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Article
Dental students’ knowledge for prescribing antibiotics used for treatment of periodontitis
معرفة طلاب الأسنان لوصف المضادات الحيوية المستخدمة لعلاج التهاب اللثة

Author: Shima Ghazi Thanoon
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 570-576
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Although antibiotics along with analgesics are commonly prescribed medications by the dentists, little is known about the knowledge and understanding of dental practitioners concerning its use in every day clinical practice. Prescription errors are very common and this may be due to medical students are not adequately instructed. This study was done to investigate dental students’ knowledge of prescribing antibiotics to see if they are competent to prescribe rationally at the point of graduation. Methods: A questionnaire was devised to investigate the dental students’ knowledge for prescribing antibiotics. Students at their final year of graduation (2010) included in this study. A structured questionnaire was filled at the College of Dentistry/HMU. Results: Most of the antibiotics prescribed were at the correct doses and dosage form but there was variability in the frequency of dosing and duration of therapy. Four different antibiotics were prescribed in this study, these were amoxicillin (74.63%), metronidazole (5.97%), tetracycline (2.99%) and erythromycin (1.49%). Conclusion: A continuous education on the rationale use of antibiotics in dental infections is required and this would be better when integrated with its application in the clinical practice. Prescribing guidelines are required to improve the prescribing patterns of antibiotics by dental students so they will be competent to prescribe correctly and responsibly at the point of graduation.


Article
Relationship between Severity of Periodontitis and Serum Lipid Profile in Type 2 Diabetic Patients
العلاقة بين شدة الالتهاب في دواعم الســـن ومرتسم شحوم مصل الدم عند المصابين بمرض السكري من النوع الثاني

Authors: Dalia K Abbas د. داليا خضير عباس --- Abdulkareem H. Issa د. عبد الكريم حمادي عيسى --- Baydaa A Abed السيدة بيداء احمد عبد
Journal: IRAQI JOURNALOF COMMUNITY MEDICINE المجلة العراقية لطب المجتمع ISSN: 16845382 Year: 2013 Volume: 26 Issue: 3 Pages: 229-233
Publisher: Al-Mustansyriah University الجامعة المستنصرية

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Abstract

AbstractBackground: Periodontitis and serum lipid disorder are prevalent in type 2 diabetic patients. Serum lipid disorder is one of the established risk factors for cardiovascular disease while periodontitis is a probable another one. Some studies have reported an existence of a relation between serum lipid disorder and periodontitis while others have found no significant relation. Aim of study: To assess the relation between serum lipid profile and severity of periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients. Materials and methods: One hundred and twenty type 2 diabetic patients (60 males and 60 females) were enrolled in this study. Their periodontal status was determined by measuring Probing Pocket Depth (PPD), Gingival Recession and Clinical Attachment Level (CAL). Patients were selected consecutively but with consideration of sex and certain exclusion criteria to compose three groups based on CAL and PPD measurements. These three groups were:1.Group 1: 20 males and 20 females patients with Mild/No Periodontitis (G1) 2.Group 2: 20 males and 20 females patients with Moderate periodontitis (G2)3.Group 3: 20 males and 20 female's patients with severe periodontitis (G3).Serum lipid profile involved an estimation of serum total cholesterol (TC), serum triglycerides (TG), high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), and a calculation of low density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Results: The mean serum levels of TC and TG were compared between the study groups. There were significant differences between G1 vs. G3 (P<0.05) while the differences were statistically non significant between G1 vs. G2 and G2 vs. G3. When HDL-C and LDL-C levels were compared between the study groups (G1 vs. G2, G2 vs. G3 and G1 vs. G3 groups) no statistically significant differences were found. Analysis of correlation showed that the correlations between PPD and both TC and TG were highly significant (P<0.001)). Concerning the correlation between CAL and TC or TG, both correlations were significant (P < 0.05) while there was no significant correlation between both PPD and CAL with HDL-C or LDL-C. Conclusion: Higher serum levels of TC and TG are associated with the more severe forms of periodontitis in type 2 diabetic patients.Keywords: Periodontitis, serum lipid disorder, Diabetes mellitus

