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Article
Immunohistochemical study of PDGF, IGF of radiated tooth rat embryo

Authors: Rasim Mahdi Salih راسم مهدي صالح --- Athraa Y Al-Hijazi عذراء يحيى الحجازي
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 110-115
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Exposure to microwaves radiation from microwave oven may be harmful for users especially for the onewho have highest contact with microwave oven. Because the body is electrochemical in nature, any force thatdisrupts or changes human electrochemical events will affect the physiology of the body by destabilization andinterruption of many chemical body substance including growth factors.The insulin-like growth factors (IGFs) are afamily of mitogenic proteins that control growth, differentiation, and the maintenance of differentiated function innumerous tissues. It fulfils an important role in growth and development of teeth, mandible, maxillae, and tongue.Platelet derived growth factors (PDGF) are proteins that regulate cell growth and division. In particular, it plays asignificant role in blood vessel formation (angiogenesis). It seems that IGF and PDGF share in much tissuedevelopmental process. Therefore they included in the present study in correlation to tooth growth & development.This study Illustrates the expression of insulin like growth factor and platelet derived growth factor by dental cells ofrat embryos at periods of gestation 16th,18thday intrauterine life(I.U.L) and one day neonatal life.Materials and Methods: Animal model: Thirty-six female rats were used in this study .Starting from zero days (time ofgestation that recorded) the pregnant rats were divided into three groups. Group A serve as a control, groups Bexposed to microwave oven radiation For (15 /minutes; 5/min /hour for 3 hours continuously) daily and C exposed toEMF radiation for (45 minutes ;15 min /hour for3hours continuously)daily starting from zero day of gestation till the lastday. The embryo of rats at 16thday and 18th day of intrauterine life and one day old rat (new born rat) were studiedimmunohistochemically for localized of platelet derived growth factor (PDGF) and insulin growth factor (IGF) markers.Results:The results showed that experimental group (B) exposed to short duration of radiation (5/ min.) stimulates thedevelopment of tooth germ and faster tooth growing in comparison to control with immunohistochemical resultsshow strong to moderate intense stain for positive expression of growth factors(PDGF,IGF) by dental tissue.For longexposure period of radiation( group C) , it showed retardation in the tooth growth withimmunohistochemical findingsrecord weak to negative intense stain for the expression of growth factors(PDGF,IGF) by dental tissue.Conclusion: Exposure to microwave (oven) radiation during pregnancy may play a role in the expression of IGF andPDGF by cells of tooth germ thatinfluence on cell differentiation and physiological activity of specialized dental cells,depending on exposure time


Article
EVALUATION OF IMMUNOHISTOCHEMICAL EXPRESSION OF CK19 IN PAPILLARY THYROID CARCINOMA AND GRAVE'S DISEASE WITH PAPILLARY CHANGES

Authors: Ikram A. Hasan اكرام عبد اللطيف حسن --- Methaq M. Najem ميثاق معين نجم --- Thair J. Kadem ثائر جواد كاظم
Journal: IRAQI JOURNAL OF MEDICAL SCIENCES المجلة العراقية للعلوم الطبية ISSN: P16816579,E22244719 Year: 2013 Volume: 11 Issue: 3 Pages: 225-229
Publisher: Al-Nahrain University جامعة النهرين

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Abstract

Background:Immunohistochemistry seems to be important method for differentiation between papillary thyroid carcinoma which is the commonest thyroid cancer and Grave's disease which may be challenging by light microscopic features only.Objectives:The aim of the study was to evaluate the immunohistochemical expression of CK 19 antibody that is considered a marker of malignancy in papillary thyroid carcinoma and in Grave's disease and to determine whether CK19 is effective in the discrimination between these two pathological conditions.Methods:In this retrospective study paraffin embedded archival materials from 40 cases including 20 papillary thyroid carcinoma and 10 Grave's disease in addition to ten normal thyroid tissue were used as a control group, collected from the department of pathology of Al-Yarmook Teaching Hospital for the period between Jan 2009 to Jan 2011. The immunohistochemical expression of CK19 markers was assessed for intensity and extent of staining in semiquantative method.Results:Sixteen of the 20 papillary carcinomas showed diffuse and intense cytoplasmic staining with CK19 (80%), 4 cases showing diffuse faint staining (20%). Seven of the 10 Grave's cases (70%) are completely negative. The remaining 3 cases showing focal weak staining with CK19 (30%). There was a significant difference in the extent of staining between papillary thyroid carcinoma and Grave's disease and there was highly significant difference in intensity of staining between them.Conclusions:The staining features of CK19 may be helpful in the differential diagnosis between papillary carcinoma and Grave's disease with papillary carcinoma like structures. This immunoreactivity should be evaluated with histopathological findings in order to prevent over diagnosis of papillary carcinoma.Keywords:CK19 immunohistochemical expression, papillary thyroid carcinoma, Grave's disease.


