefficient test was used to find thecontributing factors to the sagittal lip position.Sagittal jaw angles were significantly higher in males than females, while verticaljaw angle was higher in females. Lower incisors showed slight proclination in bothgenders. The mean values of H-angle and revised H-angle in males were nonsignificantlyhigher than that of females, while the mean value of Z-angle was nonsignificantlyhigher in females. Upper and lower lips thickness mean values weresignificantly higher in males. Females had non-significantly more projected nosecompared to males. Regarding the sagittal lip position, upper and lower lipmeasurements were non-significantly higher in males than females in Ricketts,Steiner, Burstone, and Holdaway analyses, but it was significant in Sushner analysis,while Z-angle of Merrilfield was non-significantly higher in female sample. Pearson’scorrelation coefficient test revealed that upper and lower lip thickness wassignificantly positively correlated with sagittal lip position, while nose projection wassignificantly negatively correlated.Sagittal position values of the upper and lower lips in a sample of Iraqi adults areclose to the norms of Ricketts, Steiner, Sushner, Burstone, and Holdaway analyseswith a slight tendency of upper lip toward retrusion and lower lip toward protrusionwith the exception of that when compared with Sushner norms. In addition to the chinposition, lips thickness and nose projection are the most important factors thatinfluence the sagittal lip position and compensate for the variations in the jaw basesbetween genders.


Article
The Effect of Hyaluronic Acid and Platelet - Rich Plasma on Soft Tissue Wound Healing: An Experimental Studyon Rabbits

Author: Wafaa K Fathi
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2012 Volume: 12 Issue: 1 Pages: 115-125
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

Aims: This study aimed to evaluate the benefits of using platelet– rich plasma and hyaluronic acid when used alone or in combination with each other on wound healing. Materials and methods: The study performed on 15 adult male rabbits divided into three group according to healing periods (3,7,14 days), each group containing 5 animals. Four longitudinal incisions were made on the back of each rabbit, 2 in the right and 2 in the left. A distance of about 1.5 cm was left between one incision and another. The defects were filled with platelet–rich plasma, hyaluronic acid, or mixture of both, and the last incision served as control. Animals were sacrificed at 3rd, 7th, and 14th day after intervention, and biopsy were taken. Histopathological analyses were performed to evaluate the effect of these materials on acceleration of wound healing of skin. Statistical analyses was performed with Analysis of Variance and Duncan's Multiple Range Analysis Test, using a significant level of p ≤ 0.01. Results: Histopatho-logical analysis revealed significant improvement of wound healing when treated with PRP, and with mixed application of PRP and HA compared with control and HA groups in 3rd and 7th day postope-ratively, while there was no significant differences in wound healing between all groups at the end of the second week. Conclusions: The use of PRP alone or in combination with HA will accelerate wound healing , while the use of low concentration of HA alone presents no improvement of wound healing in comparison with normal one.


Article
Antepartum Detection of Macrosomic Fetus Clinical Versus Sonographic Including Humeral Soft Tissue Thickness
اكتشاف الجنين ذو الجسم الضخم : مقارنة الفحص السريري مع الفحص بالامواج فوق الصوتية من ضمنها قياس سمك الأنسجة الرخوة لمنطقة العضد