الخلاصة الخلفية: أن التهاب دواعم السن و شذوذ مستويات شحوم مصل الدم حالتان شائعتان عند مرضى السكّري من النوعِ الثاني وأن شذوذ مستويات شحوم مصل الدم يعتبر واحدا من عوامل الخطورة المعتمدة للاصابة بامراض القلب الوعائية كما يعتبر التهاب دواعم السن عامل خطورة محتمل للاصابة بهذه الامراض. لقد ذكرت بعض الدراسات وجود علاقة بين الشذوذ في مستويات شحوم مصل الدم و التهاب دواعم السن بينما لم تجد ذلك دراسات أخرى. هدف الدراسةِ: تَقييم العلاقة بين شدة الالتهاب في دواعم الســـن ومرتسم شحوم مصل الدم عند مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني .المواد والطرق: ان مائة وعشرون من مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني (60 ذكرا و60 أنثى) قد سُجّلوا في هذه الدراسةِ وتم تقييم حالة دواعم السن باستخدام قياس عمق الجيب اللثوي و قياس انحسار اللثة وفقدان الارتباط بين اللثة ومحيط السن. لقد تم أختيار المرضى بالاعتماد على تقييم حالة دواعم السن وذلك لإعْداْد ثلاثة مجموعات:- المجموعة الاولى: أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى غير مصابين أو مصابون بالتهاب دواعم السن الخفيف. - المجموعة الثانية: أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى مصابون بالتهاب دواعم السن المتوسط .- المجموعة الثالثة: أربعون (20 ذكر و20 أنثى) من المرضى مصابون بالتهاب دواعم السن الشديد. أن تقدير مرتسم شحوم مصل الدم قد تضمن قياس الكوليسترول الكلي وثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد وكوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ رَفيعُ الكَثافَة في مصل الدم مع حساب كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشحمي خفيض الكَثافَة. النَتائِج: تمت المقارنة بين متوسطات مستويات الكوليسترول الكلي وثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد في مصل الدم بين المجموعات المشمولة بالدراسة وكانت هنالك فروقات معنوية مهمة بين المجموعة الاولى والمجموعة الثالثة لكلا المتوسطين (P<0.05) في حين لم يكن هنالك فرق يعتد به أحصائيا عند المقارنة بين المجموعة الاولى والثانية من جهة والمجموعة الثانية والثالثة من جهة اخرى. عندما تمت المقارنة بين متوسطات مستويات كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ رَفيعُ الكَثافَة و كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ خفيض الكَثافَة في مصل الدم بين المجموعات المشمولة بالدراسة وهي المجموعة الاولى والثانية من جهة والمجموعة الثانية والثالثة من جهة اخرى واخيرا المجموعة الاولى والثالثة، لم تكن هنالك فروقات معنوية مهمة يعتد بها احصائيا. أن تحليل الارتباطات قد أظهر أرتبطا معنويا مهما (P<0.001) بين قياس عمق الجيب اللثوي مع مستوى الكوليسترول الكلي ومع ثلاثي الغلسريد كما أظهر أرتباطا معنويا بين و قياس انحسار اللثة ومستوى كل من الكوليسترول الكلي وثلاثي الكليسيريد عند أحتمالية (P<0.05) بينما لم يظهر أي أرتباط ذو أهمية معنوية بين كل من قياس عمق الجيب اللثوي و قياس انحسار اللثة مع مستويي كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ رَفيعُ الكَثافَة و كوليسترول البروتين ٌالشَحْمِيٌّ خفيض الكَثافَة.الاستنتاج : أن المستويات الأعلى للكوليسترول الكلي وثُلاَثِيُّ الغليسريد في مصل الدم ترتبط مع التهاب دواعم الســـن الأكثر شدة عند مرضى السكري من النوع الثاني.