Article
Enhancement of tooth eruption by using amniotic stem cells (Immunohistochemical study of VEGF marker)

Authors: Athraa Y. Al- Hijazi عذراء الحجازي --- Lubna K. Jassim لبنى جاسم
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 2 Pages: 80-88
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Tooth eruption is a localized process in the jaws which exhibits precise timing and bilateral symmetry.Develop within the jaws and their eruption is a complex infancy process during which they move through bone totheir functional positions within the oral cavity. For species with more than one set of teeth, eruption of the second setalso accomplishes. The key to the successful clinical management of tooth eruption consists of understanding thatthis process consists largely of the local regulation of alveolar bone metabolism to produce bone resorption in thedirection of eruption and shift and formation of bone at the opposite side.The amniotic sac contains a considerablequantity of stem cells. These amniotic stem cells are able to differentiate into various tissues, which used in many field.Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is an important angiogenic factor reported to induce migration andproliferation of endothelial cells, enhance vascular permeability, and modulate thrombogenicity. VEGF expression incultured cells (smooth muscle cells, macrophages, endothelial cells) is controlled by growth factors and cytokines.The aim of this study was to study the administration of cell molecules of (Chorion, Amnion and Amniotic fluid)around developing mouse tooth and studying the expression of VEGF marker.Materials and Methods: forty eight albino Swiss mice of one day old age injected with isolated amniotic stem cells inthe anterior region of maxilla (incisors area) other 16 mice injected with saline represents control. Sacrifice 4 mice foreach period (4, 7, 10, and 13) day old age. The result were studied histologically and immunohistochemistry.Results: VEGF marker localized and identified in 3 areas; pulp, P.D.L, and Bone. In pulp. The mean value of positiveVEGF expression showed to be highest in Amnion group in comparison to the other studied groups. The marginalmean value of all periods reported to be highest in Amnion groups followed by Chorion group. The period 10 dayshowed highest marginal means value for positive VEGF expression for all groups. In P.D.L. area Amniotic fluid recordsthe highest mean and marginal mean value specifically at day-10 in comparison to other studied groups. In Bonearea Amniotic fluid records the highest mean and marginal mean value among the studied groups followed byChorion group. Period 7-day and 10-day shows high mean value for VEGF expression. Coincidence test for VEGFmarker illustrates to be affected by Amniotic fluid application in P.D.L. and in bone area while Amnion and Chorionapplication showed to be concerned with pulp.Conclusion. It reported that amniotic fluid application affected on expression of VEGF in P.D.L and bone whileamnion and chorion showed to affect on expression of VEGF in pulp.The present study highlighted on clinical andresearcher application of Amniotic fluid and Chorion for supplement of stem cell in dental tissue engineering or evenin other body tissues.


Article
Correlation of Her-2/Neu Expression with Conventional Clinicopathological prognostic Parameters in Breast Carcinoma

Author: Nafea Sami AL-Esawi
Journal: Iraqi Academic Scientific Journal المجلة العراقية للاختصاصات الطبية ISSN: 16088360 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 4 Pages: 595-602
Publisher: The Iraqi Borad for Medical Specialization المجلس العراقي للاختصاصات الطبية

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Abstract

ABSTRACT: BACKGROUND:The prognostic biomarkers in a disease provide information regarding outcome irrespective of therapy .Her-2/neu oncogene expression is an important prognostic and predictive marker for breast cancer .Her-2 /neu expression can be determined by immunohistochemistry ,which became a routine investigation to predict the response to tamoxifen therapy. There is evidence that over-expression of Her-2 /neu is involved in breast cancer progression and there is suggestion that Her-2/neu over-expression plays a role in the early stages of breast tumorigenesis . OBJECTIVE: To evaluate Her-2/neu over-expression in breast carcinomas in the studied sample and to assess its immunhistochemicalscore status in term of accepted conventional clinicopathological parameters . PATIENTS AND METHODS:This is a descriptive study which was carried out from 2007-2012 on 64 breast carcinoma specimens. Paraffin embedded tissue of patients underwent modified radical mastectomy with axillary clearance were processed for Her-2/neu assessment from almost all breast patients in the province . Then the evaluation of the staining and assigning a score were performed which ranged from 0 -3 .The tumor grade was asses using modified Bloom-Richardson grading system .Data on the patients age , the size of the tumor and lymph node status were obtained .Statistical analysis were produced by the use of Chi square test and at the level of significant alpha < 0.05 to compare the IHC results for HER-2 expression with the prognostic clinicopathological parameters . RESULTS : HER-2 over expression was seen in 23.5% (15/64) and the lymph nodes involvement status had a significant association with the immunhistochemical score for HER/2 oncogene and no siginificant association seen between HER-2 overexpression and other clinicopathological parameters including age , tumor size and tumor grade. CONCLUSION : The study reveals that the prevalence of HER-2 overexpression in breast cancers is less in our study compared with the western world and demonstrates association of the immunhistochemical score of HER-2 /neu with some of the well-established pathological parameters of breast carcinoma , specially lymph node involvement. It justifies the use of the immunhistochemical score in assessing breast carcinoma and modified its treatment


