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Article
Dynamic lip to tooth relationship during speech, posed and spontaneous smile using digital videography

Authors: Ali S. Al-khafaji علي الخفاجي --- Nagham M. Al-Mothaffar نغم المظفر
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2012 Volume: 24 Issue: 2 Pages: 99-103
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The human face is a living mirror held out to the world. Natural, marked, painted or adorned, it haspower to attract, charm, captivate or brighten. Therefore the subject of the smile and facial animation, as theyrelate to communication and expression of emotion, should be of great interest to orthodontists so the aims of thisstudy were to determine the difference of outer commissure width, inter-labial gap, smile index, modified smile index,visible maxillary interdental width, buccal corridor percentage and maximum incisor show among different smilestyles (Monalisa, Cuspid and complex) during emotion, posed smile and speech. And to determine the differences ofthe same variables for each smile style among emotional smile, posed smile and speech.Materials and methods: The sample consisted of 77 Iraqi adult subjects (18-30) years with skeletal class I occlusion,classified into three categories according to a certain neuromuscular mechanism of smile called smile style, the firstgroup consisted of 34 (24 male, 10 female) subjects with Monalisa smile style, the second consisted of 34 (22 male, 12female) subjects with Cuspid smile style, the last 9 subjects (5 male, 4 female) were the third group with Complexsmile style. Each subject was recorded using digital videographic camera while watching a comical movie to elicitemotional smile, then they asked to say “Chelsea eats cheesecake” to record them during speech. The videographswere imported to the PMB-picture motion browser to capture emotional smile, posed smile and speech frames. Fourlinear measurements were measured for each frame using AutoCAD program 2011.Results: The results of this study showed that all the variables changed significantly when the subject change fromspeech to emotional smile frame in all smile styles. And these changes revealed almost the same behavior when thesubject changed from speech to pose or to emotional smile frames.Conclusion: The result of this study revealed that emotional smile is largely different from posed smile in differentaspects which has an effect on decisions related to orthodontic diagnosis and treatment plan


Article
IN VITRO REGENERATION AND SOMATIC EMBRYOGENESIS IN CITRUS
الإكثار المعملي والأجنة الجسدية في الموالحالإكثار المعملي والأجنة الجسدية في الموالح

Author: Adel M. El-Sawy
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2012 Volume: 11 Issue: 2 Pages: 389-406
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Plant regeneration through somatic embryogenesis was investigated in Washington navel orange, Satsuma mandarin, Lemon, Variegated lemon, Lime, Citron, Pummelo, Rough lemon , Sour orange , Volkamer lime and Rangpur lime using stigma, style and ovary as explants. Explants were cultured on Murashige and Skoog( MS )medium supplemented with50 gl-1 sucrose, 500 mgl-1 malt extract and 3 mgl-1 Benzyl adinen (BA). Two months later, somatic embryos were induced from embryogenic callus. The percentage of embryo formation and number of embryo germinated depended on the explants type and genotype. Best results were obtained when stigma explants of variegated lemon and Citron were used. After ten months, somatic embryos developed into plantlets at a frequency ranged from13.3% for Lime to 66.7 % for Lemon. Virus presence was tested by ELISA and RT-PCR . The obtained results indicated that the plantlets regenerated through somatic embryogenesis were CTV-free. RAPD analysis was used to asses the genetic stability of obtained plantlets as compared to the mother plants. Results indicated that most plantlets were belonging to the respective mother plants and the polymorphism percentage was genotype and explant- dependant. Abbreviations: BA – Benzyladenine; CTV – citrus tristiza virus; TCL – Thin cell layer ; CPsV – citrus pserosis virus; GA3 – Gibrillic acid.

أجرى هذا البحث بهدف أنتاج نباتات موالح من الأجنة الجسدية الناتجة من زراعة أجزاء الزهرة المختلفة ( الميسم – القلم- المبيض).و قد تم انتاج الكالس و الأجنة الجسمية و اعادة تكشف النباتات من النواع التالية( البرتقال بسرة- اليوسفى ساتزوما- الليمون الأضاليا – الليمون الأضاليا المبرقش- الليمون المالح –الترنج- الشادوك- الليمون المخرفش- النارنج- ليمون فولكاميريانا - ليمون رانجبور)وتم الزراعة على بيئة موراشيج و سكوج مزودة ب ٥٠٠مجم/لترمستخلص الشعير((ME بالأضافة الى۳مجم/لترمن البنزيل امينوبيورين(BAP) لأنتاج الكالس. وقد لوحظ ظهور الأجنة الجسدية على الكالس بعد 2 -3 شهورمن الزراعة على بيئة موراشيج و سكوج مزودة ب 50 جم/لتر سكروز + ٥٠٠مجم/لترمستخلص الشعير((ME بالأضافة الى۳مجم/لترمن BAP وجود اختلافات فى نسبة الكالس و الكالس الجنينى و كذلك عددالأجنة الجسدية المتكونة بأختلاف أنواع الموالح المستخدمة و كذلك نوع الجزء النباتى .وجد ان أفضل الأنواع انتاجا للأجنة الجسدية هى الليمون الأضاليا المبرقش و الترنج فى حالة زراعة الميسم . و تم حساب نسبة انبات هذة الأجنة الجسدية بعد عشر شهور و قد تراوحت ما بين 13.3 % لليمون المالح و 66.7 % لليمون الأضاليا. كذلك تم اختبار النباتات الناتجة للكشف عن فيروس الترستيزا باستخدام الأليزا و RT-PCR و اثبتت النتائج ان الأجنة الجسدية الناتجة من البويضات تعتبر طريقة ناجحة لأنتاج نباتات موالح خالية من فيروس الترستيزا CTV , كذلك تم اختبار النباتات الناتجة وراثيا باستخدام تفاعل البلمرة المتسلسل ((RAPD-PCR للكشف عن وجود اختلافات وراثية و اثبتت النتائج ان النباتات الناتجة تتشابه مع النباتات الأم مع عدم وجود اختلافات بيرةوراثية ك

Keywords

style --- and ovary culture --- Somatic embryogenesis --- RAPD --- CTV --- RT-PCR --- ELISA

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