Article
Regulation of HbA1c of uncontrolled diabetic type II obese and normal weight patients by oral hygiene performance (Comparative study)

Authors: Sana F. Hadratie --- Abdullatif A.H. Al-Juboury عبد اللطيف الجبوري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: special issue 1 Pages: 102-107
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: The association between periodontal diseases incidence and development and the metabolicdiseases as Diabetes Mellitus and Obesity are recently have attract great deal of researchers attention andinvestigation. The periodontal health proved to reduce the systemic inflammatory reactions and positively improvethe glycemic control of diabetes Type2 patients. The aim of the study was to investigate the influence of oral hygienecontrol on the glycemic control of obese and normal weight moderately controlled Diabetic Type 2 patients, inaddition to study the association of obesity with the gingival inflammation.Materials and Methods: Cross sectional study of three months duration. Included 30 moderately controlled diabetictype2 patients who attend the Specialist Center for Endocrine and Diabetes diseases Baghdad Al-Russafaadministration / Iraqi Ministry of Health, were grouped into two groups, G1 of normal weight diabetics, and G2 obesediabetics according to their BMI level, the oral hygiene status measured by their PLI,GI,BBOP,PDI,CAL was conductedat each of the five visits of three weeks interval between each till the end of three months duration of the study andthe level of their glycemic control measured by HbA1c level was conducted at the first and the fifth visit of theresearch duration , BMI was measured at the first and the fifth visit also. Paired t-test, ANOVA, Qui-square andPearson correlation statistical analysis was used to investigate the significance of the improved glycemic controlafter oral hygiene control (OHC) of both G1 and G2.Results: periodontal parameters of both G1 and G2 were significantly improved after OHC with a significantreduction in HbA1c level of both normal weight and obese patients.Conclusion: The Oral Hygiene Control (OHC) is sufficient to improve reduction in Diabetes control level with or withoutoverweight.OHC home care and professional measures could improve the gain in periodontal health in normalweight diabetics and overweight diabetics Obesity has an association with the presence of bleeding on probing asan indicator of the gingival inflammation in diabetic Type2 patients


Article
Evaluation of salivary α-L-Fucose and its related parameters in periodontitis
تقييم اللعاب α-L-Fucose والمعلمات ذات الصلة في التهاب اللثة

Authors: Bakhtiar Mohiadeen Ahmed --- Mohammed Ahmed Wsoo
Journal: Zanco Journal of Medical Sciences مجلة زانكو للعلوم الطبية ISSN: 19955588/19955596 Year: 2013 Volume: 17 Issue: 3 Pages: 563-569
Publisher: Hawler Medical Univeristy جامعة هولير الطبية

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Abstract

Background and objective: Periodontitis is one of the most widespread oral diseases in Kurdistan. Saliva can be used as a noninvasive diagnostic fluid to measure chemical biomarkers released during oral disease, so this work is directed to focus on the study of salivary fucose (a glycoprotein component) and its related parameters in periodontitis, to assess the possibility of using them as indicators for the disease and its progress.Methods: The present work included 79 individuals. They were grouped into healthy (32), advanced periodontitis (20) and moderate periodontitis(27) subjects. Their age was ranged between (20-60) years. Unstimulated whole saliva samples were collected from all the groups. The samples were used for the estimation of salivary; total fucose (TF), protein bound fucose (PBF), protein bound hexose (PBH), lipid associated fucose (LAF), total protein (TP), total calcium (TCa), zinc (Zn), and salivary magnesium (Mg).Results: Salivary TF, LAF, FF, PBF, TP and TCa were significantly increased in both advanced and moderate periodontic groups comparing to healthy individuals, while there were no significant differences in salivary PBH, Mg and Mg/Ca levels in periodontic groups when compared to normal. Salivary TF/TP, PBF/TP, PBH/TP and FF/TP ratios and salivary zinc were significantly reduced in periodontic males.Conclusion: On the basis of the above results, it can be concluded that these biochemical parameters, may be used as indicators for the extent of periodontal tissue damage, thus they can be used in the identification of periodontitis progresses and treatment follow up.