Article
Study the Toll-like Receptor 2 and Dectin-1 in mice treated with beta‐glucans and infected with Salmonella Typhimurium
دراسة مستقبل Dectin-1 و2 Toll-Like receptor في الفئران المعاملة بمركب البيتاكلوكان والمصابة ببكتيريا Salmonella Typhimurium

Authors: Nidhal R. Mahdi نضال رؤوف مهدي --- Kawakib I.M. Al-zubaidy كواكب ابراهيم محسن
Journal: JOURNAL OF THI-QAR SCIENCE مجلة علوم ذي قار ISSN: 19918690 Year: 2013 Volume: 3 Issue: 4 Pages: 41-57
Publisher: Thi-Qar University جامعة ذي قار

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Abstract

Objective: Toll-like receptors (TLRs) are essential components for the induction of innate immune responses in different tissues including the small intestine, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes. We investigated the expression of TLR2 in these tissues in mice infected with Salmonella Typhimurium. In this study we have examined how dectin-1, a lectin family receptor for β-glucans, collaborates with TLR-2 in recognition of microbes. Methods :In this study two groups of mice were treated with the β- glucan (local and commercial extract) and infected with(1x10 6 CFU/ml) S. Typhimurium at different intervals group 1 at day zero and group 2 after seven days of the experiment .The immunohistochemistory assay has been performed to detect TLR-2 and dectine-1 in the tissues of small intestine, spleen and mesenteric lymph nodes of the mice; the principle of this assay was done according to the manufacturer instructions (U.S.biological) .Results: In the immunohistochemistory assay, positive cells were indicated by cytoplasmic staining and the percentage of positive in 100 cells was recorded and graded. The grades were 1+ (<25%), 2+ (25-75%) and 3+ (>75%). Statistical analysis with Chi- Square tests revealed that there were significant differences (p˂0.05) between groups, also between grades within the same group in the small intestine, spleen with TLR2 expression; also we demonstrated the same results with Dectin-1 expression in the small intestine and mesenteric lymph nodes, except in the spleen which showed that there were no any relevant differences (p˂ 0.05 ) between the groups and the cell- grades within the group itself.Conclusions: The Oral treatment of both soluble β-glucan from Saccharomyces cerevisiae (Local and commercial extracts) enhanced the host resistance in mice before the infection with S.Typhimurium. The results of Immunohistochemical assay showed that the β- glucan also inducted the expression of Dectin-1 and TLR-2 receptors on the cells, and also proved a collaborative reaction between these two receptors.