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Background: Neonatal mortality rates decrease with increasing birth weight until approximately 4000g, after which mortality increases. Maternal diabetes and obesity are among the predisposing factors for fetal macrosomia for which there are many fetal and maternal consequences like increasing incidence of birth injuries and caesarean section rates respectively.Objective: To compare clinical & sonographic estimation of birth weight using Hadlock’s (1) equation with other estimation technique that involve measurement of fetal humeral soft tissue thickness to identify newborns with excessive birth weight of at least 4000 grams. Patients & Methods: This study was conducted at the department of Gynaecology & Obstetrics in Al-Yermouk Teaching Hospital, Baghdad, Iraq. Ninety pregnant women were studied. They had gestational ages of 37 weeks or more and a suspicion of fetal macrosomia based on the presence of one or more of certain risk factors. About 24 hours prior to delivery of the fetus clinical estimation of fetal body weight using Leopold’s manoeuvre was done followed by sonographic fetal weight estimation using Hadlock’s (1) equation. Fetal humeral soft tissue thickness was measured by ultrasound three times and an average of the three readings was taken. Then a comparison of the three methods mentioned above was done regarding their validity in predicting fetal macrosomia. Results: Sonographic fetal humeral soft tissue thickness correlates with birth weight and found to be higher in macrosomic than the non-macrosomic newborns (14.35mm versus 11.6mm) and the difference was statistically significant (P value <0.001). The sonographic fetal humeral soft tissue thickness measurement was more sensitive in predicting fetal macrosomia than the sonographic fetal weight estimation (87.2 versus 75%) but less specific (74.2 versus 86%). The clinical estimation has the lowest accuracy in predicting fetal macrosomia compared with sonographic fetal weight estimation and sonographic fetal humeral soft tissue measurement. Conclusion: The sonographic measurement of fetal humeral soft tissue thickness positively correlates with newborn birth weight. It is more accurate than the clinical fetal weight estimation in predicting fetal macrosomia. On the other hand it is more sensitive but less specific than the sonographic fetal weight estimation using Hadlock’s (1) equation in predicting fetal macrosomia. Keywords: Fetal Macrosomia, humeral soft tissue thickness.

الهدف من البحث: الغرض من هذه الدراسة مقارنة الفحص السريري والفحص بالأمواج فوق الصوتية باستعمال معادلة هادلوك (1) لقياس وزن الجنين مع طريقه جديدة وهي قياس سمك الأنسجة الرخوة لمنطقة العضد للجنين باستعمال جهاز الفحص بالأمواج فوق الصوتية لغرض اكتشاف المواليد ذو الجسم الضخم والذين يكون وزنهم عند الولادة 4000 غرام على الأقل. التصميم: دراسة حالة مسيطرة موقع البحث: مستشفى اليرموك التعليمي – قسم التوليد والطب النسائي طريقة البحث: اشتملت الدراسة على فحص90 امرأة حامل عمر حملهن 37 أسبوع أو أكثر ولديهن احتمال ضخامة جسم الجنين اعتماداً على وجود عامل خطورة واحد أو أكثر، خلال أربعه وعشرين ساعة من الولادة تم فحص الحوامل فحص سريري وبطريقه ليوبولد لتقدير وزن الجنين ثم حساب وزن الجنين بواسطة الفحص بجهاز الأمواج فوق الصوتية وباستعمال معادلة هادلوك (1) ثم تم قياس سمك الأنسجة الرخوة لمنطقة العضد للجنين باستعمال جهاز الأمواج فوق الصوتية ثلاث مرات وأخذ ألمعدل، تم إجراء المقارنة بين الطرق الثلاثة المذكورة آنفا فيما يخص الطريقة الأكثر فاعليه في اكتشاف الجنين ذو الجسم الضخم. ألنتائج: أظهرت النتائج إن قياس سمك الأنسجة الرخوة لمنطقة العضد بجهاز الأمواج فوق الصوتية يتناسب طردياً مع وزن الجنين وانه أعلى في الأجنة ذوي الأجسام الضخمة (14.35ملم) عنه في ألأجنة ألاعتيادية ألوزن (11.6 ملم)، كما أظهرت النتائج ان قياس سمك الأنسجة الرخوة لمنطقة العضد بجهاز ألأمواج فوق الصوتية أكثر حساسية من حساب وزن الجنين بالأمواج فوق الصوتية (87.2 مقابل 75%) ولكنه أقل خصوصية في اكتشاف ضخامة جسم الجنين قبل الولادة (74.2 مقابل 86%)، كذلك تبين إن تقدير وزن ألطفل بالفحص السريري يعتبر ألأقل دقه في حساب وزن الطفل من كلتا الطريقتين المذكورتين آنفاً ألاستنتاج: إن قياس سمك الأنسجة الرخوة لمنطقة العضد بجهاز ألأمواج فوق الصوتية أكثر دقه من تقدير وزن الجنين بالفحص السريري كما انه أكثر حساسية من حساب وزن الجنين بالأمواج فوق الصوتية ولكنه أقل خصوصية في اكتشاف ضخامة جسم الجنين قبل الولادة. كلمات ألمفتاح: الجنين ذو الجسم الضخم ، سمك ألأنسجة ألرخوة لمنطقة العضد

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