Article
The Role of Anticardiolipin and Antiphospholipid Antibodies in Pregnants with Chronic Periodontitis

Authors: Mahmoud Y Taha --- Heba F Hamodat
Journal: Al-Rafidain Dental Journal مجلة الرافدين لطب الأسنان ISSN: 18121217 Year: 2013 Volume: 13 Issue: 3 Pages: 461-465
Publisher: Mosul University جامعة الموصل

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Abstract

The aim of the study is to measure immunological and biochemical changes in blood and saliva of pregnant women with history of abortion and having chronic periodontitis. Materials and Methods: The study group consisted of (50) pregnant women at different stages of pregnancy with ages between (17-40) years old with history of one or more consecutive unexplained abortion and having chronic periodontitis, while the control group consisted of (10) pregnant women of comparable age to the study group with no history of any abortion with healthy periodontal conditions. Oral examination and the following parameters were studied: plaque index (PI), periodontal pocket depth index (PPD), bleeding on probing index (BOP), and anticardiolipin value (IgG), antiphospholipid value (IgG), highly sensitivity CRP concentration, and peroxidase enzyme activity were evaluated. Results: The serological and biochemical changes showed that highly levels of ACLA (IgG) and APLA (IgG) in the study group compared to control group. hs- CRP concentration in study and control group was same, peroxidase enzyme activity was elevated in the study group compared to the control group. There was a positive correlation between serum ACLA, peroxidase enzyme activity and periodontal parameters, and also a positive correlation between hs-CRP and PI, while reverse correlation between hs-CRP and PPD and BOP. Conclusion: Detection of high level of anticardiolipin and antiphospholipid in the serum of study group with significant difference compared with control group. High level of hs-CRP found in both study and control group without significant difference. Detection of significantly high level of peroxidase enzyme activity with the study group compared to control group


Article
Evaluation of salivary levels of Proteinaceous biomarkers Matrix Metalloproteinase (MMP-8) and C-Reactive Protein (CRP) in type 2 diabetic patients with periodontitis

Authors: Afrah A. Abbas افراح عباس --- Raja Al- Jubouri رجاء الجبوري
Journal: Journal of baghdad college of dentistry مجلة كلية طب الاسنان بغداد ISSN: 16800087 Year: 2013 Volume: 25 Issue: 1 Pages: 63-69
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Diabetes mellitus is a chronic metabolic disorder of the carbohydrate, protein and fat metabolism,resulting in increased blood glucose levels. Various complications of diabetes have been described with periodontitisbeing added as the sixth complication of diabetes mellitus. Matrix metalloproteinase-8 (MMP-8) has been identifiedas major tissue-destructive enzyme in periodontal disease. MMP-8 is released from neutrophils in a latent, inactive proform and becomes activated during periodontal inflammation by independent and/or combined actions of hostderivedinflammatory mediators .C-reactive protein is a systemic marker released during the acute phase of aninflammatory response.Subjects, materials and methods: Total samples composed of 60 participant and they divided into (20 patients uncomplicated type 2 diabetes with periodontitis , 20 patients non diabetic with periodontitis and 20 subjects normalcontrol " with no sign of gingivitis or periodontitis" ) . Diabetes assessment was performed according to Abraham(1982).Attachment loss were assessed using periodontal disease index of Ramfjord (1959) .Un stimulated whole salivasamples were collected and chemically analyzed for quantitative measurments of salivary (MMP-8 and CRP).Bloodsamples were collected and then measure (HbA1c , FBS , ESR ). All data were analyzed using SPSS version 20.Results: It was found that the salivary (MMP-8, CRP) levels were lower in normal controls compared to other groups,the blood ESR level was lower in normal controls compared to other groups and there were no important differencesin mean blood ESR, salivary MMP-8 and median salivary CRP between diabetic and non diabetic with periodontitis .Conclusions: Severity of periodontitis increase with increase age , Salivary MMP-8 ,CRP and blood ESR levels wereelevated in patients with periodontitis with or without diabetes , CRP and MMP-8 are considered a useful tests inpredicting periodontitis ,and in type 2 diabetic patient there was a relationship between metabolic control ofdiabetes and severity of periodontal disease


Article
Frequency of Salivary Human Cytomegalovirus in Iraqi Patients with Chronic Periodontitis
انتشار الفيروس المضخم للخلايا البشرية اللعابية في المرضى العراقيين المصابين بالتهاب انسجة ماحول الاسنان

Author: Hind W. Al-Alousi هند وائل الالوسي
Journal: Journal of the Faculty of Medicine مجلة كلية الطب ISSN: 00419419 Year: 2013 Volume: 55 Issue: 2 Pages: 162-165
Publisher: Baghdad University جامعة بغداد