الهدف: يعد مستقبل (Toll - Like Receptor 2 ( TLR2 من المكونات الضرورية لتحفيز ألأستجابة المناعية العفوية في أعضاء مختلفة منها ألأمعاء الدقيقة , الطحال والغدد اللمفاوية المساريقية . تم التحري عن تعبير هذا المستقبل في الأعضاء المذكورة للفئران المصابة وغير المصابة ببكتيريا Salmonella Typhimurium . في هذه الدراسة تم أختبار الفعل التأزري لمستقبل Dectin-1 العائد لعائلة lectin والخاص بمركب β- glucan مع مستقبل TLR2 في عملية تمييز الاصابة بالجراثيم .المواد وطرق العمل: في هذة الدراسة عوملت الفئران بالمستخلص التجاري والمحلي لمركب البيتاكلوكان , أصيبت ببكتريا Salmonella Typhimuriumبـ فترات زمنية باليوم صفر واليوم السابع من التجربة .تم أجراء الفحص المناعي Immunohistochemistory( IHC) للامعاء الدقيقة و الطحال والغدد اللمفاوية المساريقية للفئران . ان مبداء نظام التصبيغ هو وفقا الى تعليمات الشركة المصنعة(U.S.biological).النتائج: تم أجراء الفحص المناعي Immunohistochemistory للامعاء الدقيقة و الطحال والغدد اللمفاوية المساريقية للفئران ولوحظت الخلايا الايجابية بواسطة التصبيغ السايتوبلازمي وان النسبة المئوية للخلايا الايجابية في 100 خلية كانت مسجلة ومصنفة. حيث ان االتصنيفات كانت +1 (<25%) , +2 (25-75%) و +3(˃75%). بين التحليل الاحصائي لمربع كاي بانه هنالك فروقات معنوية ذات دلالة أحصائية في داخل المجاميع المصنفة نفسها وكذلك بين المجاميع في نفس التصنيف للخلايا في الامعاء الدقيقة, والطحال للمستقبل TLR2, لوحظت كذلك ذات النتائج مع مستقبل Dectin-1 في الامعاء الدقيقة والعقد اللمفاوية ما عدا الطحال التي اظهرت نتائجة عدم وجود اي اختلافات ذات صلة بين المجاميع وتصانيف الخلايا في داخل المجموعة نفسها.الاستنتاجات: حفزت المعاملة عن طريق الفم للمستخلص الذائب للمركب التجاري والمحلي للبيتاكلوكان من خميرة Saccharomyces cerevisiaeعلى زيادة المقاومة في الفئران قبل حدوث الأصابة ببكتريا . Salmonella Typhimurium بينت نتائج فحص IHC)) أن مركب البيتاكلوكان يعمل على زياده تعبير مستقبلات الـDectin-1 and TLR2 على الخلايا كما ويشجع التأثير التأزري لهذين المستقبلين .


Article
Immunohistochemical Distribution of Prolactin Secreting Cells and Anti-S100 Cells in the Pituitary of the Rabbit Oryctolagus cuniculus and Guinea pig Cavia porcellus
التوزيع الكيمياء نسجي مناعي للخلايا الفارزة للبرولاكتين والموجبة لبروتينOryctolagus cuniculis في الغدة النخامية للارنب S-100 Cavia porcellusمم وخنزير غينيا

Author: Daad A. Al-Sinjary¹, Hussain A.M. Dauod² , Kawkab S. Al- Kaisy³
Journal: Iraqi Journal of Biotechnology المجلة العراقية للتقانات الحياتية ISSN: 18154794 Year: 2013 Volume: 12 Issue: 2 Pages: 48-53
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Abstract: The objective of the current study was to determine the immunohistochemical distribution and density of prolactin secreting cells and Anti-S100 cells of the pituitary gland in rabbit, Oryctolagus cuniculus and guinea pig, Cavia porcellus. The Immunohistochemical study indicated that prolactin-secreting cells were arranged in single, double or triple groups in the rabbit pituitary gland while they were mostly single cells in guinea pig. In both animals PRL-secreting cells were polymorphic in shape with centric or acentric nucleus. The Anti S-100 cells were scattered in pairs distalis. The S-100 positive cells sometimes had cytoplasmic processes between endocrine cells. Although PRL-secreting cells represent high percentage (44%) in the rabbit. There was no significant increase with t-value 1.11 and the probability was more than 0.05. Anti S-100 cells significally increased (54%) in guinea pig with t-value 2.46 as compared with the rabbit and the probability less than 0.05.

الخلاصة:هدفت الدراسة الحالية لاحتساب توزيع وكثافة الخلايا الفارزة للبرولاكتين و الموجبة لبروتين oryctolagus cuniculus في الغدة النخامية لكل من الارنب وخنزير غينا. لقد اشارت الدراسة الى ان الخلايا الفارزة للبرولاكتين تنتظم على شكل تجمعات احادية وثنائية وثلاثية في الغدة النخامية للارنب بينما تنتظم على شكل تجمعات احادية غالبا في الغدة النخامية لخنزير غينيا. وكانت الخلايا الفارزة للبرولاكتين في كلا الحيوانين متعددة الشكل مع نواة مركزية او غير مركزية و كانت الخلايا الموجبة لبروتين S-100 لكلا الحيوانين منتشرة في الجزء القاصي والحدبي ولقد لوحظ ان الخلايا الموجبة لبروتين S-100 تمتلك احيانا بروزات سايتوبلازمية تمتد بين الخلايا الافرازية على الرغم من ان الخلايا الفارزة للبرولاكتين شكلت النسبة الاعلى في الارنب الا ان الخلايا الموجبة لبروتين S-100 قد ارتفعت معنويا في خنزير غينيا عند مقارنتها بالارنب.


Article
Application of Tissue Microarray Technology to detect expression of Ki-67 in breast carcinoma patients
تطبيق تكنولوجيا الأنسجة ميكروأري للكشف عن التعبير عن كي 67 في مرضى سرطان الثدي

Authors: Saeed hilal khudhair سعيد هلال --- Radhia hussain fadel رضية حسين --- Wafaa Fadhil Hamad وفاء فاضل
Journal: Al-Kufa University Journal for Biology مجلة جامعة الكوفة لعلوم الحياة ISSN: 20738854 23116544 Year: 2013 Volume: 5 Issue: 1 Pages: 171-179
Publisher: University of Kufa جامعة الكوفة

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Abstract

Breast cancer is the most common cancer of women worldwide. It is a heterogeneous disease. The incidence rate of this disease increased in the last years in Iraq. The current study was conducted to study the immunohistochemical for the breast tumors by using tissue microarray (TMA) technique. The mean age of the Iraqi breast cancer patients in our study was (50.32±11.85) years old; ranging from 23-80 years old.Formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) samples were used in this study. Two TMAs recipient blocks were designed and constructed for samples.Both two TMAs contain 30 samples of Iraqi breast cancer patients and normal kidney tissue for control. Each donor sample were represented in duplicate, cores were transferred from each donor patient sample to the recipient block, sections from the sample slides cutting and potted on charge slide then stained these sections with hematoxylin and Eosin (H and E) stained then immunohistochemically (IHC) studied for Ki-67 for the TMAs. The results showed that 35 out of 60 cases was positive expression for Ki-67, and the most cases were grade II for expression all of Ki-67. While results of positive lymph node status were found in 19 cases out of 35 was positive expression for Ki-67. The study revealed that there was a significant relationship between the Ki-67 and histological grade and lymph node status. The results indicated that the Iraqi breast cancer cases used in this study were phonotypical more aggressive. We utilized TMA sections for the validation of the Ki-67. In conclusion, TMA was successfully used as a rapid, economic and effective method for IHC studies.

يعدسرطانالثديمنأكثرأنواعالسرطاناتشيوعابينالنساءفيالعالم،وهومرضمتباين الأصل . لقدازدادمعدلانتشارهذاالمرضفيالعراقفيالسنواتالأخيرة. اجريتالدراسةالحالية لدراسةكيمائيةمناعية نسيجية (IHC) لمرضىسرطانالثديوذلكباستخدامتقنية المصفوفةالدقيقةللنسيج (Tissue Microarray). والبياناتالتشريحيةالمرضيةللمرضىأشارتإلىأنمتوسطالعمر لمرضىسرطانالثديالعراقيين ( 50.32±11.85 ) سنةتتراوحمابين ( 23-80) سنة. وأنمؤشرعاملالعمرفي المرضىالعراقيين يدلعلىأنظهورهذاالمرضفيالمجتمع أسرعويظهربوقتمبكر. قدتماستخدامعيناتمنأنسجةمثبتة بالفورمالين،مغمورةفيشمعالبارافين. نموذجينمنمصفوفةالنسيجالدقيقتمتصميمهاوتركيبها ؛ كلا النموذجين يحتوي على ثلاثين نموذجمنمرضىسرطانالثديالعراقيينونسيج طبيعي للكلية للسيطرة. كلنموذجتمتمثيله وذلكبنقلمكررتانمنالنموذجالواهبتمتحويلها الىالنموذجالمستقبل . مقاطعمنهذهالنماذج تمتقطيعهاووضعهاعلىشرائحموجبةالشحنةوتمتصبيغهذهالنماذجبصبغةأل- (H&E) ومن ثمتمدراسةالكيمياءالمناعيةالنسيجيةلKi-67 . أظهرتالنتائجأن ( 37 ) نموذجمنأصل 60 قدوجدتموجبة لتعبير Ki-67 , وان اغلب الحالات كانت من الدرجة الثانية لتعبير كل من Ki-67 . أما نتائج حالة الخلايا اللمفاوية الموجبة قد وجدت أن 19 حالة من أصل 35 أعطت موجبة لتعبير Ki-67 ولقدوجدت علاقةمعنويةبين Ki-67 والدرجة الثانية للورم وعلاقة معنوية بين Ki-67 و الخلايا اللمفاوية. تستنتج هذه الدراسة من متوسط العمر للمرضى العراقيين بان سرطان الثدي يظهر مبكرا في النساء العراقيات. وان المصفوفة الدقيقة للنسيج استخدمت وبنجاح كطريقة سريعة واقتصادية وفعالة في دراسة أل IHC .

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