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Abstract

Background: Periodontitis is a chronic inflammatory disease which is initiated by an infection of the oral microorganisms and it involves the humoraland cellular characteristics of the host response. The periodontal disease is found to develop due to a series of interactions among the periodontotrophic herpes viruses, the periodontopathic bacteria and the host immune reactions.Recent studies have demonstrated that various human viruses, especially human cytomegalovirus seems to play a part in the pathogenesis of periodontitis. Periodontitis is an infectious disease involving specific bacteria and viruses.Objectives: The present study was initiated to evaluate the percentage of human cytomegalovirus in periodontitis patients and determine the correlation between levels of human cytomegalovirus IgG and each of plaque index, gingival index and oral hygiene. Subjects and Methods: Thirty five periodontitis patients and eighteen healthy control subjects were included in this study. Saliva samples were taken from all subjects (patients and healthy). Salivary IgG agianst human cytomegalovirus was estimated by using enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays.Results: The current study showed that the frequency of human cytomegalovirus in chronic periodontitis patients was significantly higher than in healthy control group p<0.05. On the other hand the current study failed to observe any significant correlation between salivary IgG and each of plaque index and gingival index, whereas higher significant correlation was observed with oral hygiene, (P<0.05). Conclusion: Findings of the present study suggest that the frequent present of human cytomegalovirus in saliva of chronic periodontitis patients could have a crucial role in development of this disease. Keywords: Human cytomegalovirus, periodontitis

خلفية: التهاب انسجة ماحول الاسنانهوالتهابمزمنينشا من الاصابة باحياء الفم المجهرية ويتضمن المناعة الخلطية والخلوية لاستجابة المضيف.التهاب انسجة ماحول الاسنان وجدت انها تطورت بسبب سلسلة من التفاعلات بين فايروس القوباء البسيط والبكتيريا المسببة لالتهاب انسجة ماجول الاسنان والاستجابة المناعية للمضيف. وقد اظهرت الدراسات الحديثة اللتي اجريت مؤخرا ان الفيروسات المختلفة وخصوصا الفايروس المضخم للخلايا البشرية تلعب دور في التسبب بالتهاب انسجة ماحول الاسنان وان المرض هو احد الامراض المعدية اللتي تشمل بكتيريا وفايروسات.الاهداف :الدراسة الحالية لتقييم مدى انتشار الفيروس المضخم للخلايا من الانسان في المصابين بالتهاب الانسجة ما حول الاسنان وتحديد العلاقة بين مستويات الاجسام المضادة للفيروس المضخم للخلايا البشرية وكل من يؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية , والدليل اللثوي ونظافة الفم .المواد وطرق العمل :شملت الدراسة خمسة وثلاثين من المصابين بالتهاب الانسجة ماحول الاسنان وثمانية عشر شخصاً من الاصحاء.تم جمع عينات اللعاب من المرضى والاصحاء . وتم قياس الاجسام المناعية للفيروس المضخم للخلايا البشرية استخدم فحص مقايسة الانزيم الممتز المناعية .النتائج :اظهرت الدراسة الحالية ان نسبة انتشار الاجسام المناعية المضادة للفايروس المضخم للخلايا نوع G عند المرضى كان اعلى بكثير مماكانت عليه في المجموعة الاصحاء 0.05 < P . من ناحية اخرى فشلت الدراسة الحالية لمراقبة ارتباط كبير بين الاجسام المناعية المضادة للفايروس وكل من مؤشر الصفيحة الجرثومية والدليل اللثوي, في حين لوحظ ارتباط ايجابي مع نظافة الفم , (0,05< p) .الخلاصة :نتائج هذه الدراسة تشير الى ان كثرة الفيروس المضخم للخلايا البشية في اللعاب من المرضى التهاب انسجة ما حول الاسنان المزمن يمكن ان يكون له دور حاسم في تطور هذا المرض .مفاتيح الكلمات : الفيروس المضخم للخلايا البشرية , التهاب انسجة ماحول الاسنان , اللعاب .

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